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1.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 74, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824530

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Enhancing breastfeeding practices, even in affluent nations, significantly reduces child mortality rates. Nevertheless, three out of five newborns do not receive breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. Research indicates that under high-risk pregnancy circumstances, there may be challenges in initiating and sustaining breastfeeding. Infants born from high-risk pregnancies are particularly vulnerable to illnesses and mortality. Although breastfeeding serves as a protective measure against various infant and post-infancy ailments, many mothers encounter difficulties in commencing or maintaining breastfeeding due to complications associated with their conditions. The present study aims to illuminate the understanding and experience of breastfeeding in mothers with high-risk pregnancies, considering the cultural and social context of Iran. METHOD: This study is a qualitative research utilizing a conventional content analysis approach. In this qualitative study, mothers who have undergone a high-risk pregnancy and currently have infants under 6 months old will be chosen through purposeful and snowball sampling. Their breastfeeding experiences will be gathered through individual, semi-structured, and face-to-face interviews. In addition to interviews, observation and focus groups will also be used to collect data. Data analysis was performed using Graneheim and Lundman's method with MAXQDA software version 10, VERBI Software GmbH, Berlin. The study will utilize the criteria of Lincoln and Guba (1985) for validity and reliability. DISCUSSION: This qualitative study aims to investigate the experiences and challenges of breastfeeding in mothers with high-risk pregnancies to pinpoint breastfeeding barriers in this demographic and develop essential interventions and strategies to address these obstacles.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Mothers , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Qualitative Research , Humans , Breast Feeding/psychology , Female , Pregnancy , Mothers/psychology , Pregnancy, High-Risk/psychology , Infant, Newborn , Iran , Adult , Perception , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infant
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 47: 113, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828427

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the increasing number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has stressed already overburdened health systems. A care model utilizing community-based peer-groups (ART Co-ops) facilitated by community health workers (CHW) was implemented (2016-2018) to address these challenges. In 2018, a post-intervention study assessed perceptions of the intervention. Methods: forty participants were engaged in focus group discussions consisting of ART Co-op clients, study staff, and health care providers from Kitale HIV clinic. Data were analyzed thematically for content on the intervention, challenges, and recommendations for improvement. Results: all participants liked the intervention. However, some reported traveling long distances to attend ART Co-op meetings and experiencing stigma with ART Co-ops participation. The ART Co-op inclusion criteria were considered appropriate; however, additional outreach to deliberately include spouses living with HIV, the disabled, the poor, and HIV pregnant women was recommended. Participants liked CHW-directed quarterly group meetings which included ART distribution, adherence review, and illness identification. The inability of the CHW to provide full clinical care, inconvenient meeting venues, poor timekeeping, and non-attendance behaviors were noted as issues. Participants indicated that program continuation, regular CHW training, rotating meetings at group members´ homes, training ART Co-ops leaders to assume CHW tasks, use of pill diaries to check adherence, nutritional support, and economically empowering members through income generation projects would be beneficial. Conclusion: the intervention was viewed positively by both clinic staff and clients. They identified specific challenges and generated actionable key considerations to improve access and acceptability of the community-based model of care.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Community Health Workers , Focus Groups , HIV Infections , Humans , Kenya , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Female , Community Health Workers/organization & administration , Male , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Social Stigma , Peer Group , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Perception
3.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 18: e98, 2024 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832542

ABSTRACT

Disasters can cause great physical and financial damage to pet owners in developing countries. These effects lead to severe psychological side effects on individuals and families. With the tendency of families to keep pets in these countries, many challenges have arisen regarding how to manage these pets before, during, and after disasters. Therefore, mitigation, prevention, and preparedness measures for these families should be prioritized in the disaster management cycle to minimize psychological effects such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after losing pets.


Subject(s)
Communication , Developing Countries , Pets , Humans , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Pets/psychology , Animals , Disasters/statistics & numerical data , Perception , Disaster Planning/methods , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
4.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2361492, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824662

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cancer survivors experience barriers to primary healthcare (PHC) services. The aim was to explore reactions to and opinions about perceived challenges associated with PHC access and quality among cancer survivors in Sweden, including how they have acted to adapt to challenges. METHODS: Five semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with cancer survivors (n = 20) from Skåne, Sweden, diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or colorectal cancer or malignant melanoma. Focus groups were mixed in regard to diagnosis. Data were analysed using a descriptive template analysis approach. RESULTS: In light of perceived challenges associated with access to adequate PHC, participants experienced that they had been forced to work hard to achieve functioning PHC contacts. The demands for self-sufficiency were associated with negative feelings such as loneliness and worry. Participants believed that cancer survivors who lack the ability to express themselves, or sufficient drive, risk missing out on necessary care due to the necessity of being an active patient. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight negative patient experiences. They have implications for the organization of care for cancer survivors as they indicate a need for more efficient post-treatment coordination between cancer specialist care and PHC providers, as well as increased support for patients leaving primary cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Focus Groups , Neoplasms , Primary Health Care , Humans , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Female , Male , Sweden , Middle Aged , Aged , Adult , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Qualitative Research , Loneliness/psychology , Perception
5.
Health Promot Int ; 39(3)2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842148

ABSTRACT

It is suggested that individuals with limited health literacy have less awareness about cancer and screening methods. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the relationship between cancer screening perception and health literacy levels among women. This study investigates the determinants of cancer screening perceptions in Turkish women, with a particular emphasis on the influence of health literacy. Employing a cross-sectional design, the study involved 428 women aged 18-69. Data were collected via online questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analysis was utilized to assess the effects of distinct variables on cancer screening perceptions. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were employed to validate and ensure reliability. The results indicated that the constructed hierarchical regression model explicated around 10% of the variance in cancer screening perceptions. Among the various factors examined, health literacy emerged as the most potent predictor of screening perceptions. Individuals possessing higher health literacy demonstrated more favorable attitudes toward cancer screening. Additionally, age surfaced as another notable determinant, with advanced age correlating positively with awareness and receptiveness to screening. This research reveals the pivotal role of health literacy in shaping how Turkish women perceive cancer screening. While a few factors have an impact, the study highlights the urgent need to elevate health literacy levels to foster heightened awareness and engagement in cancer screening programs. The study's findings offer valuable guidance for devising targeted interventions to address disparities in cancer screening perception and participation, particularly among women in low- to middle-income countries such as Turkey.


Subject(s)
Early Detection of Cancer , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Humans , Female , Turkey , Adult , Middle Aged , Early Detection of Cancer/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Perception
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(23): e38527, 2024 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847693

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research is to identify the main factors associated with patients' payment perception and the effects of these factors on payment perception. Patients admitted between January and December 2016 at an emergency department of a public hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, were included in this study, with a representative sample size of 382 patients. A 5% margin of error and a 95% confidence interval were used, and all the data were collected between May and November 2017. To test the mediation models, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used. The effect of doctors on payment perception through satisfaction and through perceived quality of healthcare (PQHC) is explained by 3% and 4% of the variation, respectively, with statistically significant results (P < .01). Moreover, the effect of privacy and meeting expectations on payment perception through PQHC is explained by 4% and 4% of the variation, with statistically significant results (P < .01). Doctors play a crucial role in understanding the patients' payment perception (with direct and indirect effects). Mediators, in turn, strengthen this effect, in which the contribution of PQHC is more significant than that of satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital , Patient Satisfaction , Quality of Health Care , Humans , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Male , Female , Portugal , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Perception
7.
Perspect Med Educ ; 13(1): 336-348, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855532

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mental illness stigma remains rooted within medical education and healthcare. We sought to measure perceptions toward mental illness and explore perceptions of self-disclosure of mental illness in medical learners. Method: In a mixed-methods, sequential design, authors recruited medical learners from across Canada. Quantitative data included the Opening Minds Scale for Healthcare providers (OMS-HC), the Self Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (SSMIS), and a wellbeing measure. Qualitative data included semi-structured interviews, which were collected and analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Results: N = 125 medical learners (n = 67 medical students, n = 58 resident physicians) responded to our survey, and N = 13 participants who identified as having a mental illness participated in interviews (n = 10 medical students, n = 3 resident physicians). OMS-HC scores showed resident physicians had more negative attitudes towards mental illness and disclosure (47.7 vs. 44.3, P = 0.02). Self-disclosure was modulated by the degree of intersectional vulnerability of the learner's identity. When looking at self-disclosure, people who identified as men had more negative attitudes than people who identified as women (17.8 vs 16.1, P = 0.01) on the OMS-HC. Racially minoritized learners scored higher on self-stigma on the SSMIS (Geometric mean: 11.0 vs 8.8, P = 0.03). Interview data suggested that disclosure was fraught with tensions but perceived as having a positive outcome. Discussion: Mental illness stigma and the individual process of disclosure are complex issues in medical education. Disclosure appeared to become more challenging over time due to the internalization of negative attitudes about mental illness.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Self Disclosure , Social Stigma , Students, Medical , Humans , Female , Male , Mental Disorders/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Canada , Surveys and Questionnaires , Qualitative Research , Perception , Attitude of Health Personnel
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2312293121, 2024 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857385

ABSTRACT

The perception of sensory attributes is often quantified through measurements of sensitivity (the ability to detect small stimulus changes), as well as through direct judgments of appearance or intensity. Despite their ubiquity, the relationship between these two measurements remains controversial and unresolved. Here, we propose a framework in which they arise from different aspects of a common representation. Specifically, we assume that judgments of stimulus intensity (e.g., as measured through rating scales) reflect the mean value of an internal representation, and sensitivity reflects a combination of mean value and noise properties, as quantified by the statistical measure of Fisher information. Unique identification of these internal representation properties can be achieved by combining measurements of sensitivity and judgments of intensity. As a central example, we show that Weber's law of perceptual sensitivity can coexist with Stevens' power-law scaling of intensity ratings (for all exponents), when the noise amplitude increases in proportion to the representational mean. We then extend this result beyond the Weber's law range by incorporating a more general and physiology-inspired form of noise and show that the combination of noise properties and sensitivity measurements accurately predicts intensity ratings across a variety of sensory modalities and attributes. Our framework unifies two primary perceptual measurements-thresholds for sensitivity and rating scales for intensity-and provides a neural interpretation for the underlying representation.


Subject(s)
Perception , Humans , Perception/physiology , Sensory Thresholds/physiology , Sensation/physiology , Judgment/physiology
9.
J Safety Res ; 89: 41-55, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858062

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Development and implementation of autonomous vehicle (AV) related regulations are necessary to ensure safe AV deployment and wide acceptance among all roadway users. Assessment of vulnerable roadway users' perceptions on AV regulations could inform policymakers the development of appropriate AV regulations that facilitate the safety of diverse users in a multimodal transportation system. METHOD: This research evaluated pedestrians' and bicyclists' perceptions on six AV regulations (i.e., capping AV speed limit, operating AV in manual mode in the sensitive areas, having both pilot and co-pilot while operating AVs, and three data-sharing regulations). In addition, pedestrians' and bicyclists' perceptions of testing AVs in public streets were evaluated. Statistical testing and modeling techniques were applied to accomplish the research objectives. RESULTS: Compared to the other AV regulations assessed in this research, strong support for AV-related data sharing regulations was identified. Older respondents showed higher approval of AV testing on public roadways and less support for regulating AVs. AV technology familiarity and safe road sharing perceptions with AVs resulted in lower support for AV regulations. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers and AV technology developers could develop effective educational tools/resources to inform pedestrians and bicyclists about AV technology reliability and soften their stance, especially on AV regulations, which could delay technology development. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The findings of this research could be used to develop informed AV regulations and develop policies that could improve pedestrians' and bicyclists' attitudes/perceptions on regulating AVs and promoting AV technology deployments.


Subject(s)
Bicycling , Pedestrians , Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Bicycling/legislation & jurisprudence , Middle Aged , Pedestrians/psychology , Young Adult , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Adolescent , Walking , Perception , Aged , Safety/legislation & jurisprudence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Automobiles/legislation & jurisprudence
10.
Age Ageing ; 53(6)2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851215

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Problematic polypharmacy is the prescribing of five or more medications potentially inappropriately. Unintentional prescribing cascades represent an under-researched aspect of problematic polypharmacy and occur when an adverse drug reaction (ADR) is misinterpreted as a new symptom resulting in the initiation of a new medication. The aim of this study was to elicit key stakeholders' perceptions of and attitudes towards problematic polypharmacy, with a focus on prescribing cascades. METHODS: qualitative one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with predefined key stakeholder groups. Inductive thematic analysis was employed. RESULTS: Thirty-one stakeholders were interviewed: six patients, two carers, seven general practitioners, eight pharmacists, four hospital doctors, two professional organisation representatives and two policymakers. Three main themes were identified: (i) ADRs and prescribing cascades-a necessary evil. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) expressed concern that experiencing an ADR would negatively impact patients' confidence in their doctor. However, patients viewed ADRs pragmatically as an unpredictable risk. (ii) Balancing the risk/benefit tipping point. The complexity of prescribing decisions in the context of polypharmacy made balancing this tipping point challenging. Consequently, HCPs avoided medication changes. (iii) The minefield of medication reconciliation. Stakeholders, including patients and carers, viewed medication reconciliation as a perilous activity due to systemic communication deficits. CONCLUSION: Stakeholders believed that at a certain depth of polypharmacy, the risk that a new symptom is being caused by an existing medication becomes incalculable. Therefore, in the absence of harm, medication changes were avoided. However, medication reconciliation post hospital discharge compelled prescribing decisions and was seen as a high-risk activity by stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Inappropriate Prescribing , Polypharmacy , Qualitative Research , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Stakeholder Participation , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/psychology , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Interviews as Topic , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Medication Reconciliation , Aged, 80 and over , Caregivers/psychology , Risk Assessment , Perception , Pharmacists
11.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 54(2): 151-161, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863185

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients' perception of fall risk is a promising new indicator for fall prevention. Therefore, a fall risk perception questionnaire that can be used rapidly and repeatedly in acute care settings is required. This study aimed to develop a short version of the fall risk perception questionnaire (Short-FRPQ) for inpatients. METHODS: For the psychometric measurements, 246 inpatients were recruited from an acute care hospital. The construct (using confirmatory factor analysis and discriminant validity of each item), convergent, and known-group validities were tested to determine the validity of the Short-FRPQ. McDonald's omega coefficient was used to examine the internal consistency of reliability. RESULTS: In the confirmatory factor analysis, the fit indices of the Short-FRPQ, comprising 14 items and three factors, appeared to be satisfactory. The Short-FRPQ had a significantly positive correlation with the original scale, the Korean Falls Efficacy Scale-International, and the Morse Fall Scale. The risk of falls group, assessed using the Morse Fall Scale, had a higher score on the Short-FRPQ. McDonald's omega coefficient was .90. CONCLUSION: The Short-FRPQ presents good reliability and validity. As patient participation is essential in fall interventions, evaluating the fall risk perception of inpatients quickly and repeatedly using scales of acceptable validity and reliability is necessary.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Inpatients , Perception , Psychometrics , Humans , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Female , Male , Inpatients/psychology , Middle Aged , Aged , Adult , Hospitals , Aged, 80 and over , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Risk Assessment
12.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057241260027, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, infertility is known as a major problem which can ruin a couple's relationship. In recent years, many studies have addressed the causes of infertility, the outcomes of treatments for infertility, and the effects of infertility on couples' mental health; however, the concept of dignity of women living with infertility has never been examined in depth. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the dignity of women living with infertility in Iran. DESIGN: This qualitative research was conducted via conventional content analysis approach. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in Iran from February to December 2022. In this research, the data were collected through face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews with 23 women living with infertility selected via purposive sampling. The interviews were continued until reaching the data saturation point. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through Graneheim and Lundman style content analysis, with data management done using the MAXQDA software. To achieve the accuracy and validity of the study, the four-dimension criteria by Lincoln and Guba, namely credibility, dependability, conformability, and transformability, were considered and used. RESULTS: Analysis of the qualitative data yielded three themes and eight subthemes. The three main themes were (1) overcoming identity crises (overcoming dysthymia, coping with unaccomplished motherhood), (2) respect for personal identity (respect for confidentiality; respect for beliefs, values, and attitudes; avoidance of stigma and pity), and (3) compassion-focused therapy (sympathizing, mental and spiritual support, and enhancement of life skills). CONCLUSION: Dignity of women living with infertility encompasses overcoming identity crises, respect for personal identity, and compassion therapy. The policymakers and administrators in the healthcare system can use the findings of this study to create a proper clinical environment toward preserving the dignity of women living with infertility.


Subject(s)
Infertility, Female , Qualitative Research , Humans , Female , Iran , Adult , Infertility, Female/psychology , Infertility, Female/therapy , Respect , Personhood , Interviews as Topic , Infertility/psychology , Infertility/therapy , Perception
13.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303693, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829902

ABSTRACT

Perceiving that a partner is highly committed tends to benefit close relationships. However, there may be relational drawbacks to perceiving high commitment. In particular, given that high commitment may signal that a partner is unlikely to leave the relationship, perceiving that a partner is highly committed might lead people low in agreeableness to feel comfortable behaving more selfishly toward that partner. One correlational study consisting of a highly diverse sample of individuals (n = 307), one observational study of newlywed couples (n = 202), and one experiment with undergraduate couples (n = 252) examined whether the implications of perceived partner commitment for selfish behaviors depend on agreeableness. Results demonstrated that perceiving high commitment resulted in more selfish behavior among disagreeable participants (Studies 1-3), but less selfish behavior among agreeable participants (Studies 1 and 3). Together, these results suggest that signaling commitment to disagreeable partners may backfire in romantic relationships.


Subject(s)
Interpersonal Relations , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Sexual Partners/psychology , Perception
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(3): e202310204, jun. 2024. tab, gráf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554934

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El descenso de las coberturas de vacunación fue muy significativo en la última década. Los pediatras son una pieza fundamental para recuperar coberturas y aumentar la confianza en la vacunación. Objetivos. Describir la percepción de los pediatras acerca del conocimiento y prácticas sobre vacunas, e identificar barreras en el acceso. Métodos. Estudio analítico observacional, mediante encuesta en línea. Se incluyeron variables del perfil del profesional, capacitación y barreras en inmunizaciones. Resultados. Participaron 1696 pediatras (tasa de respuesta: 10,7 %), media de 50,4 años. El 78,7 % fueron mujeres. El 78,2 % contaba con ≥10 años de ejercicio profesional. El 78,4 % realizaba atención ambulatoria y el 56,0 % en el subsector privado. El 72,5 % realizó una capacitación en los últimos 2 años. Se manifestaron "capacitados" para transmitir a sus pacientes los beneficios de las vacunas: 97,2 %; objetivos de campañas: 87,7 %; contraindicaciones: 82,4 %; efectos adversos: 78,9 %; recupero de esquemas: 71,2 %; notificación de ESAVI: 59,5 %. La proporción fue estadísticamente superior, en todos los aspectos, en pediatras con ≥10 años de ejercicio y en aquellos con capacitación reciente (p ≤ 0,01). Barreras identificadas en el acceso a la vacunación: falsas contraindicaciones (62,3 %); falta temporaria de vacunas (46,4 %); motivos culturales (41,4 %); horario restringido del vacunatorio (40,6 %). Conclusiones. La percepción del grado de capacitación fue variable según el aspecto de la vacunación. Aquellos con mayor tiempo de ejercicio profesional y con actualización reciente se manifestaron con mayor grado de capacidad. Se identificaron múltiples barreras frecuentes asociadas al acceso en la vacunación.


Introduction. The decline in vaccination coverage has been very significant in the past decade. Pediatriciansplay a key role in catching-up coverage and increasing confidence in vaccination. Objectives. To describe pediatricians' perceptions of vaccine knowledge and practices and to identify barriers to access. Methods. Observational, analytical study using an online survey. Variables related to professional profile, training and barriers to vaccination were included. Results. A total of 1696 pediatricians participated (response rate: 10.7%). Their mean age was 50.4 years; 78.7% were women; 78.2% had ≥ 10 years of experience; 78.4% provided outpatient care and 56.0%, in the private subsector; and 72.5% received training in the past 2 years. Respondents described themselves as "trained" in convey the following aspects to their patients: benefits of vaccines: 97.2%; campaign objectives: 87.7%; contraindications: 82.4%; adverse effects: 78.9%; catchup vaccination: 71.2%; reporting of events supposedly attributable to vaccination or immunization: 59.5%. The proportion was statistically higher in all aspects, among pediatricians with ≥ 10 years of experience and those who received training recently (p ≤ 0.01). The barriers identified in access to vaccination were false contraindications (62.3%), temporary vaccine shortage (46.4%), cultural reasons (41.4%), and restricted vaccination center hours (40.6%). Conclusions. The perception of the level of training varied depending on the vaccination-related aspect. Pediatricians with more years of professional experience and those who received recent updates perceivedthemselves as more trained. Multiple barriers associated with access to vaccination were identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Vaccines , Vaccination , Perception , Argentina , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pediatricians
15.
South Med J ; 117(6): 336-341, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Medical education is notorious for the stress that students face as they strive to succeed both academically and clinically. This stress has been linked to declining academic performance and worsening mental health. To combat these negative outcomes, it is essential for medical school faculty and administration to address common stressors among medical students. No studies have addressed whether medical school faculty and students perceive stressors similarly, however. METHODS: In this two-part study, data collected from medical students in 2021 to 2022 to identify their most significant sources of stress were used to create a survey that queries the frequency and intensity of these stressors. This survey was distributed to medical students and faculty at the same institution. The responses between students and faculty were compared and student data also were analyzed by academic year to observe changes in perception that accompany progression through the medical curriculum. RESULTS: The results showed that faculty overestimated the impact of certain stressors on medical students (eg, in-house examinations, US Medical Licensing Examination Steps 1 and 2 examinations, and patient interactions). In addition, preclinical students were more concerned with finding extracurricular activities, missing opportunities, and performing research compared with clinical students. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that although faculty anticipated most medical student stressors, there are significant gaps that still need to be addressed to better reduce and respond to the stress experienced by medical students.


Subject(s)
Faculty, Medical , Stress, Psychological , Students, Medical , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Female , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Perception , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods
16.
F1000Res ; 13: 157, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835936

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Comprehensive oral care is a service centered around the patient, and individuals who need it the most often face limited access. Patient perception acts as a guide for enhancing quality, ensuring patients' future intent to utilize the services and facilitating recommendations to others. The present study aimed to assess the patients' perception of comprehensive dental services availed at a Primary Health Center (PHC). Methods: This qualitative study was based on a phenomenological interpretive approach, and judgment sampling method was employed. A validated interview guide, developed from relevant literature was employed in the local language to conduct interviews among adults visiting the PHC, gathering their views regarding the services provided. The interviews were audio recorded on a digital voice recorder, and files were password protected. Content saturation guided the determination of the final number of participants interviewed. After translating and transcribing the interviews, thematic analysis and coding were performed using ATLAS. ti 23 for Windows. Results: A total of 12 participants were included in the study, following data saturation. Among them, there were 8(66.7%) female and 4(33.3%) male participants. Ten overarching main themes were discerned through the assigned codes, including positive views, neutral views, negative views, previous dental clinics visited, previous experience with dental treatment, treatments sought at the center, referrals, source of information about the dental center, subsequent visits and suggestions for improvement. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed a positive patient perception of the comprehensive dental services offered at the PHC. Through insightful interviews, various strengths, and areas for improvement regarding the center and care provision were identified. These insights provide valuable suggestions that can be applied to elevate the utilization of dental services, ensuring continuous improvement in patient care.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Qualitative Research , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Dental Care , Perception
17.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(5): e22504, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837411

ABSTRACT

Experimental studies of sensory plasticity during development in birds and mammals have highlighted the importance of sensory experiences for the construction and refinement of functional neural circuits. We discuss how dysregulation of experience-dependent brain plasticity can lead to abnormal perceptual representations that may contribute to heterogeneous deficits symptomatic of several neurodevelopmental disorders. We focus on alterations of somatosensory processing and the dynamic reorganization of cortical synaptic networks that occurs during early perceptual development. We also discuss the idea that the heterogeneity of strengths and weaknesses observed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders may be a direct consequence of altered plasticity mechanisms during early development. Treating the heterogeneity of perceptual developmental trajectories as a phenomenon worthy of study rather than as an experimental confound that should be overcome may be key to developing interventions that better account for the complex developmental trajectories experienced by modern humans.


Subject(s)
Neuronal Plasticity , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Humans , Animals , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/physiology , Perception/physiology
18.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0295719, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Skin cancer comprises half of all cancers in England and Wales. Most skin cancers can be prevented with safer sun exposure. As over exposure as a child can greatly increase future skin cancer risk, early and accessible sun safety education and promotion of sun safe behaviours is critical. Scientists agree there is no such thing as a 'safe tan', yet the public, including children, often have positive perceptions of tanned skin. To protect against future skin cancer, it is important to understand and address these misconceptions. The Curriculum for Wales with its area for Health and Well-being, and autonomy for schools in designing curriculum content, presents an ideal way to facilitate this exploration. AIMS: Gather data regarding perceptions towards tanning to explore the perceived effects of a tan on health.Inform the development and testing of an educational toolkit for integration within the Curriculum for Wales to encourage positive health behaviours and attitudes of school children towards tanning and sun exposure. METHODS: SunChat is a mixed methods exploratory study comprising three work streams: Workshops with school children to understand their perceptions on tanning.An online multiple-choice survey with parents/carers to understand perceptions, attitudes and behaviours towards tanning both for themselves and their children.An informal focus group with primary school educators to explore challenges in engaging with the school community around the Health and Well-being Area in the Curriculum for Wales. DISCUSSION: To date, there has been no work in Wales exploring children's, parents/carers', and educators' perceptions of tanning and how healthier attitudes can be encouraged. This study will engage with participants to scope current perceptions on tanning and the perceived effects tanning has on health. Findings will feed into future toolkit and curriculum development for health in schools in Wales and beyond.


Subject(s)
Parents , Skin Neoplasms , Sunbathing , Humans , Wales , Child , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Sunbathing/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Schools , Adolescent , Health Education/methods , Health Behavior , Perception
19.
J Sports Sci Med ; 23(2): 326-341, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841639

ABSTRACT

In the recent past, practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) using non-pneumatic, usually elastic cuffs has been established as a cost-effective alternative to traditional blood flow restriction (BFR) using pneumatic cuffs, especially for training in large groups. This study investigated whether low-load resistance exercise with perceptually primed pBFR using an elastic knee wrap is suitable to induce similar motor performance fatigue as well as physiological and perceptual responses compared to traditional BFR using a pneumatic nylon cuff in males and females. In a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over study, 30 healthy subjects performed 4 sets (30-15-15-15 repetitions) of unilateral knee extensions at 20% of their one-repetition-maximum. In the pBFR condition, each individual was perceptually primed to a BFR pressure corresponding to 60% of their arterial occlusion pressure. Before and after exercise, maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activity, and cuff pressure-induced discomfort were assessed. Moreover, physiological (i.e., muscle activity, muscle oxygenation) and perceptual responses (i.e., effort and exercise-induced leg muscle pain) were recorded during exercise. Moderate correlations with no differences between pBFR and BFR were found regarding the decline in maximal voluntary torque and maximal muscle activity. Furthermore, no to very strong correlations between conditions, with no differences, were observed for muscle activity, muscle oxygenation, and perceptual responses during exercise sets. However, cuff pressure-induced discomfort was lower in the pBFR compared to the BFR condition. These results indicate that low-load resistance exercise combined with perceptually primed pBFR is a convenient and less discomfort inducing alternative to traditional BFR. This is especially relevant for BFR training with people who have a low cuff-induced discomfort tolerance.


Subject(s)
Cross-Over Studies , Muscle Fatigue , Muscle, Skeletal , Resistance Training , Humans , Female , Resistance Training/methods , Male , Muscle Fatigue/physiology , Adult , Young Adult , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Regional Blood Flow , Torque , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/prevention & control , Perception/physiology , Oxygen Consumption , Blood Flow Restriction Therapy/methods , Electromyography , Knee/physiology
20.
J Sports Sci Med ; 23(2): 289-304, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841637

ABSTRACT

Perception is an essential component of children's psychological development, which is foundational to children's ability to understand and adapt to their external environment. Perception is also a crucial tool for understand and navigating one's surroundings, enabling children to identify objects and react appropriately to settings or situations. Substantial evidence indicates that engaging in physical activity is beneficial for the development of children's perceptual abilities, as the two are closely intertwined. Still, more research is necessary to gain a full understanding of the impact of physical activity on children's perception. To further identify and quantify the effects of physical activity on a number of specific perceptions in children. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches were performed using five online databases (i.e., PubMed, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) for articles published up to and including June 2023 to identify eligible citations. A total of 12 randomized controlled trials, encompassing 1,761 children under the age of 12, were analyzed. Overall, physical activity as an intervention showed a notable effect on the development of children's perceptions. The meta-analysis indicated that participating in physical activity for 30 minutes around, daily, had a greater impact on children's visual perception and executive functioning than on their motor perception, body perception, and global self-worth (SMD = 1.33, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.91, p < 0.001). The effects of physical activity on children's perception performance varied by participant characteristics, with physical activity having better effects on body perception and overall self-worth in children who were obese or overweight. Furthermore, physical activity can also enhance executive function and attention in children with developmental coordination disorders. The effects of physical activity on children's perception performance varied according to the intervention time, with different activity durations resulting in different perception performances. Therefore, parents and educators must prioritize an appropriate length of physical activity time for children to ensure their optimal growth and development. Registration and protocol CRD42023441119.


Subject(s)
Executive Function , Exercise , Perception , Humans , Child , Exercise/psychology , Perception/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Child Development , Visual Perception , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Body Image
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