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1.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 31(3): 407-410, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899538

ABSTRACT

This essay advocates for the wholesale reevaluation of the process used by American medical schools for selecting physicians, examining fundamental questions such as the purpose of physicians and the nature of meritocracy. It raises questions about the size of medical school classes, the specific academic requirements, and the inadequacy of current efforts to increase diversity. Ultimately, the essay argues for consideration of a range of reforms that will focus on the community-empowering aspects of medical admissions decisions.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Humans , Philosophy , Schools, Medical , United States
2.
J Behav Addict ; 11(2): 186-190, 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895455

ABSTRACT

Writing in this journal, Brand and colleagues have proposed criteria for other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors. Their proposal intersects with key debates in philosophy of psychiatry, including how best to define mental disorders, to validate them, and to optimize their meta-structure. Review of these debates in the context of behavioral addictions suggests several conclusions. First, these debates involve "essentially contested" constructs that require ongoing consideration and judgment. Second, the complexity of psychopathology suggests multiple legitimate approaches to delineating traits and explicating mechanisms. Third, in optimizing meta-structure, non-psychobiological considerations are crucial - the overlapping public mental health approach to addictive disorders is paramount.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Mental Disorders , Psychiatry , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Philosophy , Psychopathology
3.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 2201497, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844938

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of comprehensive modernization, the Sinicization and modernization of Marxism are inseparable from the popularization of Marxism, which will promote the Sinicization and modernization of Marxism and make it more practical and vital. Time has changed, and the traditional ways and methods have faced a new pattern, but they still contain the practical value worth exploring and give full play to the contemporary function of beneficial historical experience. On the basis of drawing on historical experience, we follow the idea of establishing basic principles, focusing on important ways and looking for the development prospects, and discuss the discussion layer by layer in clear guidance, grasping the key points and thinking about the future. In today's era, with the development of the network, the popularization of Marxist philosophy has ushered in a period of opportunity for development, but at the same time, the development has also encountered some challenges. Based on the actual situation of contemporary China, in recent years, the popularization of Marxism has made great achievements, but it also presents the phenomenon of unbalanced overall development, low operation efficiency, and uneven cooling between the officials and the people. Under these conditions, popularizing network knowledge, developing network culture, improving relevant laws, and making its theories more popular are all important ways to realize the popularization of Marxist philosophy. The research on the popularization of Marxism and the academic level is more profound, while the practical practice is more lacking. In order to correct the bias of emphasizing science and theory, it is of strong practical significance to conduct in-depth theoretical research and practical discussion from the perspective of "ways and methods."


Subject(s)
Communism , Philosophy , China , Efficiency , Humans
4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(3): 32, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900703

ABSTRACT

This paper seeks to develop a theory of health that aligns with the shift in contemporary medical practice and research toward a temporally extended epidemiological view of health. The paper describes how such a theory is at the core of life course based approaches to health, and finds theoretical grounding in recent work in the philosophy of biology promulgating a process theory of life.


Subject(s)
Philosophy
5.
J Anal Psychol ; 67(3): 860-883, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856596

ABSTRACT

The philosophy of nature as Jung's background has been overlooked, despite its relevance for understanding the roots of analytical psychology. The German psychoanalyst Georg Groddeck shared such a background, so that a comparison is possible between his clinical view and Jung's. It is shown that natural philosophers Paracelsus, Johann von Goethe and Carl Gustav Carus had a major impact on Jung and Groddeck. Both of the latter followed Carus's theory of a creative, superindividual, and compensatory unconscious - continuing the Naturphilosophie tradition and rejecting reductionist biophysical medicine. Groddeck and Jung's holistic perspective led them to advocate natural healing, face-to-face dialectical analysis, and the uniqueness of each treatment. Thus, they were against using techniques, and instead established general methods for analytic therapy. Groddeck's thinking was closer to Jung's than to Freud's in both theory and practice. Therefore, two alternative strands should be considered within psychoanalysis: Freud's classical drive theory and Groddeck's underground two-person psychology. Thereby, Jung's analytic descendants and the relational psychoanalysts who stemmed from Groddeck's ideas could be regarded as 'cousins' due to the similarities arising from their common origin in the philosophy of nature.


La philosophie de la nature en tant que contexte pour Jung n'a pas été suffisamment prise en compte, alors qu'elle est incontournable pour comprendre les racines de la psychologie analytique. Le psychanalyste allemand Georg Groddeck partageait cet intérêt, et ainsi une comparaison est possible entre ses perspectives cliniques et celles de Jung. Il est montré que les philosophes de la nature, tels Paracelse, Johann von Goethe et Carl Gustav Carus, ont eu un impact considérable sur Jung et Groddeck. Ces deux derniers ont suivi la théorie de Carus d'un inconscient créatif, super-individuel et compensatoire, qui est dans la droite ligne de la tradition de la Naturphilosophie et rejette la médecine biophysique réductionniste. Les perspectives holistiques de Groddeck et de Jung les conduisirent à se faire les avocats de la guérison naturelle, de l'analyse dialectique en face à face et de la singularité de chaque cure. Ainsi, ils étaient opposés à l'utilisation de techniques, et au lieu de cela ils établirent plutôt des méthodes générales pour la thérapie analytique. La pensée de Groddeck était plus proche de celle de Jung que de celle de Freud, à la fois en théorie et en pratique. Ainsi, deux courants alternatifs devraient être pris en compte dans la psychanalyse: la théorie freudienne classique des pulsions et la psychologie « avant-garde ¼ à deux personnes. Ainsi, les descendants analytiques de Jung et les psychanalystes relationnels issus des idées de Groddeck pourraient être considérés comme 'cousins' du fait des similarités qui proviennent de leur origine commune dans la philosophie de la nature.


La filosofía de la naturaleza como antecedente en Jung ha sido subestimado, a pesar de su relevancia para la comprensión de las raíces de la psicología analítica. El psicoanalista alemán George Groddeck compartió dichos antecedentes, por lo cual es posible la comparación entre su perspectiva clínica y la de Jung. Se ha demostrado que los filósofos naturales Paracelso, Johan von Goethe, y Carl Gustav Carus han tenido un impacto importante en Jung y en Groddeck. Ambos han sido seguidores de la teoría de Carus de un inconsciente creativo, supraindividual y compensatorio - continuando con la tradición de la Naturphilosophie y rechazando a la medicina reduccionista y biofísica. Las perspectivas holísticas de Groddeck y Jung los condujeron a promover la sanación natural, el análisis dialéctico cara-a-cara y la singularidad de cada tratamiento. Así, ellos estaban en contra de usar técnicas, y en cambio establecieron métodos generales para la terapia analítica. El pensamiento de Groddeck fue más cercano a Jung que a Freud tanto en la teoría como en la práctica. De este modo, dos líneas de pensamiento alternativas deberían ser consideradas al interior del psicoanálisis: teoría clásica de las pulsiones de Freud, y la psicología de dos-personas de Groddeck. Por lo tanto, los descendientes analíticos de Jung y los psicoanalistas relacionales quienes surgen a partir de las ideas de Groddeck podrían ser considerados como 'primos' debido a las similitudes que emergen a partir de su origen común en la filosofía de la naturaleza.


Subject(s)
Jungian Theory , Family , Humans , Language , Philosophy , Psychotherapy
6.
F1000Res ; 11: 195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844817

ABSTRACT

50 years after its introduction, brain death remains controversial among scholars. The debates focus on one question: is brain death a good criterion for determining death? This question has been answered from various perspectives: medical, metaphysical, ethical, and legal or political. Most authors either defend the criterion as it is, propose some minor or major revisions, or advocate abandoning it and finding better solutions to the problems that brain death was intended to solve when it was introduced. In short, debates about brain death have been characterized by partisanship, for or against. Here I plead for a non-partisan approach that has been overlooked in the literature: the epistemological or philosophy of science approach. Some scholars claim that human death is a matter of fact, a biological phenomenon whose occurrence can be determined empirically, based on science. We should take this claim seriously, whether we agree with it or not. The question is: how do we know that human death is a scientific matter of fact? Taking the epistemological approach means, among other things, examining how the determination of human death became an object of scientific inquiry, exploring the nature of the brain death criterion itself, and analysing the meaning of its core concepts such as "irreversibility" and "functions".


Subject(s)
Bioethics , Brain Death , Humans , Morals , Philosophy
7.
J Relig Health ; 61(4): 3363-3383, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790579

ABSTRACT

The Viennese psychiatrist Rudolf Allers was one of the principal authors that studied character and contributed to understanding its development and education, including the neurotic character. His psychological observations were based on his own clinical experience, his individual psychology, phenomenological and existential philosophies, and, above all, the doctrine of the Fathers of the Catholic Church and Thomas Aquinas. This paper presents Allers's main ideas about self-improvement as a process of personal changing toward self-perfection, that is, toward the best version of oneself. For Allers, self-perfection implies the modification of insane aspects of character such as egocentricity, pride, and untidy love for oneself, which are the most important impediments to self-improvement.


Subject(s)
Psychiatry , Catholicism , Existentialism , Humans , Love , Philosophy
8.
Wiad Lek ; 75(5 pt 2): 1376-1383, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758461

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyze the problem of university management in the cultural and philosophical aspects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The research was conducted in the form of a written questionnaire. Students were supposed to give a single answer to each question. The survey was conducted in September 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 academic year at Ternopil National Medical University. It encompassed 274 second-year Ukrainian students of medical, dental and pharmaceutical faculties and Institute of Nursing and 228 first, second and third year foreign students, who have come from the USA and study at the faculty of foreign students and International School of Medicine. Although the number of foreign students who participated in the survey was small, we believe that the number of respondents was sufficient enough to draw conclusions about the general trends in the issue under study. RESULTS: Results: Analysis of responses given by Ukrainian and American students allowed us to single out certain trends and specific differences in their outlook and professionally relevant persuasions and attitudes. A positive peculiarity is that the main motive that prompted Ukrainian students to choose a medical profession was that they believe it to be humane and noble (36%). Despite this, many students consider other important criteria when choosing a profession; particularly that it is prestigious and well-paid (21 % and 13 % respectively). The negative sign is that relatively big amount of students in the comparison with Western countries (the USA in particular), indicate that the occupational choice was influenced by their parents' desire (14 %). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The role of pedoetology as one of the priorities of pedagogical science and practice, which should generalize managerial aspects, has been proved. The experience of university education of the USA in the questions of educational management has been analyzed. An overview of the basic concepts relevant to the management of American higher education has been conducted. The features of university management in the USA in modern conditions have been characterized. The differences in the field of professionally significant value orientations between Ukrainian and American students have been investigated. The emphasis is given to the role of teachers' philosophical culture in successful teaching and learning.


Subject(s)
Learning , Motivation , Humans , Philosophy , Students , United States
9.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 7873226, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692662

ABSTRACT

Marxist philosophy has always been attached to the practice. In the new age, Marxist philosophy needs to solve many problems, such as ecological destruction, environmental pollution, international conflicts, and technical innovation, and improve the integration of the Marxist philosophy system with China's national conditions. The premise of change is practice, and the premise of practice is dissemination. Promoting the dissemination of Marxist philosophy is the cornerstone of solving the blind spot in the process of Marxist philosophy popularization. Because of the development of Internet technology, in order to ensure the validity of the uploaded videos related to Marxist philosophy on the platform, combining the research on human visual perception and the advantages of the long-term recurrent convolutional network (LRCN) model in video content recognition, an attention mechanism-based LRCN model is proposed, which simulates the attention characteristics of the human brain in the deep learning model, considers the video content globally, and makes the attention of the model fall in the effective area of the whole video. The experiment uses HMDB51, UCF101, and YouTube-8M data sets, and the results show that the LRCN model based on the attention mechanism proposed in this paper can effectively improve the accuracy of video content recognition, and it can converge quickly during training to improve the efficiency of model training.


Subject(s)
Communism , Social Media , Efficiency , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Philosophy
10.
Environ Microbiol ; 24(7): 2895-2906, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662373

ABSTRACT

Truth is threatened in our societies and one might wish that scientists should stand up for truth, but in order to do so, one needs to know what is truth and how it can be recognized. The oldest and most widely accepted concept of truth is the Correspondence Theory requesting a fit of propositions and reality. In the Coherence Theory truth is a consistent property of a whole system of propositions. In the Pragmatic Theory truth works in practical terms. Scientists have defined criteria to verify true statements by experiments and by the simplicity of theories. Aristotle proposed parsimony claiming the superiority of theories which derive from fewer hypotheses. David Hume suggested probability arguments to assess the force of evidence. Nicolai Hartmann elaborated a model based on the congruence of a priori logical arguments with a posteriori empirical observations. Karl Popper introduced the falsification of testable theories as a way to better theories. The analysis shows that scientific and medical research uses classical philosophical criteria of truth in their daily work. Humanities use different, hermeneutic criteria of truth. Finally, societies need for their coherence a dialectic approach to truth based on honest discussion of opposing views.


Subject(s)
Philosophy
11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742293

ABSTRACT

The adequacy of work processes in healthcare services contributes to the quality of care provided to the patient. However, in emergency units, overcrowding is a constant reality, resulting in the lack of materials and long waiting lines. Taking this into consideration, this study aimed to map and analyze the value stream of patients classified as blue, green, or yellow in a Referral Emergency Unit. The evaluation research with analysis of processes was carried out in a teaching hospital on 30 patients seen at the emergency service. Value Stream Maps were drawn and the times involved in the process were calculated. Wastes and their possible causes were identified. A total of 13 maps were created and the mean process time between the activities involved in the process ranged between 7.3' and 114.0'; the interruption time, between 0' and 27.6'; the waiting time, between 43.2' and 507.5'; and the lead time between 56.6' and 638.0' min. Some causes of waste were: high demand from patients; a shortage of personnel and offices. Following the Ishikawa Diagram, most of the waste is found regarding methods, human resources, and physical structure.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Delivery of Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Philosophy
13.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(2): 22, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35614290

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to make a comparison and build up a dialogue between two different philosophical approaches to values in evolutionary biology. First, I present the approach proposed by Alexander Rosenberg and Daniel McShea in their contribution to the contemporary debate on organic progress. i.e. the idea that there has been some kind of improvement concerning organisms over the history of life. Discussing organic progress raises the question of what "better" exactly means. This requires an explicit clarification on what legitimately means to speak about "good" in evolutionary biology, thus to speak about values. Second, I move on to present an approach to values that has been proposed by Georges Canguilhem in the context of a different philosophical tradition (i.e. the "continental" tradition). Canguilhem's original theses are conceived in a Darwinian framework and clearly relate to the question of values in evolutionary biology. I shall then propose a comparison between these two heterogeneous perspectives on values by critically evaluating their common points and main differences. I will argue that both perspectives agree that the question of values in evolutionary biology takes on its full meaning with respect to the relationship between the organism and the environment. However, the framework for conceptualizing values in evolutionary biology provided by Rosenberg and McShea neglects a significant point highlighted by Canguilhem, i.e. the active role that the organism can play in evaluating the environment. In line with recent developments of biology (e.g. niche construction), this point can be easily integrated into Rosenberg and McShea's framework. Finally, I will point out some main differences between the two perspectives relative to the specificity of Canguilhem's biological philosophy.


Subject(s)
Historiography , Philosophy , Biological Evolution , Biology
14.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 93: 175-182, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525133

ABSTRACT

During the past hundred years the strength of the amalgam of history and philosophy of science (HPS) has waxed and waned, while assuming multiple forms and acquiring different imprints. In the 1940s and 1950s, philosopher Gerd Buchdahl and colleagues in Melbourne, Australia, assembled a methodologically powerful version of HPS, drawing on their readings, with general historians, of the philosophical works of R.G. Collingwood and Ludwig Wittgenstein, among others. Buchdahl later tried to export this pioneering conceptualization to Cambridge University, where he came to lead a new department of HPS. To appreciate the qualities and dimensions of the innovative mode of inquiry, it is necessary to understand the ecology of knowledge that promoted its emergence in an out-of-the-way settler colonial society, a productively marginal site where unanticipated filiations and alliances might be licensed to unsettled émigré scholars such as Buchdahl. Accordingly, this essay brushes off a forgotten genealogy of the relations of history and philosophy and science, thereby revealing a neglected past cognitive identity of HPS and suggesting a means to re-imagine its future.


Subject(s)
Knowledge , Philosophy , Ecology , Family , History, 20th Century , Humans , Philosophy/history , Universities
15.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 93: 192-202, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550930

ABSTRACT

Studies of communities that produce knowledge about the natural world have largely focused on groups working with or for academic scientists and conforming to the epistemic values of academic knowledge production. This paper details a community that produces natural knowledge outside of those parameters. The reef hobbyist community, a group that works with aquariums as a form of non-professional leisure, has developed historical narratives, publishing standards, and recognized forms of expertise that are not shared by academic scientists. However, their goal is to produce knowledge about coral systems and their hobby has resulted in a wealth of knowledge about coral husbandry. In this paper, I identify the structure of this community, highlight several prominent groups that make up the network of reef hobbyists, and trace the ways that they produce knowledge about the marine environment through their actions. This paper contributes to discussions about diverse ways of knowing and differing forms of knowledge production in the history and philosophy of science. By examining the history and practices of a well-developed knowledge community outside of academic science, I hope to call attention to the ways that philosophers and historians have centered academic science and its structure and use of knowledge, even in conversations about non-professional knowledge producers. This paper pushes scholars to think more deeply about the way knowledge is developed in non-academic groups.


Subject(s)
Anthozoa , Hobbies , Animals , Knowledge , Philosophy/history , Publishing
16.
Hell J Nucl Med ; 25(1): 2-4, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503555

ABSTRACT

It could be argued that the first medical historian in the Western Medical Tradition, is the author of the treatise On Ancient Medicine, included in the Hippocratic Corpus, in all probability, Hippocrates himself. In our time, the domain of the history of medicine is inhabited by two factions, often indifferent towards each other's contributions, if not occasionally confrontational. One faction is represented by medical practitioners who, usually upon retirement from clinical care, research and seek to understand the practice and evolution of their craft in the recent and distant past. They are the medical historians. The other, by academic historians with a background in humanities who view and research the history of medicine from a different perspective. Historiography, the philosophy of science, philological concerns, the provenance of manuscripts, textual scrutiny, the cultural and social parameters relevant to their historical subject, are the focus of the work of these historians of medicine. Rarely, researchers of the history of medicine combine optimally humanities with a medical background. Many will recognize Sir William Osler (1849-1919) as the best representative of this happy cohabitation. The opportunity now arises for a fruitful collaboration between medical historians and historians of medicine in recording the unprecedented times and the global challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Now is the time for truce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Historiography , Nuclear Medicine , History, 20th Century , Humans , Pandemics , Philosophy
17.
Biosystems ; 218: 104692, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526729

ABSTRACT

How can a living system escape the solipsistic self-making process? This problem has been ignored in mainstream biology. This study seeks a reasonable mechanism by which a living system produces symbols that signify external states. To this end, the inverse causality model proposed in previous studies was theoretically improved by refining the core concepts. Inverse causality is an epistemic principle operating in a subject system to produce symbols internally, signifying the past states of the external reality hidden to the subject. Inverse causality yields an important theorem for a system to produce symbols for external states. It asserts that if a system changes from state x to y1 in some instances, and from x to y2 in others (y1 ≠ y2), then x ⟼ y1 produces a symbol that signifies one external state, and x ⟼ y2 produces a different symbol for another state. These symbols are embodied as the states of the system components. The model postulates the equivalence principle in the subject-reality relationship, asserting that inverse causality is equivalent to causality in the external view. Living systems operate with inverse causality using biological devices called measurers, which include membrane receptors, second messengers, and molecular switches in cells, and neurons in multicellular organisms. A measurer is a medium of symbols signifying external states. Biological subsystems functioning as measurers are ubiquitous and essential in contemporary living systems for adaptation to their environments in particular ways by manipulating the symbols they produce. By the inverse causality operation, living systems can reduce the uncertainty of events and manage the probability distribution of future events favorable to survival and reproduction. Due to this function, their measurer systems were sophisticated and diversified in evolution. In philosophy and science, there has been endless debate between determinism and indeterminism. However, surprisingly, contemporary living systems use the inverse causality operation (ICW) to adapt to their environments, which is logically equivalent to the causal principle of determinism.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Philosophy , Causality , Probability
18.
Ber Wiss ; 45(1-2): 202-218, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510982

ABSTRACT

Over 75 years after their creation, the Farm Hall transcripts remain a tantalizing source from the dawn of the atomic age in 1945. Declassified in 1992, the transcripts document ten prominent German nuclear physicists, including Werner Heisenberg, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, and Otto Hahn, contemplating the Nazi defeat, their complicity in the German war machine, and - after the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima - whether they truly intended to build a nuclear weapon for Adolf Hitler. As a written record of conversations, one might expect the transcripts to be the proverbial smoking gun that determines, once and for all, whether German physicists intended to build a nuclear weapon for the Nazi regime. Yet the Farm Hall transcripts have been used to support starkly divergent arguments. Some have used them to assert that the Germans would have willingly provided Hitler with a bomb if only they could; others view them as evidence of scientific resistance inside the Nazi regime. This article explores why the Farm Hall transcripts are not the smoking gun they appear to be.


Subject(s)
Natural Science Disciplines , Academies and Institutes , Farms , Germany , History, 20th Century , Humans , National Socialism , Philosophy
19.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(2): 257-267, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603613

ABSTRACT

This special issue is a first effort at locating the Austrian economist and political philosopher Ludwig von Mises in his galaxy of influence. This introduction introduces the special issue and summarizes the papers included here. It offers an overview of the placement of Mises in existing scholarship and an outline of the more recent globalization of Mises as the figurehead of an occasionally authoritarian libertarianism through the eponymous Mises institutes that have recently been established worldwide.


Subject(s)
Economics , Philosophy , Politics , Austria , Humans
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 380, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of an infant's life and continued breastfeeding for 2 years. The global rate of exclusive breastfeeding is low at 33%. Thus, it is important to identify philosophical and theory-based strategies that can promote exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify philosophical schools of thought and theories used in research on promoting the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: A scoping review using Arksey and O'Malley's framework explored the phenomenon of exclusive breastfeeding practice promotion. Searches were conducted using CINAHL Plus full-text, PubMed, APA PsycInfo, and Academic Search Premier. Search terms included theory, philosophy, framework, model, exclusive breastfeeding, promotion, support, English, and publication between 2001-2022. RESULTS: The online search yielded 1,682 articles, however, only 44 met the inclusion criteria for the scoping review. The articles promoting exclusive breastfeeding used pragmatism (n = 1) or phenomenology (n = 2) philosophies and theories of self-efficacy (n = 10), theory of planned behaviour (n = 13), social cognitive theories (n = 18) and represented 16 countries. Theories of self-efficacy and planned behaviour were the most used theories. CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that theories and models are increasingly being used to promote exclusive breastfeeding. Orienting exclusive breastfeeding programmes within theoretical frameworks is a step in the right direction because theories can sensitize researchers and practitioners to contextually relevant factors and processes appropriate for effective exclusive breastfeeding strategies. Future research should examine the efficacy and effectiveness of theory-informed exclusive breastfeeding programmes over time. Such information is important for designing cost-effective EBF programmes.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Self Efficacy , Breast Feeding/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Philosophy , World Health Organization
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