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1.
Bull Math Biol ; 84(2): 30, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006388

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the entire world. The effective implementation of vaccination strategy is critical to prevent the resurgence of the pandemic, especially during large-scale population migration. We establish a multiple patch coupled model based on the transportation network among the 31 provinces in China, under the combined strategies of vaccination and quarantine during large-scale population migration. Based on the model, we derive a critical quarantine rate to control the pandemic transmission and a vaccination rate to achieve herd immunity. Furthermore, we evaluate the influence of passenger flow on the effective reproduction number during the Chinese-Spring-Festival travel rush. Meanwhile, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is investigated for different control strategies, viz. global control and local control. The impact of vaccine-related parameters, such as the number, the effectiveness and the immunity period of vaccine, are explored. It is believed that the articulated models as well as the presented simulation results could be beneficial to design of feasible strategies for preventing COVID-19 transmission during the Chinese-Spring-Festival travel rush or the other future events involving large-scale population migration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , China/epidemiology , Holidays , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Vaccination
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012970

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has heterogeneously affected use of basic health services worldwide, with disruptions in some countries beginning in the early stages of the emergency in March 2020. These disruptions have occurred on both the supply and demand sides of healthcare, and have often been related to resource shortages to provide care and lower patient turnout associated with mobility restrictions and fear of contracting COVID-19 at facilities. In this paper, we assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of maternal health services using a time series modelling approach developed to monitor health service use during the pandemic using routinely collected health information systems data. We focus on data from 37 non-governmental organisation-supported health facilities in Haiti, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mexico and Sierra Leone. Overall, our analyses indicate significant declines in first antenatal care visits in Haiti (18% drop) and Sierra Leone (32% drop) and facility-based deliveries in all countries except Malawi from March to December 2020. Different strategies were adopted to maintain continuity of maternal health services, including communication campaigns, continuity of community health worker services, human resource capacity building to ensure compliance with international and national guidelines for front-line health workers, adapting spaces for safe distancing and ensuring the availability of personal protective equipment. We employ a local lens, providing prepandemic context and reporting results and strategies by country, to highlight the importance of developing context-specific interventions to design effective mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Developing Countries , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053894, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980621

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, social isolation and loneliness (SIL) affected at least one-third of the older people. The pandemic has prompted governments around the world to implement some extreme measures such as banning public gatherings, imposing social distancing, mobility restrictions and quarantine to control the spread and impact of the novel coronavirus. Though these unprecedented measures may be crucial from a public health perspective, they also have the potential to further exacerbate the problems of SIL among residents in long-term care homes (LTCHs). However, some LTCHs have developed promising best practices (PBPs) to respond to the current situation and prepare for future pandemics. Key aspects of such practices revolve around maintaining and strengthening social connections between residents and their families which helps to reduce SIL. This scoping review looks at existing PBPs that have been implemented to reduce SIL among LTCH residents during the most recent pandemics. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will follow Arksey and O'Malley's framework of scoping review, further developed by Levac et al. In addition, we will also apply the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' 'Methodology for Scoping Reviews'. Ten electronic databases and grey literature will be searched for articles published from January 2003 to March 2021 in either English or French. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts and then full texts for final inclusion. Data will be extracted using a standardised form from 'Evidence for Policy and Practice Information'. The results will be presented in a tabular form and will be summarised and interpreted using a narrative synthesis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required as no primary data are collected. Findings will be used to develop a solid knowledge corpus to address the challenges of SIL in LTCHs. Our findings will help to identify cutting edge practices, including technological interventions that could support health services in addressing SIL in the context of LTCHs and our ageing society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Humans , Loneliness , Long-Term Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
4.
Brain Nerve ; 74(1): 36-39, 2022 Jan.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992169

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a new type of coronavirus, has increased the difficulty of studying abroad for basic research. However, the associated system has changed in response to the coronavirus disaster. In addition, a framework has been built to enable research to be conducted even under a new lifestyle. Although there are many differences betwee studying abroad currently and before the pandemic, you should not give up on your dreams; I encourage you to open the door and challenge yourself.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010859

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, public health experts have faced the challenge of convincing people to change their everyday habits. This study aims to evaluate the impact of trust in medicine on Polish citizens' adherence to recommended behaviors. METHODS: An online survey was conducted on a quota sample of adult Poles (n = 1072) during the second wave of COVID-19. RESULTS: The trust-in-medicine index was created from statements relating to trust in healthcare professionals, vaccines, and medicines. This index showed that 27.1% of respondents expressed low trust, 36.7% expressed moderate trust, and 36.3% expressed high trust. The recommended behavior index was created from nine statements. This index showed that 15.8% of respondents had low adherence, 38.2% had moderate adherence, and 46.0% had high adherence to the healthcare experts' recommendations. One-way analysis of variance showed that people with a high trust had significantly higher scores on the recommended behavior index when compared to people with a moderate or low trust. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that those responsible for health policy should put more effort into building trust not only in health professionals, but also in pharmaceutical companies. We also determined the socio-demographic features of people to whom such actions of trust building should be directed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
6.
Acta Orthop ; 93: 198-205, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984481

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose - Facemasks play a role in preventing the respiratory spread of SARS-CoV-2, but their impact on the physician-patient relationship in the orthopedic outpatient clinic is unclear. We investigated whether the type of surgeons' facemask impacts patients' perception of the physician-patient relationship, influences their understanding of what the surgeon said, or affects their perceived empathy. Patients and methods - All patients with an appointment in the orthopedic outpatient clinic of a tertiary university hospital during the 2-week study period were included. During consultations, all surgeons wore a non-transparent (first study week) or transparent facemask (second study week). Results of 285 of 407 eligible patients were available for analysis. The doctor-patient relationship was evaluated using the standardized Patient Reactions Assessment (PRA) and a 10-point Likert-scale questionnaire ranging from 0 (strongly disagree) to 10 (strongly agree). Results - A non-transparent facemask led to more restrictions in the physician-patient communication and a worse understanding of what the surgeon said. Patients' understanding improved with a transparent facemask with greatest improvements reported by patients aged 65 years and older (non-transparent: 6 [IQR 5-10] vs. transparent: 10 [IQR 9-10], p < 0.001) and by patients with a self-reported hearing impairment (non-transparent: 7 [IQR 3-7] vs. transparent: 9 [IQR 9-10], p < 0.001). The median PRA score was higher when surgeons wore a transparent facemask (p= 0.003). Interpretation - Surgeons' non-transparent facemasks pose a new communication barrier that can negatively affect the physician-patient relationship. While emotional factors like affectivity and empathy seem to be less affected overall, the physician-patient communication and patients' understanding of what the surgeon said seem to be negatively affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Design , Masks , Orthopedic Surgeons , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physician-Patient Relations , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 4, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been several destructive pandemic diseases in the human history. Since these pandemic diseases spread through human-to-human infection, a number of non-pharmacological policies has been enforced until an effective vaccine has been developed. In addition, even though a vaccine has been developed, due to the challenges in the production and distribution of the vaccine, the authorities have to optimize the vaccination policies based on the priorities. Considering all these facts, a comprehensive but simple parametric model enriched with the pharmacological and non-pharmacological policies has been proposed in this study to analyse and predict the future pandemic casualties. METHOD: This paper develops a priority and age specific vaccination policy and modifies the non-pharmacological policies including the curfews, lockdowns, and restrictions. These policies are incorporated with the susceptible, suspicious, infected, hospitalized, intensive care, intubated, recovered, and death sub-models. The resulting model is parameterizable by the available data where a recursive least squares algorithm with the inequality constraints optimizes the unknown parameters. The inequality constraints ensure that the structural requirements are satisfied and the parameter weights are distributed proportionally. RESULTS: The results exhibit a distinctive third peak in the casualties occurring in 40 days and confirm that the intensive care, intubated, and death casualties converge to zero faster than the susceptible, suspicious, and infected casualties with the priority and age specific vaccination policy. The model also estimates that removing the curfews on the weekends and holidays cause more casualties than lifting the restrictions on the people with the chronic diseases and age over 65. CONCLUSION: Sophisticated parametric models equipped with the pharmacological and non-pharmacological policies can predict the future pandemic casualties for various cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Algorithms , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 48(1): 29-33, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978493

ABSTRACT

Long-term care facility (LTCF) residents have been disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), from increased mortality and restrictive public health measures. The current study aims to describe the experiences of residents relocating between LTCFs at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Emphasis was placed on residents' sense of home and how the pandemic and ensuing isolation affected their transition. This qualitative study follows the principles of constructivist grounded theory. Seven of 10 residents interviewed had cognitive impairment (mean age = 84 years). Four primary themes were elicited from the interviews focusing on residents' perceptions of their environment and highlights the value placed on privacy and control, the multifaceted feeling of loss during the pandemic, the importance of relationships as a source of comfort and pleasure, and resilience shown by residents in times of hardship. Our study indicates that residents experienced dichotomy and paradox during the pandemic, attempting to strike a balance between isolation and camaraderie, infection risk and mental health, and loss and resilience. The need for familial contact and socialization must be balanced against infection control measures. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 48(1), 29-33.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Long-Term Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities
11.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 60(1): 11-12, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978942

ABSTRACT

In the United States, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic took a heavy toll on older adults, particularly those residing in long-term care facilities who were reduced to extended periods of isolation from families, friends, and health care providers. The concepts of resilience and hope became extremely relevant in the context of pandemic-related restrictions that exacerbated loneliness across all age groups. A review of evidence indicates that resilience is defined as an on-going, conscious process of adaptation in the face of adversity, whereas hope is defined as a resilience moderator through its process of making sense of a difficult situation. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and life review interventions were found to effectively enhance hope, thus contributing to increased resilience in older adults diagnosed with depression, bereavement, and/or medical conditions. Mental health providers at any level of practice should assess older adults for levels of loneliness, isolation, resilience, and hope and consider interventions to boost resilience and hope. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 60(1), 10-12.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Aged , Humans , Loneliness , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
12.
Nursing ; 52(1): 29-32, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979011

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Pandemic-related stress factors have been profoundly impacting the wellness of nurses, resulting in job burnout, moral distress, and some nurses deciding to leave the profession. This article examines strategies to identify stressors and develop self-care and coping skills.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Nurses , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
EMBO Rep ; 23(1): e54184, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897954

ABSTRACT

Human challenge trials to deliberately infect volunteers with SARS-CoV-2 should inspire wider debates about research ethics and participants' motivations to take part in such studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Ethics, Research , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt B): 127456, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655869

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has put unprecedented pressure on public health resources around the world. From adversity, opportunities have arisen to measure the state and dynamics of human disease at a scale not seen before. In the United Kingdom, the evidence that wastewater could be used to monitor the SARS-CoV-2 virus prompted the development of National wastewater surveillance programmes. The scale and pace of this work has proven to be unique in monitoring of virus dynamics at a national level, demonstrating the importance of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) for public health protection. Beyond COVID-19, it can provide additional value for monitoring and informing on a range of biological and chemical markers of human health. A discussion of measurement uncertainty associated with surveillance of wastewater, focusing on lessons-learned from the UK programmes monitoring COVID-19 is presented, showing that sources of uncertainty impacting measurement quality and interpretation of data for public health decision-making, are varied and complex. While some factors remain poorly understood, we present approaches taken by the UK programmes to manage and mitigate the more tractable sources of uncertainty. This work provides a platform to integrate uncertainty management into WBE activities as part of global One Health initiatives beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
15.
Health Commun ; 37(1): 1-19, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724838

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has made it clear that effective public health messaging is an indispensable component of a robust pandemic response system. In this article, we review decades of research from the interdisciplinary field of communication science and provide evidence-based recommendations for COVID-19 public health messaging. We take a principled approach by systematically examining the communication process, focusing on decisions about what to say in a message (i.e., message content) and how to say it (i.e., message executions), and how these decisions impact message persuasiveness. Following a synthesis of each major line of literature, we discuss how science-based principles of message design can be used in COVID-19 public health messaging. Additionally, we identify emerging challenges for public health messaging during the COVID-19 pandemic and discuss possible remedies. We conclude that communication science offers promising public health messaging strategies for combatting COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communication , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Med Inform ; 157: 104639, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated digital health applications in multifaceted disease management dimensions. This study aims (1) to identify risk issues relating to the rapid development and redeployment of COVID-19 related e-health systems, in primary care, and in the health ecosystems interacting with it and (2) to suggest evidence-based evaluation directions under emergency response. METHOD: After initial brainstorming of digital health risks posed in this pandemic, a scoping review method was adopted to collect evidence across databases of PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Peer-review publications, reports, news sources, and websites that credibly identified the challenges relating digital health scaled for COVID-19 were scrutinized. Additional supporting materials were obtained through snowball sampling and the authors' global digital health networks. Studies satisfying the selection criteria were charted based on their study design, primary care focus, and coverage of e-health areas of risk. RESULTS: Fifty-eight studies were mapped for qualitative synthesis. Five identified digital health risk areas associated with the pandemic were governance, system design and coordination, information access, service provision, and user (professional and public) reception. We observed that rapid digital health responses may embed challenges in health system thinking, the long-term development of digital health ecosystems, and interoperability of health IT infrastructure, with concomitant weaknesses in existing evaluation theories. CONCLUSION: Through identifying digital health risks posed during the pandemic, this paper discussed potential directions for next-generation informatics evaluation development, to better prepare for the post-COVID-19 era, a new future epidemic, or other unforeseen global health emergencies. An updated evidence-based approach to health informatics is essential to gain public confidence in digital health across primary and other health sectors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Informatics , Ecosystem , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nurse Educ Today ; 108: 105213, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has raised the need for distance learning in nursing education. The necessary precautions have been taken in nursing schools involving the application of various restrictions, including the suspension of face-to-face classes and the closure of educational institutions, and this has had a profound effect on nursing educators and nursing students alike. OBJECTIVES: The study seeks to answer the following questions: DESIGN: descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentered and international study. SETTINGS: An online survey was completed by 30 nursing educators working in establishments listed among the top 60 highest-ranked nursing schools in the world. PARTICIPANTS: nursing educators in undergraduate nursing programs. METHOD: An internet-based survey comprising open-ended and multiple choices questions was disseminated to 60 nursing schools on the 2020 QS World University Ranking list. RESULTS: Survey responses were received from 30 nursing schools in 30 countries. Since the announcement of the pandemic, the structure of distance education in nursing has taken different forms from one country to another, and nursing educators and students alike have encountered a diversity of problems during this process. The findings of the present study reveal that 65% of the nursing educators thought that they had been caught unprepared for the COVID-19 outbreak, 44% thought that the nursing program outcomes had been achieved through distance education, and 48% encountered Internet-related problems. CONCLUSION: We believe that the present study will (i) aid in the decisions of nursing educators considering a transition to distance education, provide suggestions to those that have already made such a transition or inspire those seeking to improve the effectiveness of practice in obligatory cases, (ii) serve as a guide for educational institutions, and (iii) contribute to the taking of precautions to counter potential problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Education, Nursing , Students, Nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821373

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is a global pandemic that can have a long­lasting impact on public health if not properly managed. Ongoing vaccine development trials involve classical molecular strategies based on inactivated or attenuated viruses, single peptides or viral vectors. However, there are multiple issues, such as the risk of reversion to virulence, inability to provide long­lasting protection and limited protective immunity. To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks of currently available COVID­19 vaccines, an alternative strategy is required to produce safe and efficacious vaccines that impart long­term immunity. Exosomes (key intercellular communicators characterized by low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and innate cargo­loading capacity) offer a novel approach for effective COVID­19 vaccine development. An engineered exosome­based vaccine displaying the four primary structural proteins of SARS­CoV­2 (spike, membrane, nucleocapside and envelope proteins) induces humoral and cell mediated immunity and triggers long­lasting immunity. The present review investigated the prospective use of exosomes in the development of COVID­19 vaccines; moreover, exosome­based vaccines may be key to control the COVID­19 pandemic by providing enhanced protection compared with existing vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exosomes , Biocompatible Materials , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Exosomes/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E16-E22, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016907

ABSTRACT

Disease investigation and contact tracing are long-standing public health strategies used to control the spread of infectious disease. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, health departments across the country have lacked the internal workforce capacity and technology needed to efficiently isolate positive cases and quarantine close contacts to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2. This article describes an innovative disease investigation and contact tracing program developed through a formalized community partnership between a local county health department and local university. This innovative new program added 108 contact tracers to the county's public health workforce, as well as enabled these contact tracers to work remotely using a call center app and secure cloud-based platform to manage the county's caseload of cases and contacts. An overview of the requirements needed to develop this program (eg, hiring, health data security protocols, data source management), as well as lessons learned is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Contact Tracing , Data Management , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Environ Res ; 203: 111678, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280421

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to generate a constant pandemic threat with new mutations of the viral agent (SARS-CoV-2) that create socioeconomic issues. One of the fundamental problems is the evaluation of the preparedness of countries to cope with COVID-19 pandemic crisis to detect and support factors associated with the reduction of mortality and the growth of vaccinations in society. The study here confronts this problem by developing two basic indexes, which measure the performance of countries to face pandemic threats. In particular, the Index r (as resilience) detects the countries having the best performance in the reduction of the negative impact of mortality related to COVID-19 pandemic and the Index p (as preparedness and prevention) assesses best-performer countries to support COVID-19 vaccinations in order to constrain future pandemic threats and support the recovery of socioeconomic systems. Index of resilience is a composite measure based on three indicators associated with COVID-19, given by average mortality, hospital occupancy and Intensive Care Units occupancy per 100 000 people, producing an overall score; Index of preparedness/prevention is a composite measure of two indicators related to COVID-19 vaccinations (i.e., doses of vaccines administered and total vaccinates per 100 000 people), producing also an overall score of performance. The application of these indexes on a case study of European countries, having a homogenous socioeconomic area, shows the strategic positioning of countries to cope with a major pandemic threat. Findings reveal that all countries have some weaknesses and no country has a high preparedness to cope with a major epidemic or pandemic. Moreover, results suggest that best-performer countries to cope with COVID-19 pandemic crisis have a smaller size of population and/or better public governance, associated with high expenditures in health system. These indexes can help policymakers for designing effective strategies to improve preparedness and prevention of countries to face future pandemic threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Health Expenditures , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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