Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 78.241
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612773

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to determine the ACE inhibitory activity of aqueous extracts of olive pomace and to understand whether they represent a good source of bioactive LMW peptides for nutritional and pharmacological applications. We produced a water extract from olive pomace (var. Picual) and obtained its low molecular weight (LMW) fraction (<3 kDa). The calculated yield of extraction was 100.2 ± 7.9 mg of LMW peptides per 100 g of olive pomace. The olive pomace LMW fraction possessed strong ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 3.57 ± 0.22 µg prot/mL). The LMW fraction (<3 kDa) was analysed by nanoscale liquid chromatography-Orbitrap coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and de novo sequencing. Thirty new peptides, containing between 7-17 amino acids and molecular masses ranging 778-1354 Da, were identified by the Peaks database algorithm using the available Olea europaea (cv. Farga) genome database. Ten new peptides were also identified by Peaks de novo sequencing. The protein sources of twelve peptides detected in the database by Peaks DB were identified by BLAST search. The ACE inhibitory activity of the identified peptides was predicted by BIOPEP software. We conclude that olive pomace possesses ACE inhibitory activity and contains low molecular weight peptides with (predicted) biological activity. Olive pomace may represent a good source of peptides for nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. In our study, it has been shown that olive pomace possesses ACE inhibitory activity and contains low molecular weight peptides with (predicted) biological activity. Olive pomace may represent a good source of peptides for nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. More research is needed in order to identify the in vivo effects of olive pomace bioactive peptides.


Subject(s)
Olea , Peptides , Molecular Weight , Peptides/pharmacology , Algorithms , Amino Acids , Thinness , Water , Pharmaceutical Preparations
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612796

ABSTRACT

The development of novel anticoagulants requires a comprehensive investigational approach that is capable of characterizing different aspects of antithrombotic activity. The necessary experiments include both in vitro assays and studies on animal models. The required in vivo approaches include the assessment of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles and studies of hemorrhagic and antithrombotic effects. Comparison of anticoagulants with different mechanisms of action and administration types requires unification of the experiment scheme and its adaptation to existing laboratory conditions. The rodent thrombosis models in combination with the assessment of hemostasis parameters and hematological analysis are the classic methods for conducting preclinical studies. We report an approach for the comparative study of the activity of different anticoagulants in vivo, including the investigation of pharmacodynamics and the assessment of hemorrhagic effects (tail-cut bleeding model) and pathological thrombus formation (inferior vena cava stenosis model of venous thrombosis). The reproducibility and uniformity of our set of experiments were illustrated on unfractionated heparin and dabigatran etexilate (the most common pharmaceuticals in antithrombic therapy) as comparator drugs and an experimental drug variegin from the tick Amblyomma variegatum. Variegin is notorious since it is a potential analogue of bivalirudin (Angiomax, Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland), which is now being actively introduced into antithrombotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Heparin , Animals , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin/pharmacology , Heparin/therapeutic use , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(14): e134, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622939

ABSTRACT

The global research and pharmaceutical community rapidly mobilized to develop treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Existing treatments have been repurposed and new drugs have emerged. Here we summarize mechanisms and clinical trials of COVID-19 therapeutics approved or in development. Two reviewers, working independently, reviewed published data for approved COVID-19 vaccines and drugs, as well as developmental pipelines, using databases from the following organizations: United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), Japanese Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), and ClinicalTrials.gov. In all, 387 drugs were found for initial review. After removing unrelated trials and drugs, 66 drugs were selected, including 17 approved drugs and 49 drugs under development. These drugs were classified into six categories: 1) drugs targeting the viral life cycle 2) Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Monoclonal Antibodies, 3) immunomodulators, 4) anti-coagulants, 5) COVID-19-induced neuropathy drugs, and 6) other therapeutics. Among the 49 drugs under development are the following: 6 drugs targeting the viral life cycle, 12 immunosuppression drugs, 2 immunostimulants, 2 HIF-PHD targeting drugs, 3 GM-CSF targeting drugs, 5 anti-coagulants, 2 COVID-19-induced neuropathy drugs, and 17 others. This review provides insight into mechanisms of action, properties, and indications for COVID-19 medications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral , Pharmaceutical Preparations
4.
J Mass Spectrom ; 59(5): e5023, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624283

ABSTRACT

Microsampling has revolutionized pharmaceutical drug development and clinical research by reducing sample volume requirements, allowing sample collection at home or nontraditional sites, minimizing animal and patient burden, and enabling more flexible study designs. This perspective paper discusses the transformative impact of microsampling and patient-centric sampling (PCS) techniques, emphasizing their advantages in drug development and clinical trials. We highlight the integration of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) strategies for analyzing PCS samples, focusing on our research experience and a review of current literatures. The paper reviews commercially available PCS devices, their regulatory status, and their application in clinical trials, underscoring the benefits of PCS in expanding patient enrollment diversity and improving study designs. We also address the operational challenges of implementing PCS, including the need for bridging studies to ensure data comparability between traditional and microsampling methods, and the analytical challenges posed by PCS samples. The paper proposes future directions for PCS, including the development of global regulatory standards, technological advancements to enhance user experience, the increased concern of sustainability and patient data privacy, and the integration of PCS with other technologies for improved performance in drug development and clinical studies. By advancing microsampling and PCS techniques, we aim to foster patient-centric approaches in pharmaceutical sciences, ultimately enhancing patient care and treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
Drug Development , 60705 , Animals , Humans , Research Design , Patient-Centered Care , Pharmaceutical Preparations
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 172067, 2024 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565352

ABSTRACT

Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGTs) have been well-documented for the measurement of a broad range of organic pollutants in surface water. However, the performance has been challenged by the inherent periodic concentration fluctuations for most organic pollutants. Therefore, there is an urgent need to assess the true time-weighted average (TWA) concentration based on fluctuating concentration profiles. The study aimed to evaluate the responsiveness of DGT and accuracy of TWA concentrations, considering various concentration fluctuating scenarios of 20 pharmaceuticals in surface water. The reliability and accuracy of the TWA concentrations measured by the DGT were assessed by comparison with the sum of cumulative mass of DGT exposed at different stages over the deployment period. The results showed that peak concentration duration (1-5 days), peak concentration fluctuation intensity (6-20 times), and occurrence time of peak concentration fluctuation (early, middle, and late stages) have minimal effect on DGT's response to most target pharmaceutical concentration fluctuations (0.8 < CDGT/CTWA < 1.2). While the downward-bent accumulations of a few pharmaceuticals on DGT occur as the sampling time increases, which could be accounted for by capacity effects during a long-time sampling period. Additionally, the DGT device had good sampling performance in recording short fluctuating concentrations from a pulse event returning to background concentrations with variable intensity and duration. This study revealed a satisfactory capacity for the evaluation of the TWA concentration of pharmaceuticals integrated over the period of different pulse deployment for DGT, suggesting that this passive sampler is ideally suited as a monitoring tool for field application. This study represents the first trial for evaluating DGT sampling performance for pharmaceuticals with multiple concentration fluctuating scenarios over time, which would be valuable for assessing the pollution status in future monitoring campaign.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water , Reproducibility of Results , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Diffusion , Pharmaceutical Preparations
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 172146, 2024 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569963

ABSTRACT

Anthropogenic activities have led to the emergence of pharmaceutical pollution in marine ecosystems, posing a significant threat to biodiversity in conjunction with global climate change. While the ecotoxicity of human drugs on aquatic organisms is increasingly recognized, their interactions with environmental factors, such as temperature, remain understudied. This research investigates the physiological effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, on two diatom species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira weissflogii. Results demonstrate that fluoxetine significantly reduces growth rate and biomass production, concurrently affecting pigment contents and the thermal performance curve (TPC) of the diatoms. Fluoxetine reduces the synthesis of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and carotenoid (Car), indicating inhibition of photosynthesis and photoprotection. Furthermore, fluoxetine decreases the maximum growth rate (µmax) while increasing the optimum temperature (Topt) in both species, suggesting an altered thermal plasticity. This shift is attributed to the observed decrease in the inhibition rate of fluoxetine with rising temperatures. These findings emphasize the physiological impacts and ecological implications of fluoxetine on phytoplankton and underscore the significance of considering interactions between multiple environmental drivers when accessing the ecotoxicity of potential pollutants. The present study provides insights into crucial considerations for evaluating the impacts of pharmaceutical pollution on marine primary producers.


Subject(s)
Diatoms , Humans , Diatoms/physiology , Chlorophyll A , Fluoxetine/toxicity , Temperature , Ecosystem , Pharmaceutical Preparations
7.
Nature ; 628(8007): 320-325, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600268

ABSTRACT

Force-controlled release of small molecules offers great promise for the delivery of drugs and the release of healing or reporting agents in a medical or materials context1-3. In polymer mechanochemistry, polymers are used as actuators to stretch mechanosensitive molecules (mechanophores)4. This technique has enabled the release of molecular cargo by rearrangement, as a direct5,6 or indirect7-10 consequence of bond scission in a mechanophore, or by dissociation of cage11, supramolecular12 or metal complexes13,14, and even by 'flex activation'15,16. However, the systems described so far are limited in the diversity and/or quantity of the molecules released per stretching event1,2. This is due to the difficulty in iteratively activating scissile mechanophores, as the actuating polymers will dissociate after the first activation. Physical encapsulation strategies can be used to deliver a larger cargo load, but these are often subject to non-specific (that is, non-mechanical) release3. Here we show that a rotaxane (an interlocked molecule in which a macrocycle is trapped on a stoppered axle) acts as an efficient actuator to trigger the release of cargo molecules appended to its axle. The release of up to five cargo molecules per rotaxane actuator was demonstrated in solution, by ultrasonication, and in bulk, by compression, achieving a release efficiency of up to 71% and 30%, respectively, which places this rotaxane device among the most efficient release systems achieved so far1. We also demonstrate the release of three representative functional molecules (a drug, a fluorescent tag and an organocatalyst), and we anticipate that a large variety of cargo molecules could be released with this device. This rotaxane actuator provides a versatile platform for various force-controlled release applications.


Subject(s)
Delayed-Action Preparations , Rotaxanes , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemical synthesis , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Rotaxanes/chemistry , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry
8.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 38(11): e9747, 2024 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600640

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: N-Nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA) is a mutagenic impurity detected in several ranitidine products. The amino functional group of ranitidine is a risk factor for classical nitrosation-induced NDMA formation in ranitidine drug products during storage conditions. The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) recommended the use of antioxidants to control NDMA in drug products. Considering the need for sensitive analytics, a liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was developed and validated to detect NDMA in this pilot study to demonstrate the antioxidants as inhibitors of nitrosation reactions. METHODS: The method, utilizing an EC-C18 column and tuned to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/selected ion monitoring (APCI/SIM) mode, separated NDMA (m/z: 75.0553; tR: 3.71 min) and ranitidine (m/z: 315.1485; tR: 8.61 min). APCI mode exhibited four times higher sensitivity to NDMA than electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. Classical nitrosation of the dimethyl amino group of ranitidine was studied with sodium nitrite in solid pellets. Antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and trolox) were evaluated as NDMA attenuators in ranitidine pellets under vulnerable storage conditions. The developed method quantified NDMA levels in samples, extracted with methanol through vortex shaking for 45 min. RESULTS: The method achieved a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.01 and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively, with linearity within 1-5000 ng/mL (R1: 0.9995). It demonstrated good intra-day and inter-day precision (% RSD [relative standard deviation]: <2) and accuracy (96.83%-101.72%). Nitrosation of ranitidine induced by nitrite was significant (p < 0.001; R2 = 0.9579) at various sodium nitrite levels. All antioxidants efficiently attenuated NDMA formation during ranitidine nitrosation. Ascorbic acid exhibited the highest NDMA attenuation (96.98%), followed by trolox (90.58%). This study recommends 1% ascorbic acid and trolox as potent NDMA attenuators in ranitidine drug products. CONCLUSIONS: This study compared the effectiveness of antioxidants as NDMA attenuators in ranitidine under storage conditions susceptible to NDMA generation. The study concluded that ascorbic acid and trolox are potent inhibitors of NDMA formation and nitrosation attenuators in ranitidine drug products.


Subject(s)
Dimethylnitrosamine , Ranitidine , Ranitidine/chemistry , Dimethylnitrosamine/analysis , Dimethylnitrosamine/chemistry , Antioxidants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Nitrosation , Sodium Nitrite , Pilot Projects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Ascorbic Acid
9.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611760

ABSTRACT

A multi-residue UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method, previously developed for monitoring 52 pharmaceuticals in drinking water, was used to analyse these pharmaceuticals in wastewater originating from healthcare facilities in the Czech Republic. Furthermore, the methodology was expanded to include the evaluation of the effectiveness of drug removal in Czech wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Of the 18 wastewater samples analysed by the validated UHPLC-MS/MS, each sample contained at least one quantifiable analyte. This study reveals the prevalence of several different drugs; mean concentrations of 702 µg L-1 of iomeprol, 48.8 µg L-1 of iopromide, 29.9 µg L-1 of gabapentin, 42.0 µg L-1 of caffeine and 82.5 µg L-1 of paracetamol were present. An analysis of 20 samples from ten WWTPs revealed different removal efficiencies for different analytes. Paracetamol was present in the inflow samples of all ten WWTPs and its removal efficiency was 100%. Analytes such as caffeine, ketoprofen, naproxen or atenolol showed high removal efficiencies exceeding 80%. On the other hand, pharmaceuticals like furosemide, metoprolol, iomeprol, zolpidem and tramadol showed lower removal efficiencies. Four pharmaceuticals exhibited higher concentrations in WWTP effluents than in the influents, resulting in negative removal efficiencies: warfarin at -9.5%, indomethacin at -53%, trimethoprim at -54% and metronidazole at -110%. These comprehensive findings contribute valuable insights to the pharmaceutical landscape of wastewater from healthcare facilities and the varied removal efficiencies of Czech WWTPs, which together with the already published literature, gives a more complete picture of the burden on the aquatic environment.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Cosmetics , Iopamidol/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Caffeine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Wastewater , Pharmaceutical Preparations
10.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1362716, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596513

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are a multifaceted and complex problem in the health system that can change the priorities of the economic, social, and even political systems of countries. Therefore, as a grand challenge (GC), its management requires adopting a systematic, interdisciplinary, and innovative approach. In Iran, the most common causes of death, have changed from infectious and diarrheal diseases to cardiovascular diseases since 1960. Methods: In this study, the novel framework of the problem-oriented innovation system (PIS) has been used, and cardiovascular diseases in Iran have been selected as a case study. To this end, first, the main challenges related to cardiovascular diseases in Iran were identified in two layers of "governance-centered" (including legal and policy gaps, insufficient education, financing, lack and unbalanced distribution of medical personnel) and "society driven" (including unhealthy diet and lifestyle, uncontrolled and hard-to-regulate factors, and high costs) through a library research. Then, the functional-structural framework of the problem-oriented innovation system was used to analyze cardiovascular diseases and provide policy recommendations. Results: The findings indicate that based on the eight functions of the problem-oriented innovation system, an important part of cardiovascular diseases can be managed and controlled in three short-term, medium-term, and long-term periods. Conclusion: Increasing public awareness in the form of university courses, participation of the government with the private sector in building and equipping specialized cardiovascular centers, creating an electronic health record from birth, implementing a family health plan focusing on less developed areas, supporting agriculture and guaranteeing the purchase of agricultural products and healthy food, increasing the capacity of accepting students in medical and paramedical fields, and allocating pharmaceutical currency in the form of pharmaceutical subsidies directly to cardiovascular patients, are among the most important policy recommendations for this grand challenge.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Government , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Iran
11.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(4): 145, 2024 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568460

ABSTRACT

Frequent detection of sulfonamides (SAs) pharmaceuticals in wastewater has necessitated the discovery of suitable technology for their sustainable remediation. Adsorption has been widely investigated due to its effectiveness, simplicity, and availability of various adsorbent materials from natural and artificial sources. This review highlighted the potentials of carbon-based adsorbents derived from agricultural wastes such as lignocellulose, biochar, activated carbon, carbon nanotubes graphene materials as well as organic polymers such as chitosan, molecularly imprinted polymers, metal, and covalent frameworks for SAs removal from wastewater. The promising features of these materials including higher porosity, rich carbon-content, robustness, good stability as well as ease of modification have been emphasized. Thus, the materials have demonstrated excellent performance towards the SAs removal, attributed to their porous nature that provided sufficient active sites for the adsorption of SAs molecules. The modification of physico-chemical features of the materials have been discussed as efficient means for enhancing their adsorption and reusable performance. The article also proposed various interactive mechanisms for the SAs adsorption. Lastly, the prospects and challenges have been highlighted to expand the knowledge gap on the application of the materials for the sustainable removal of the SAs.


Subject(s)
Nanotubes, Carbon , Wastewater , Polymers , Sulfonamides , Sulfanilamide , Pharmaceutical Preparations
12.
Health Expect ; 27(2): e14043, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors offered dyslipidemia patients an alternative to statins for lipid-lowering treatment. Understanding patient and physician preferences for lipid-lowering drugs may promote shared decision-making and improve treatment outcomes. METHODS: This study utilized an online discrete choice experiment (DCE) to assess the relative importance (RI) of six attributes related to lipid-lowering drugs, including frequency of administration, mode of administration, reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, risk of myopathy, risk of liver damage, and out-of-pocket monthly cost. Respondents were recruited from dyslipidemia patients and cardiovascular physicians in China. A mixed logit model and latent class analysis were employed to estimate the preference coefficient, marginal willingness to pay (mWTP), and RI of attributes. Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. RESULTS: A total of 708 patients and 507 physicians participated in the survey. Patients prioritized the 'risk of liver damage' (RI = 23.6%) with 'mode of administration' (RI = 19.2%) and 'frequency of administration' (RI = 18.8%) following closely. Contrarily, physicians prioritized the 'reduction of LDL-C level' (RI = 33.5%), followed by 'risk of liver damage' (RI = 26.0%) and 'risk of myopathy' (RI = 16.1%). Patients placed a higher value on 'frequency of administration' (p < .001) and 'mode of administration' (p < .001) compared to physicians, while physicians valued 'reduction of LDL-C level' (p < .001) and 'risk of myopathy' (p = .012) more than patients. Physicians exhibited higher mWTP than patients for all attributes except frequency and mode of administration. The LCA revealed three distinct patient classes: focus on oral administration, focus on hepatic safety and frequency and focus on hepatic safety and cost. Likewise, three physician classes were identified: frequency-insensitive, efficacy-focused and safety-focused. CONCLUSIONS: The preferences for lipid-lowering drug therapy differed between patients and physicians in China. Physicians should take into account patients' preferences and provide personalized treatment when they formulate lipid-lowering treatment plans. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Patients participated in the questionnaire design process. They engaged in a focus group discussion to determine attributes and levels and also participated in a pilot survey to assess the comprehensibility of the questionnaires. Additionally, patients were involved in the DCE survey to express their preferences. The findings of patient preference for lipid-lowering drug therapy will promote shared decision-making and optimize the treatment regimen.


Subject(s)
Dyslipidemias , Muscular Diseases , Physicians , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cholesterol, LDL , Patient Preference , Choice Behavior
13.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120732, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560954

ABSTRACT

Pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs) pose a growing concern with potential environmental impacts, commonly introduced into the environment via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The occurrence, removal, and season variations of 60 different classes of PhCs were investigated in the baffled bioreactor (BBR) wastewater treatment process during summer and winter. The concentrations of 60 PhCs were 3400 ± 1600 ng/L in the influent, 2700 ± 930 ng/L in the effluent, and 2400 ± 120 ng/g dw in sludge. Valsartan (Val, 1800 ng/L) was the main contaminant found in the influent, declining to 520 ng/L in the effluent. The grit chamber and BBR tank were substantially conducive to the removal of VAL. Nonetheless, the BBR process showcased variable removal efficiencies across different PhC classes. Sulfadimidine had the highest removal efficiency of 87 ± 17% in the final effluent (water plus solid phase). Contrasting seasonal patterns were observed among PhC classes within BBR process units. The concentrations of many PhCs were higher in summer than in winter, while some macrolide antibiotics exhibited opposing seasonal fluctuations. A thorough mass balance analysis revealed quinolone and sulfonamide antibiotics were primarily eliminated through degradation and transformation in the BBR process. Conversely, 40.2 g/d of macrolide antibiotics was released to the natural aquatic environment via effluent discharge. Gastric acid and anticoagulants, as well as cardiovascular PhCs, primarily experienced removal through sludge adsorption. This study provides valuable insights into the intricate dynamics of PhCs in wastewater treatment, emphasizing the need for tailored strategies to effectively mitigate their release and potential environmental risks.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Wastewater , Sewage/analysis , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Seasons , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Risk Assessment , Macrolides/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations
14.
ACS Infect Dis ; 10(4): 1327-1338, 2024 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567846

ABSTRACT

Due to the widespread abuse of antibiotics, drug resistance in Enterococcus has been increasing. However, the speed of antibiotic discovery cannot keep pace with the acquisition of bacterial resistance. Thus, drug repurposing is a proposed strategy to solve the crises. Lusutrombopag (LP) has been approved as a thrombopoietin receptor agonist by the Food and Drug Administration. This study demonstrated that LP exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in vitro with rare resistance occurrence. Further, LP combined with tobramycin exhibited synergistic antimicrobial effects in vitro and in vivo against Enterococcus. No in vitro or in vivo detectable toxicity was observed when using LP. Mechanism studies indicated that the disrupted proton motive force may account for LP's antimicrobial activity. In summary, these results demonstrate that LP has the previously undocumented potential to serve as an antibacterial agent against refractory infections caused by Enterococcus.


Subject(s)
Aminoglycosides , Cinnamates , Thiazoles , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , United States , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drug Repositioning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
15.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120829, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579474

ABSTRACT

The emergence and increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance pose a global public risk for human health, and nonantimicrobial pharmaceuticals play an important role in this process. Herein, five nonantimicrobial pharmaceuticals, including acetaminophen (ACT), clofibric acid (CA), carbamazepine (CBZ), caffeine (CF) and nicotine (NCT), tetracycline-resistant strains, five ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetG, tetM and tetW) and one integrase gene (intI1), were detected in 101 wastewater samples during two typical sewage treatment processes including anaerobic-oxic (A/O) and biological aerated filter (BAF) in Harbin, China. The impact of nonantibiotic pharmaceuticals at environmentally relevant concentrations on both the resistance genotypes and resistance phenotypes were explored. The results showed that a significant impact of nonantibiotic pharmaceuticals at environmentally relevant concentrations on tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs) was found, while no changes in antibiotic phenotypes, such as minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were observed. Machine learning was applied to further sort out the contribution of nonantibiotic pharmaceuticals at environmentally relevant concentrations to different ARG subtypes. The highest contribution and correlation were found at concentrations of 1400-1800 ng/L for NCT, 900-1500 ng/L for ACT and 7000-10,000 ng/L for CF for tetracycline resistance genes encoding RPPs, while no significant correlation was found between the target compounds and ARGs when their concentrations were lower than 500 ng/L for NCT, 100 ng/L for ACT and 1000 ng/L for CF, which were higher than the concentrations detected in effluent samples. Therefore, the removal of nonantibiotic pharmaceuticals in WWTPs can reduce their selection pressure for resistance genes in wastewater.


Subject(s)
Waste Disposal, Fluid , Wastewater , Humans , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Genes, Bacterial , Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Genotype , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Machine Learning , Pharmaceutical Preparations
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e083726, 2024 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594185

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Clinical pharmacy services often involve multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions. However, current pharmacy practice models vary across different countries. Despite the documented benefits of clinical pharmacy services, the characteristics of pharmacist-led interventions in different countries have not yet been adequately explored and described. Therefore, this protocol outlines the methodology for a proposed scoping review aiming to investigate various types of multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions and the outcomes used to evaluate their effectiveness within secondary care settings. Additionally, the scoping review will map the current evidence surrounding the characteristics of interventions and outcomes reported across various countries of socioeconomic status. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review will be conducted according to the JBI Methodology for Scoping Reviews and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) Extension for Scoping Reviews. We will systematically search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Embase (embase.com), Scopus (scopus.com), Cochrane Library (cochranelibrary.com) and APA PsycInfo (Ovid). Additionally, the reference lists of identified reviews and included full texts will be searched for relevant papers. Grey literature sources, such as International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) website, will be searched. We will include primary studies published in the English language from January 2013 to December 2023, involving secondary care multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions. Two independent reviewers will screen studies against eligibility criteria and use a piloted data extraction form to extract relevant information. We will extract relevant data, complete a tabular summary from each included publication and analyse it. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required as we will be using data from publicly available literature sources. Findings will be disseminated in publications and presentations with relevant stakeholders. We aim to map available evidence across the breadth of studies that have reported multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions and their outcomes.


Subject(s)
Pharmacy Service, Hospital , Pharmacy , Humans , Pharmacists , Secondary Care , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Review Literature as Topic
17.
Amino Acids ; 56(1): 27, 2024 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564019

ABSTRACT

We investigated the bioavailability of the calcium salt (HMB-Ca) and the free acid (HMB-FA) forms of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB). Sixteen young individuals received the following treatments on three different occasions in a counterbalanced crossover fashion: (1) HMB-FA in clear capsules; (2) HMB-Ca in gelatine capsules; (3) HMB-Ca dissolved in water. All treatments provided 1 g of HMB. Blood samples were taken before and on multiple time points following ingestion. The following parameters were calculated: peak plasma (Cmax), time to peak (Tmax), slope of HMB appearance in blood, area under the curve (AUC), half-life time (t1/2) and relative bioavailability (HMB-Ca in water set as reference). All treatments led to rapid and large increases in plasma HMB. HMB-Ca in capsules and in water showed similar plasma HMB values across time (p = 0.438). HMB-FA resulted in lower concentrations vs. the other treatments (both p < 0.001). AUC (HMB-Ca in capsules: 50,078 ± 10,507; HMB-Ca in water: 47,871 ± 10,783; HMB-FA: 29,130 ± 12,946 µmol L-1 × 720 min), Cmax (HMB-Ca in capsules: 229.2 ± 65.9; HMB-Ca in water: 249.7 ± 49.7; HMB-FA: 139.1 ± 67.2 µmol L-1) and relative bioavailability (HMB-Ca in capsules: 104.8 ± 14.9%; HMB-FA: 61.5 ± 17.0%) were lower in HMB-FA vs. HMB-Ca (all p < 0.001). HMB-Ca in water resulted in the fastest Tmax (43 ± 22 min) compared to HMB-Ca in capsules (79 ± 40 min) and HMB-FA (78 ± 21 min) (all p < 0.05), while t1/2 was similar between treatments. To conclude, HMB-Ca exhibited superior bioavailability compared to HMB-FA, with HMB-Ca in water showing faster absorption. Elimination kinetics were similar across all forms, suggesting that the pharmaceutical form of HMB affects the absorption rates, but not its distribution or elimination.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Valerates , Water , Humans , Biological Availability , Pharmaceutical Preparations
18.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 27: 12434, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571937

ABSTRACT

Microneedle (MN)-assisted drug delivery technology has gained increasing attention over the past two decades. Its advantages of self-management and being minimally invasive could allow this technology to be an alternative to hypodermic needles. MNs can penetrate the stratum corneum and deliver active ingredients to the body through the dermal tissue in a controlled and sustained release. Long-acting polymeric MNs can reduce administration frequency to improve patient compliance and therapeutic outcomes, especially in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, long-acting MNs could avoid gastrointestinal reactions and reduce side effects, which has potential value for clinical application. In this paper, advances in design strategies and applications of long-acting polymeric MNs are reviewed. We also discuss the challenges in scale manufacture and regulations of polymeric MN systems. These two aspects will accelerate the effective clinical translation of MN products.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems , Skin , Humans , Microinjections , Administration, Cutaneous , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Polymers
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e244777, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568694

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study uses payment data publicly disclosed by pharmaceutical companies affiliated with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association to describe their financial relationships with the subspecialty societies of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations , Humans
20.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther ; 17(2): 88-94, 2024 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560970

ABSTRACT

This systematic review aimed to evaluate the proportion of primary and secondary endpoints in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and analyze their trends in time and study sponsorship status. The Chi-square test and logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 28. A total of 147 HSCT phase III RCTs from 2006 to 2021 reported 197 primary and 600 secondary endpoints. Overall survival (OS, 17 %), progression-free survival (PFS, 15 %), graft versus host disease (GVHD, 8 %), event-free survival (EFS, 8 %), and organ function (8 %) were the most common primary endpoints. GVHD (12.3 %, n = 74), safety/toxicity/adverse events (11.8 %, n = 71), OS (11.5 %, n = 69), PFS (9.3 %, n = 56), and relapse rate (RR; 7.5 %, n = 45) were the most common secondary endpoints during 2006-2021. After 2013, an increase was noted in the use of PFS as a primary endpoint (12 %-18 %, p = 0.196), while the use of OS as a primary endpoint declined (20 %-13 %, p = 0.170). An increase was observed in using the secondary endpoints RR (5 %-10 %, p = 0.047) and NRM (3 %-6 %, p = 0.047). EFS was used more (14 % vs. 4 %, p = 0.012) than ORR (11 % vs. 2 %, p = 0.003) as a primary endpoint in pharmaceutical-compared to non-pharmaceutical-sponsored studies. As secondary endpoints, the use of EFS (4 % vs. 1 %, p = 0.013) and ORR (4 % vs. 1 %, p = 0.028) was higher, whereas that of organ systems/functions (1.5 % vs. 5.5 %, p = 0.022) and GVHD (6.5 % vs. 15 %, p = 0.002) was lower in pharmaceutical-compared to non-pharmaceutical sponsored studies. GVHD-free relapse-free survival was reported as a primary endpoint in 2 % of studies, while only 5 % reported quality of life as a secondary endpoint. We described commonly used endpoints in HSCT phase III RCTs and patterns in their use over time by funding source and study intervention category.


Subject(s)
Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Transplantation, Homologous
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...