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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 374, 2024 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: PC (phytocyanin) is a class of copper-containing electron transfer proteins closely related to plant photosynthesis, abiotic stress responses growth and development in plants, and regulation of the expression of some flavonoids and phenylpropanoids, etc., however, compared with other plants, the PC gene family has not been systematically characterized in apple. RESULTS: A total of 59 MdPC gene members unevenly distributed across 12 chromosomes were identified at the genome-wide level. The proteins of the MdPC family were classified into four subfamilies based on differences in copper binding sites and glycosylation sites: Apple Early nodulin-like proteins (MdENODLs), Apple Uclacyanin-like proteins (MdUCLs), Apple Stellacyanin-like proteins (MdSCLs), and Apple Plantacyanin-like proteins (MdPLCLs). Some MdPC members with similar gene structures and conserved motifs belong to the same group or subfamily. The internal collinearity analysis revealed 14 collinearity gene pairs among members of the apple MdPC gene. Interspecific collinearity analysis showed that apple had 31 and 35 homologous gene pairs with strawberry and grape, respectively. Selection pressure analysis indicated that the MdPC gene was under purifying selection. Prediction of protein interactions showed that MdPC family members interacted strongly with the Nad3 protein. GO annotation results indicated that the MdPC gene also regulated the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Chip data analysis showed that (MdSCL3, MdSCL7 and MdENODL27) were highly expressed in mature fruits and peels. Many cis-regulatory elements related to light response, phytohormones, abiotic stresses and flavonoid biosynthetic genes regulation were identified 2000 bp upstream of the promoter of the MdPC gene, and qRT-PCR results showed that gene members in Group IV (MdSCL1/3, MdENODL27) were up-regulated at all five stages of apple coloring, but the highest expression was observed at the DAF13 (day after fruit bag removal) stage. The gene members in Group II (MdUCL9, MdPLCL3) showed down-regulated or lower expression in the first four stages of apple coloring but up-regulated and highest expression in the DAF 21 stage. CONCLUSION: Herein, one objective of these findings is to provide valuable information for understanding the structure, molecular evolution, and expression pattern of the MdPC gene, another major objective in this study was designed to lay the groundwork for further research on the molecular mechanism of PC gene regulation of apple fruit coloration.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Malus , Plant Proteins , Malus/genetics , Malus/metabolism , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Pigmentation/genetics , Fruit/genetics , Fruit/metabolism , Genes, Plant , Multigene Family
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 376, 2024 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Casuarina equisetifolia (C. equisetifolia) is a woody species with many excellent features. It has natural resistance against drought, salt and saline-alkali stresses. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play significant roles in plant response to abiotic stresses, therefore, molecular characterization of WRKY gene family under abiotic stresses holds great significance for improvement of forest trees through molecular biological tools. At present, WRKY TFs from C. equisetifolia have not been thoroughly studied with respect to their role in salt and saline-alkali stresses response. The current study was conducted to bridge the same knowledge gap. RESULTS: A total of 64 WRKYs were identified in C. equisetifolia and divided into three major groups i.e. group I, II and III, consisting of 10, 42 and 12 WRKY members, respectively. The WRKY members in group II were further divided into 5 subgroups according to their homology with Arabidopsis counterparts. WRKYs belonging to the same group exhibited higher similarities in gene structure and the presence of conserved motifs. Promoter analysis data showed the presence of various response elements, especially those related to hormone signaling and abiotic stresses, such as ABRE (ABA), TGACG (MeJA), W-box ((C/T) TGAC (T/C)) and TC-rich motif. Tissue specific expression data showed that CeqWRKYs were mainly expressed in root under normal growth conditions. Furthermore, most of the CeqWRKYs were up-regulated by NaCl and NaHCO3 stresses with few of WRKYs showing early responsiveness to both stresses while few others exhibiting late response. Although the expressions of CeqWRKYs were also induced by cold stress, the response was delayed compared with other stresses. Transgenic C. equisetifolia plants overexpressing CeqWRKY11 displayed lower electrolyte leakage, higher chlorophyll content, and enhanced tolerance to both stresses. The higher expression of abiotic stress related genes, especially CeqHKT1 and CeqPOD7, in overexpression lines points to the maintenance of optimum Na+/K+ ratio, and ROS scavenging as possible key molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that CeqWRKYs might be key regulators of NaCl and NaHCO3 stresses response in C. equisetifolia. In addition, positive correlation of CeqWRKY11 expression with increased stress tolerance in C. equisetifolia encourages further research on other WRKY family members through functional genomic tools. The best candidates could be incorporated in other woody plant species for improving stress tolerance.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins , Transcription Factors , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Sodium Bicarbonate/pharmacology , Salt Stress/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Genome, Plant
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 180, 2024 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus-1 (BoAHV-1), is an acute, highly contagious disease primarily characterized by respiratory tract lesions in infected cattle. Due to its severe pathological damage and extensive transmission, it results in significant economic losses in the cattle industry. Accurate detection of BoAHV-1 is of paramount importance. In this study, we developed a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR detection method for detecting BoAHV-1 infections. Utilizing this method, we tested clinical samples and successfully identified and isolated a strain of BoAHV-1.1 from positive samples. Subsequently, we conducted a genetic evolution analysis on the isolate strain's gC, TK, gG, gD, and gE genes. RESULTS: The study developed a real-time quantitative PCR detection method using SYBR Green II, achieving a detection limit of 7.8 × 101 DNA copies/µL. Specificity and repeatability analyses demonstrated no cross-reactivity with other related pathogens, highlighting excellent repeatability. Using this method, 15 out of 86 clinical nasal swab samples from cattle were found to be positive (17.44%), which was higher than the results obtained from conventional PCR detection (13.95%, 12/86). The homology analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis of the gC, TK, gG, gD, and gE genes of the isolated strain indicate that the JL5 strain shares high homology with the BoAHV-1.1 reference strains. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that gC, gE, and gG each had two amino acid mutations, while the TK gene had one synonymous mutation and one H to Y mutation, with no amino acid mutations observed in the gD gene. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the JL5 strain belongs to the BoAHV-1.1 genotype and is closely related to American strains such as C33, C14, and C28. CONCLUSIONS: The established real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR detection method exhibits good repeatability, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, genetic evolution analysis of the isolated BoAHV-1 JL-5 strain indicates that it belongs to the BoAHV-1.1 subtype. These findings provide a foundation and data for the detection, prevention, and control Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis.


Subject(s)
Alphaherpesvirinae , Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis/virology , Animals , Cattle , Alphaherpesvirinae/classification , Alphaherpesvirinae/genetics , Alphaherpesvirinae/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/veterinary , Phylogeny
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301721, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718030

ABSTRACT

Small molecular heat shock proteins (sHSPs) belong to the HSP family of molecular chaperones. Under high-temperature stress, they can prevent the aggregation of irreversible proteins and maintain the folding of denatured proteins to enhance heat resistance. In this study, the CmHSP17.9-1 and CmHSP17.9-2 genes, which were cloned from chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum×morifolium 'Jinba') by homologous cloning, had a complete open reading frame of 480 bp each, encoding 159 amino acids. The protein subcellular localization analysis showed that CmHSP17.9-1 and CmHSP17.9-2 were located in the cytoplasm and mostly aggregated in granules, especially around the nucleus. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the relative expression level of the CmHSP17.9-1 and CmHSP17.9-2 genes was highest in the terminal buds of the chrysanthemum, followed by the leaves. CmHSP17.9-1 and CmHSP17.9-2 overex-pression vectors were constructed and used to transform the chrysanthemum; overexpression of these genes led to the chrysanthemum phenotypes being less affected by high-temperature, and the antioxidant capacity was enhanced. The results showed that chrysanthemum with overex-pression of the CmHSP17.9-1 and CmHSP17.9-2 genes had stronger tolerance than the wild type chrysanthemum after high-temperature treatment or some degree of heat exercise, and overex-pression of the CmHSP17.9-1 gene led to stronger heat resistance than that of the CmHSP17.9-2 gene, providing an important theoretical basis for the subsequent molecular breeding and pro-duction applications of chrysanthemum.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins , Chrysanthemum/genetics , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins, Small/genetics , Heat-Shock Proteins, Small/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Phylogeny
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299588, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718091

ABSTRACT

Corynebacterium glutamicum is a non-pathogenic species of the Corynebacteriaceae family. It has been broadly used in industrial biotechnology for the production of valuable products. Though it is widely accepted at the industrial level, knowledge about the genomic diversity of the strains is limited. Here, we investigated the comparative genomic features of the strains and pan-genomic characteristics. We also observed phylogenetic relationships among the strains based on average nucleotide identity (ANI). We found diversity between strains at the genomic and pan-genomic levels. Less than one-third of the C. glutamicum pan-genome consists of core genes and soft-core genes. Whereas, a large number of strain-specific genes covered about half of the total pan-genome. Besides, C. glutamicum pan-genome is open and expanding, which indicates the possible addition of new gene families to the pan-genome. We also investigated the distribution of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) among the strains. We discovered slight variations of BGCs at the strain level. Several BGCs with the potential to express novel bioactive secondary metabolites have been identified. Therefore, by utilizing the characteristic advantages of C. glutamicum, different strains can be potential applicants for natural drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Corynebacterium glutamicum , Genetic Variation , Genome, Bacterial , Phylogeny , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genetics , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolism , Multigene Family , Genomics/methods
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722758

ABSTRACT

Strain TC023T, a Gram-positive, long, rod-shaped, spore-forming anaerobe, was isolated from the faeces of a heart failure mouse model. The strain formed greyish-white coloured colonies with a convex elevation on brain-heart infusion medium supplemented with 0.1 % sodium taurocholate, incubated at 37 °C for 2 days. Taxonomic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that TC023T belonged to the genus Turicibacter, and was closely related to Turicibacter bilis MMM721T (97.6 %) and Turicibacter sanguinis MOL361T (97.4 %). The whole genome of the strain has a G+C content of 37.3 mol%. The average nucleotide identity and genome-to-genome distance between TC023T and Turicibacter bilis MMM721T were 77.6 % and 24.3 %, respectively, and those with Turicibacter sanguinis MOL361T were 75.4 % and 24.3 %, respectively. These genotypic, phenotypic, and biochemical analyses indicated that the isolate represents a novel species in the genus Turicibacter, and the name Turicibacter faecis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TC023T (RIMD 2002001T=TSD 372T).


Subject(s)
Bacterial Typing Techniques , Base Composition , DNA, Bacterial , Disease Models, Animal , Feces , Heart Failure , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Animals , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Mice , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Heart Failure/microbiology , Genome, Bacterial , Male , Fatty Acids
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722771

ABSTRACT

Obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, wavy rods, strains 17YCFAHCo10, 18YCFAH0.3Co2 and 19YCFAH0.3Co2, were isolated from faecal samples of healthy Japanese people. The three isolates showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Waltera intestinalis WCA3-601-WT-6HT (99.2-100 %) and Brotolimicola acetigignens f_CXYT (99.2-99.7 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the three isolates formed a cluster with W. intestinalis WCA3-601-WT-6HT. Strain 19YCFAH0.3Co2 formed a subcluster with the type strain of W. intestinalis and did not form a cluster with the other two isolates. B. acetigignens f_CXYT also formed a cluster with W. intestinalis WCA3-601-WT-6HT and three isolates. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strain 19YCFAH0.3Co2 and W. intestinalis WCA3-601-WT-6HT were higher (72 % dDDH and 97 % ANI) than the cut-off values for species delimitation, indicating that strain 19YCFAH0.3Co2 is W. intestinalis. On the other hand, the dDDH and ANI values between strains 17YCFAHCo10 and 18YCFAH0.3Co2 and the type strain of W. intestinalis were lower (<34 % dDDH and <87 % ANI) than the cut-off values for species delimitation, indicating that these two isolates are different species from W. intestinalis. The percentage of conserved proteins and the average amino acid identity values support the assignment of the isolates to the genus Waltera. Strains 17YCFAHCo10 and 18YCFAH0.3Co2 could be distinguished from W. intestinalis by their inability to ferment melibiose and ribose and lack of activity for ß-glucuronidase. In addition, the dDDH and ANI values between two strains (17YCFAHCo10 and 18YCFAH0.3Co2) and B. acetigignens f_CXYT were higher (>78 % dDDH and >97 % ANI), indicating these two strains and B. acetigignens are the same species. As the genus Waltera has priority, B. acetigignens is transferred to the genus Waltera as Waltera acetigignens comb. nov. The type strain of W. acetigignens is f_CXYT (=JCM 34988T=DSM 107528T).


Subject(s)
Bacterial Typing Techniques , DNA, Bacterial , Feces , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Sequence Analysis, DNA , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Feces/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Japan , Humans , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Base Composition
8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722773

ABSTRACT

A yellow pigmented, Gram-stain-positive, motile, facultatively anaerobic and irregular rod-shaped bacteria (strain M0-14T) was isolated from a till sample collected from the foreland of a high Arctic glacier near the settlement of Ny-Ålesund in the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that M0-14T formed a lineage within the family Cellulomonadaceae, suborder Micrococcineae. M0-14T represented a novel member of the genus Pengzhenrongella and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pengzhenrongella sicca LRZ-2T (97.3 %). Growth occurred at 4-25 °C (optimum 4-18 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0), and in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylinositol, one undefined phospholipid and five undefined phosphoglycolipids. The cell-wall diamino acid was l-ornithine whereas rhamnose and mannose were the cell-wall sugars. Polyphosphate particles were found inside the cells of M0-14T. Polyphosphate kinase and polyphosphate-dependent glucokinase genes were detected during genomic sequencing of M0-14. In addition, the complete pstSCAB gene cluster and phnCDE synthesis genes, which are important for the uptake and transport of phosphorus in cells, were annotated in the genomic data. According to the genomic data, M0-14T has a metabolic pathway related to phosphorus accumulation. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.8 %. On the basis of its phylogenetic relationship, phenotypic properties and chemotaxonomic distinctiveness, strain M0-14T represents a novel species of the genus Pengzhenrongella, for which the name Pengzhenrongella phosphoraccumulans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M0-14T (= CCTCC AB 2012967T = NRRL B-59105T).


Subject(s)
Bacterial Typing Techniques , Base Composition , DNA, Bacterial , Fatty Acids , Ice Cover , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Vitamin K 2 , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Arctic Regions , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Vitamin K 2/analogs & derivatives , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Ice Cover/microbiology , Phospholipids , Svalbard
9.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(3): 57, 2024 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743266

ABSTRACT

A high concentration of sodium (Na+) is the primary stressor for plants in high salinity environments. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway is one of the best-studied signal transduction pathways, which confers plants the ability to export too much Na+ out of the cells or translocate the cytoplasmic Na+ into the vacuole. In this study, the Salt Overly Sensitive3 (MpSOS3) gene from Pongamia (Millettia pinnata Syn. Pongamia pinnata), a semi-mangrove, was isolated and characterized. The MpSOS3 protein has canonical EF-hand motifs conserved in other calcium-binding proteins and an N-myristoylation signature sequence. The MpSOS3 gene was significantly induced by salt stress, especially in Pongamia roots. Expression of the wild-type MpSOS3 but not the mutated nonmyristoylated MpSOS3-G2A could rescue the salt-hypersensitive phenotype of the Arabidopsis sos3-1 mutant, which suggested the N-myristoylation signature sequence of MpSOS3 was required for MpSOS3 function in plant salt tolerance. Heterologous expression of MpSOS3 in Arabidopsis accumulated less H2O2, superoxide anion radical (O2-), and malondialdehyde (MDA) than wild-type plants, which enhanced the salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Under salt stress, MpSOS3 transgenic plants accumulated a lower content of Na+ and a higher content of K+ than wild-type plants, which maintained a better K+/Na+ ratio in transgenic plants. Moreover, no development and growth discrepancies were observed in the MpSOS3 heterologous overexpression plants compared to wild-type plants. Our results demonstrated that the MpSOS3 pathway confers a conservative salt-tolerant role and provided a foundation for further study of the SOS pathway in Pongamia.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins , Plants, Genetically Modified , Salt Tolerance , Salt-Tolerant Plants , Salt-Tolerant Plants/genetics , Salt-Tolerant Plants/metabolism , Arabidopsis/genetics , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Salt Tolerance/genetics , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Amino Acid Sequence , Phylogeny , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/metabolism , Salt Stress/genetics , Calcium-Binding Proteins/genetics , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism
10.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 202, 2024 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743315

ABSTRACT

Currently, heavy metal-resistant (HMR) marine actinomycetes have attracted much attention worldwide due to their unique capabilities. In this study, 27 marine-derived actinomycetes were isolated from coastal beaches in the Arabian Gulf of Al-Jubail in Saudi Arabia and screened for resistance to 100 mg/L of the heavy metals Cd2+, Cr6+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Pb2+, and Ni2+ using different assay techniques. Six isolates were selected as HMRs, of which two isolates, JJB5 and JJB11, exhibited the highest maximum tolerance concentrations (200- > 300 mg/L). Both isolates were the highest among six-HMR screened for their biodegradation potential of plastics low-density polyethylene, polystyrene, and polyvinyl chloride, recording the highest weight loss (15 ± 1.22 - 65 ± 1.2%) in their thin films. They also showed the highest biodegradability of the pesticides acetamiprid, chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexane, indoxacarb and lindane, indicating promising removal capacities (95.70-100%) for acetamiprid and indoxacarb using HPLC analysis. Additionally, the cell-free filtrate (CFF) of both isolates displayed the highest antimicrobial activity among the six-HMR screened against a variety of microbial test strains, recording the highest inhibition zone diameters (13.76 ± 0.66 - 26.0 ± 1.13 mm). GC‒MS analyses of the ethyl acetate extract of their CFFs revealed the presence of diverse chemical compounds with a multitude of remarkable biological activities. Based on their spore morphology and wall-chemotype, they were assigned to the nocardioform-actinomycetes. Furthermore, their phenotypic characteristics, together with 16S rRNA gene sequencing (OR121525-OR121526), revealed them as Nocardia harenae JJB5 and Amycolatopsis marina JJB11. Our results suggest that marine HMR actinomycetes are promising candidates for various biotechnological applications.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Metals, Heavy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nocardia , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Nocardia/isolation & purification , Nocardia/genetics , Nocardia/metabolism , Saudi Arabia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Actinobacteria/genetics , Actinobacteria/classification , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Seawater/microbiology , Pesticides/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743475

ABSTRACT

Strain CJN36-1NT, a Gram-stain-positive, non-flagellated, strictly aerobic and short rod-shaped bacterium, was isolated from flowerpot soil sampled in the Jeonju region of the Republic of Korea. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the resulting phylogenetic tree, the strain belonged to the genus Microbacterium. Strain CJN36-1NT contained a chromosome of 3.6 Mbp with a G+C content of 68.5 mol%. The strain grew at 10-37 °C (optimally at 28 °C), at pH 5.0-8.0 (optimally at pH 8.0), and in the presence of 0-7 % NaCl (w/v; optimally with 0 % NaCl). Digital DNA-DNA hybridization, average nucleotide identity and average amino acid identity values between strain CJN36-1NT and its closest related species, Microbacterium protaetiae DFW100M-13T, were 82.0, 81.2, and 23.2 %, respectively. We propose naming this novel species Microbacterium horticulturae sp. nov., with CJN36-1NT (=KACC 23027T=NBRC 116065T) as the type strain.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Typing Techniques , Base Composition , DNA, Bacterial , Fatty Acids , Microbacterium , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil Microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Republic of Korea , Microbacterium/genetics
12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743481

ABSTRACT

A Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, strictly aerobic, non-flagellated, motile by gliding, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YSD2104T, was isolated from a coastal sediment sample collected from the southeastern part of the Yellow Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YSD2104T was closely related to three type strains, Lutimonas vermicola IMCC1616T (97.4 %), Lutimonas saemankumensis SMK-142T (96.9 %), and Lutimonas halocynthiae RSS3-C1T (96.8 %). Strain YSD2104T has a single circular chromosome of 3.54 Mbp with a DNA G+C content of 38.3 mol%. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain YSD2104T and the three type strains (L. vermicola IMCC1616 T, L. saemankumensis SMK-142T, and L. halocynthiae RSS3-C1T) were 74.0, 86.2 and 73.6 %, and 17.9, 30.3 and 17.8 %, respectively. Growth was observed at 20-30 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0), and with NaCl concentrations of 1.5-3.5 % (optimum, 2.5 %). The major carotenoid was zeaxanthin, and flexirubin-type pigment was not produced. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω6c and/or C16 : 1 ω7c), and summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and/or 10-methyl C16 : 0). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids, and eight unidentified lipids. Conclusively, based on this polyphasic approach, we classified strain YSD2104T (=KCTC 102008T=JCM 36287T) as representing a novel species of the genus Lutimonas and proposed the name Lutimonas zeaxanthinifaciens sp. nov.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Typing Techniques , Base Composition , DNA, Bacterial , Fatty Acids , Geologic Sediments , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Seawater , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Vitamin K 2 , Zeaxanthins , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Vitamin K 2/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin K 2/analysis , Seawater/microbiology , China
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(21): e2320170121, 2024 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743630

ABSTRACT

Pangenomes vary across bacteria. Some species have fluid pangenomes, with a high proportion of genes varying between individual genomes. Other species have less fluid pangenomes, with different genomes tending to contain the same genes. Two main hypotheses have been suggested to explain this variation: differences in species' bacterial lifestyle and effective population size. However, previous studies have not been able to test between these hypotheses because the different features of lifestyle and effective population size are highly correlated with each other, and phylogenetically conserved, making it hard to disentangle their relative importance. We used phylogeny-based analyses, across 126 bacterial species, to tease apart the causal role of different factors. We found that pangenome fluidity was lower in i) host-associated compared with free-living species and ii) host-associated species that are obligately dependent on a host, live inside cells, and are more pathogenic and less motile. In contrast, we found no support for the competing hypothesis that larger effective population sizes lead to more fluid pangenomes. Effective population size appears to correlate with pangenome variation because it is also driven by bacterial lifestyle, rather than because of a causal relationship.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Genome, Bacterial , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/classification
14.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744494

ABSTRACT

Ulopinae is a distinctive subfamily of leafhoppers that is widely distributed across the Afrotropical, Palearctic, Indomalayan and Australasian regions. The ulopine fauna of Australia is entirely endemic and includes two tribes of striking appearance, the Ulopini and Cephalelini. Knowledge of these groups is fragmentary and in many instances, no information is available beyond original descriptions. We assess the monophyly, phylogenetic placement and species-level diversity of the Ulopini genus Austrolopa . Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data from target nuclear loci (18S , 28S , H2A and H3 ) and mitochondrial genomes (15 genes) for 23 membracoid taxa yielded congruent topologies. Our results provide strong evidence for the monophyly of Ulopinae and a clade consisting of Ulopini + Cephalelini. However, a non-monophyletic Cephalelini arises from within a polyphyletic Ulopini. Austrolopa was strongly recovered as monophyletic in all analyses, a result also supported by morphological features. The genus currently includes six species, three of which are described based on morphological and molecular data: Austrolopa botanica , sp. nov. , Austrolopa rotunda , sp. nov. and Austrolopa sublima , sp. nov. A lectotype designation is provided for Austrolopa kingensis Evans, 1937, sp. reval. Our findings illustrate that the Australian Ulopinae is far more diverse than currently circumscribed and several species of Austrolopa are yet to be recognised. ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1480285B-8F61-4659-A929-2B1EF3168868.


Subject(s)
Hemiptera , Phylogeny , Animals , Hemiptera/genetics , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/anatomy & histology , Australia , Species Specificity , Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics
15.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744495

ABSTRACT

Ninetinae is a group of small to tiny short-legged spiders largely restricted to arid habitats. Among daddy-long-legs spiders (Pholcidae) this is by far the least diverse subfamily but this may partly be a result of inadequate collecting, poor representation in collections or scientific neglect. We build on a large recent collection of the ninetine genus Papiamenta Huber, 2000 from the Leeward Antilles and use cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI ) sequences, extensive scanning electron microscopy data, transmission electron microscopy data and karyotyping to analyse this geographically isolated and poorly known island genus. COI sequences support the split between the two morphologically distinct species on Curaçao but genetic distances between these are surprisingly low (7.4-9.8%; mean 8.6%). The type species P. levii (Gertsch, 1982) may include more than one species but COI and morphology suggest conflicting clade limits. A third species, P. bonay Huber sp. nov. is newly described from Bonaire. Our data on sperm ultrastructure and karyology are puzzling as these suggest different phylogenetic affinities of Papiamenta to other genera. Males transfer sperm as individual sperm (cleistosperm), agreeing with the putative closest relatives as suggested by molecular data, the North American genera Pholcophora and Tolteca . The sex chromosome system (X 1 X 2 X 3 Y ) of P. levii , however, is as in the South American Ninetinae genera Gertschiola and Nerudia but different from the putative closest relatives. ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7A6A2E84-3A61-4637-AF6F-0E31A9FA79A8.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Spiders , Animals , Spiders/genetics , Spiders/classification , Male , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Species Specificity , Female , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
16.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744492

ABSTRACT

The pantropical genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Caridea: Palaemonidae) currently includes 27 species of free-living and symbiotic marine shrimps. The monophyly of Palaemonella with respect to several closely related genera, however, has been questioned by recent analyses. We tested the monophyly of Palaemonella based on multigene phylogenetic analysis and the genus was revealed to be a paraphyletic assemblage by inclusion of species of the genera Eupontonia Bruce, 1971 and Vir Holthuis, 1952, and two genetic lineages of the western Atlantic Cuapetes americanus (Kingsley, 1878). We recognise one of the latter lineages as the previously described Periclimenes rhizophorae Lebour, 1949. Eupontonia and Vir are synonymised with Palaemonella . We also transfer Cuapetes americanus and Periclimenes rhizophorae to Palaemonella . Species previously assigned to Vir were revised; V. colemani Bruce, 2003, V. orientalis (Dana, 1852), V. philippinensis Bruce & Svoboda, 1984 and V. smiti Fransen & Holthuis, 2007 are regarded as valid species of Palaemonella ; Vir longidactylus Marin, 2008 is synonymised with P. smiti ; and the status of V. euphyllius Marin & Anker, 2005 remains unresolved. Palaemonella is currently regarded as a taxon with variable states of two main diagnostic characters, i.e. the plesiomorphic mandibular palp (fully reduced in P. americana ) and the hepatic tooth (fully reduced in former species of Vir and Eupontonia - evidently due to symbiotic modes of life). ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7EEBC655-7EDE-4E46-BCB2-2A3BA16ED7DD.


Subject(s)
Palaemonidae , Phylogeny , Animals , Palaemonidae/classification , Palaemonidae/genetics , Species Specificity
17.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744497

ABSTRACT

Despite the widespread use of integrative taxonomic approaches, many scleractinian coral genera and species remain grouped in polyphyletic families, classified as incertae sedis or simply understudied. Oculinidae Gray, 1847 represents a family for which many taxonomic questions remain unresolved, particularly those related to some of the current genera, such as Oculina Lamark, 1816 or recently removed genera, including Cladocora Ehrenberg, 1834 and Madrepora Linnaeus, 1758. Cladocora is currently assigned to the family Cladocoridae Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 and a new family, Bathyporidae Kitahara, Capel, Zilberberg & Cairns, 2024, was recently raised to accommodate Madrepora . However, the name Bathyporidae is not valid because this was not formed on the basis of a type genus name. To resolve taxonomic questions related to these three genera, the evolutionary relationships are explored through phylogenetic analyses of 18 molecular markers. The results of these analyses support a close relationship between the species Oculina patagonica and Cladocora caespitosa , indicating that these may belong to the same family (and possibly genus), and highlighting the need for detailed revisions of Oculina and Cladocora . By contrast, a distant relationship is found between these two species and Madrepora oculata , with the overall evidence supporting the placement of Madrepora in the resurrected family Madreporidae Ehrenberg, 1834. This study advances our knowledge of coral systematics and highlights the need for a comprehensive review of the genera Oculina , Cladocora and Madrepora .


Subject(s)
Anthozoa , Phylogeny , Animals , Anthozoa/classification , Species Specificity
18.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744498

ABSTRACT

Scutigeromorph centipedes are conspicuous, yet often ignored myriapods for which little work has been conducted in southern South America. After examining recent and museum collections from Chile and Argentina, two new species of generic uncertainty were identified. A new genus of scutigerid centipede, Edgethreua , is therefore described with two new species, E. chilensis from Central Chile (type species of the genus) and E. goloboffi from Argentinian Patagonia. The new genus is characterised by the presence of scattered setiform bristles with short paired spines and the absence of simple spinulae and spines on all stomatotergites, the presence of a single spine-bristle in the prefemur of the second maxilla, a patch of cuticular ridges and pores surrounding the sensilla of the proximal labral portion of the epipharynx, the morphology of the sensilla of the distal patch of the hypopharynx and the morphology of the female gonopods. A phylogenetic analysis of the new species using two nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (18S and 28S rRNA), two mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes (12S and 16S rRNA) and the mitochondrial protein-encoding gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I show that the new genus does not cluster with any other described genus of scutigeromorph represented in molecular phylogenies. The data indicate that the new genus is probably sister group to a clade including the genera Lassophora , Ballonema and the subfamily Thereuoneminae, although one analysis suggests a position as sister group to Scutigerinae. ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A4D453F3-9031-4E21-84C7-87F16C07AD51.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Species Specificity , Animals , Female , Chilopoda/genetics , Argentina , Chile , Male
19.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744496

ABSTRACT

A fine-scale phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of Peripatopsis lawrencei s.l. was conducted with both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, using both external morphology and scanning electron microscopy of taxonomically important characters. A total of 119 sequences were used for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI ) whereas a single representative specimen from each locality was sequenced for the nuclear 18S rRNA locus. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on the total COI data set and the combined COI + 18S rRNA data set using a Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood analyses. For the combined DNA sequence data set, a divergence time estimation was further undertaken in BEAST and specimens placed in a phylogenetic framework including all the described Peripatopsis species from South Africa. In addition, a phylogeographic study was conducted exclusively on P. lawrencei s.s. (clade A) using an analysis of molecular variance and haplotype network. Phylogenetic results indicated that, at the Oubos sample locality, two highly distinct genetic lineages were present (clades A and B), whereas a divergence time estimation suggests a Miocene cladogenesis of the novel Oubos lineage. Marked phylogeographic structure was observed for P. lawrencei s.s. (restricted to clade A) across the distribution range with limited maternal dispersal. Morphologically, the two sympatric lineages at Oubos A and B differed in leg pair number, ventral colour and dorsal scale rank counts, as evident from scanning electron microscopy. Our results support the recognition of a distinct species that occurs in sympatry with P. lawrencei s.s. The new species, P. aereus sp. nov. (clade B) is described and the implication for fine-scale taxonomic studies on saproxylic taxa is discussed. ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AB6E0BDA-7B5F-4FD3-A863-BA7C814E278C.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Phylogeny , Animals , South Africa , Phylogeography , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Species Specificity
20.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744499

ABSTRACT

Mastigusa is a genus of small palearctic spiders that has recently been moved to the family Cybaeidae after the first inclusion of the genus in a phylogenetic matrix. Three species are currently recognised: M. arietina , M. lucifuga and M. macrophthalma . The status and delimitation, though, has always been problematic due to inconsistency in the characters used to discriminate between these, leading to great confusion in identity and distribution. We present a detailed morphological redescription of the genus and a taxonomic revision of the included species by the combined use of morphological data and molecular species-delimitation techniques based on the mitochondrial COI gene. The status of the three currently described species has been reevaluated and Mastigusa diversa was revalidated based on material from the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa and the United Kingdom. The distribution of Mastigusa species is updated based on novel taxonomic considerations, and comments on the natural history and ecological differences observed in the species are provided. ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AAD3FAED-440F-4295-B458-455B1D913F81.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Spiders , Spiders/classification , Spiders/anatomy & histology , Spiders/genetics , Animals , Male , Female , Species Specificity , Genitalia/anatomy & histology , Animal Distribution , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics
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