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1.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 95(3): 559-571, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Estimate the effort-reward imbalance prevalence (ERI) among physicians. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted from 2005 to 2019 using PRISMA guidelines on the PubMed and EBSCOhost search engines. Data were classified according to the ERI definition used by the authors. A meta-analysis was performed on effort and reward scores and on ERI prevalence rates. RESULTS: Out of 3787 results, we selected 41 studies. The physicians' ERI prevalence rate ranged from 3.50 to 96.9%. The standardized pooled effort mean score was 58.5 for effort and 48.9 for a reward out of 100, respectively. The overall combined ERI rate (when the ratio between effort and reward scores was above 1) was 40.2% among 21,939 practitioners (31.7% in the working European population). ERI rate was 70.2% using a four-point Likert scale and 21.1% using a five-point Likert scale. The highest rate (96.9%) was observed among German rural general practitioners and the lowest rate (3.50%) among Swiss hospital practitioners. The low percentage of variability (I2 = 27%) attributed to effort scores heterogeneity between studies suggested that this dimension is not discriminant in the physician ERI assessment. The high heterogeneity in reward scores (I2 = 83%) indicated that this dimension is sensible in ERI assessment among physicians. The number of items used did not appear as a significant source of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Physician job ERI appeared to be higher than in the working population. Studying each dimension and item indicators could help improve psychosocial risk prevention.


Subject(s)
Job Satisfaction , Physicians , Humans , Physicians/psychology , Prevalence , Reward , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload/psychology
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): 158-166, junio 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368135

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Existen estudios que dan cuenta del uso extendido de la medicina tradicional (MT) en diversos países. La formación del pediatra es escasa en este campo. Objetivo. Describir las características de la MT utilizada por los pacientes de un hospital pediátrico de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Población y métodos. Diseño cualitativo, basado en la teoría fundada. Entrevista a cuidadores de niños de 0 a 11 años. Resultados. Se entrevistaron 30 personas de diferentes colectividades, la gran mayoría mujeres amas de casa. Casi la totalidad refirió haber utilizado la MT. La fuente de recomendación más utilizada fue la familia. En general, el uso de la MT precede a la consulta a un médico del sistema de salud. Se acude a la MT por entidades definidas por la medicina convencional, pero también por otras propias, como pata de cabra, ojeo y empacho. Las prácticas terapéuticas incluyen la administración de preparados a base de plantas, infusiones, caldos, como también rituales conducidos por curanderos. Todos los usuarios refirieron una valoración positiva de la MT. Una gran parte de los entrevistados consideró importante que el médico conozca y pregunte sobre ella. Todos refirieron que su uso no fue abordado en consultas previas. Conclusiones. La MT se extiende como conocimiento y/o práctica en toda la población estudiada y forma parte de su vida cotidiana. Los métodos utilizados son muy diversos, así como las situaciones para las que se utiliza; las principales causas son de origen gastrointestinal y respiratoria. No es abordada en la consulta pediátrica, pero sus usuarios desearían que lo fuera.


Introduction. Several studies have reported on the widespread use of traditional medicine (TM) in different countries. Pediatricians receive scarce training in this field. Objective. To describe the characteristics of TM used by patients attending a children's hospital in the City of Buenos Aires. Population and methods. Qualitative design based on grounded theory. Interview with caregivers of children aged 0-11 years. Results. Thirty people from different communities were interviewed, mostly homemakers. Almost all referred having used TM. The most common source of recommendation was the family. In general, TM use precedes the visit to a physician in the health system. TM is used to manage conditions defined by conventional medicine, but also to treat folk illnesses such as Simeon's disease, evil eye, and indigestion. Therapeutic practices include plant-based preparations, infusions, broths, as well as other rituals performed by folk healers. All users had a positive opinion about TM. Most interviewees considered that physicians should know and ask about TM. All participants referred that its use had not been addressed in prior visits. Conclusions. TM spreads as knowledge and/ or practice across the studied population and is part of everyday life. TM methods vary greatly, as well as the conditions for which it is used; the main reasons for use included gastrointestinal and respiratory conditions. It is not addressed in pediatric visits, but users wish it was.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians , Medicine, Traditional , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Pediatricians , Hospitals, Pediatric
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 499-504, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377391

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Telemedicine can be a component of integrated healthcare practices and its use is not a recent phenomenon around the world. In Brazil, its more widespread use began during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, through extraordinary authorization from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. OBJECTIVES: To describe some aspects of use of teleconsultation among a sample of physicians in the state of São Paulo during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study based on a survey conducted by the São Paulo Medical Association (Associação Paulista de Medicina, APM) on medical practice during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic between December 18, 2020, and January 18, 2021. RESULTS: This survey generated responses from 2,052 physicians. Of these, 981 (47.8%) reported not practicing any form of telemedicine. Among those who reported practicing telemedicine, 274 (28.4%) reported not receiving remuneration directly for the attendance provided and 225 (23.3%) reported receiving remuneration equal to what they would have received from face-to-face consultations. Regarding the professional linkage of the physicians who undertook telemedicine attendance, the majority (499; 51.8%) only attended private patients. Regarding the resources used to provide telemedicine attendance, most of the respondents used specialized digital platforms (594; 61.6%), electronic health records (592; 61.4%) and electronic prescriptions (700; 72.6%). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that important issues such as professional remuneration, use of electronic platforms and medical records, ensuring data protection and relationships between physicians and other stakeholders still need to be better defined, in order to achieve the desired scale and reach the outcomes defined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians , Telemedicine , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2216270, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679045

ABSTRACT

Importance: Racial and ethnic disparities in pain outcomes are widely reported in the United States. However, the impact of the patient-physician relationship on such outcomes remains unclear. Objective: To determine whether the patient-physician relationship mediates the association of race with pain outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study uses data from the Pain Registry for Epidemiological, Clinical, and Interventional Studies and Innovation, collected from April 2016 to December 2021. All registry enrollees who identified as Black or White with chronic low back pain who had a regular physician who provided pain care were included. Data were analyzed during December 2021. Exposures: Participant-reported aspects of their patient-physician relationship, including physician communication, physician empathy, and satisfaction with physician encounters. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes included low back pain intensity, measured with a numerical rating scale and physical function, measured with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Mediator variables were derived from the Communication Behavior Questionnaire, Consultation and Relational Empathy measure, and Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. Results: Among 1177 participants, the mean (SD) age was 53.5 (13.1) years, and there were 876 (74.4%) women. A total of 217 participants (18.4%) were Black, and 960 participants (81.6%) were White. The only difference between Black and White participants in the patient-physician relationship involved effective and open physician communication, which favored Black participants (mean communication score, 72.1 [95% CI, 68.8-75.4] vs 67.9 [95% CI, 66.2-69.6]; P = .03). Black participants, compared with White participants reported worse outcomes for pain intensity (mean pain score, 7.1 [95% CI, 6.8-7.3] vs 5.8 [95% CI, 5.7-6.0]; P < .001) and back-related disability (mean disability score, 15.8 [95% CI, 15.1-16.6] vs 14.1 [95% CI, 13.8-14.5]; P < .001). In mediation analyses that controlled for potential confounders using disease risk scores, virtually none of the associations of race with each outcome was mediated by the individual or combined factors of physician communication, physician empathy, and patient satisfaction. Similarly, no mediation was observed in sensitivity analyses that included only participants with both chronic low back pain and the same treating physician for more than 5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that factors other than the patient-physician relationship were important to pain disparities experienced by Black participants. Additional research on systemic factors, such as access to high-quality medical care, may be helpful in identifying more promising approaches to mitigating racial pain disparities.


Subject(s)
Low Back Pain , Physicians , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Low Back Pain/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pain Measurement , Physician-Patient Relations , United States
5.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(3): 412-417, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Medical documentation issues play a role in 10-20% of medical malpractice lawsuits. Inaccurate, incomplete, or generic records undermine a physician's defense and make a plaintiff's lawyer more likely to take on a case. Despite the frequency of documentation errors in malpractice suits, physicians receive very little education or feedback on their documentation. Our objective in this case series was to evaluate malpractice cases related to documentation to help improve physicians' documentation and minimize their liability risks. METHODS: We used Thomson Reuters Westlaw legal database to identify malpractice cases related to documentation. Common issues related to documentation and themes in the cases were identified and highlighted. RESULTS: We classified cases into the following categories: incomplete documentation; inaccurate text; transcription errors; judgmental language; and alteration of documentation. By evaluating real cases, physicians can better understand common errors of other practitioners and avoid these in their own practice. CONCLUSION: Emergency physicians can reduce their liability risks by relying less on forms and templates and making a habit of documenting discussions with the patients, recording others' involvement in patient care (chaperones, consultants, trainees, etc.), addressing others' notes (triage staff, nurses, residents, etc.), paying attention to accuracy of transcribed or dictated information, avoiding judgmental language, and refraining from altering patient charts.


Subject(s)
Malpractice , Physicians , Documentation , Humans , Liability, Legal
6.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(3): 439-442, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679492

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergency departments (ED) are rapidly replacing conventional troponin assays with high-sensitivity troponin tests. We sought to evaluate emergency physician utilization of troponin tests before and after high-sensitivity troponin introduction in our ED. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 9,477 ED encounters, identifying the percentage in which physicians ordered a serum troponin both before and after our institution adopted a high-sensitivity troponin test. RESULTS: After introduction of high-sensitivity troponin testing, the percentage of ED encounters in which physicians ordered troponin studies decreased (28.3% before vs 22% after; P <.001), with the drop most pronounced in admitted patients (decrease of 10.9% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.3%-14.5%] in admitted patients vs decrease of 3.6% [95% CI: 1.7%-5.4%] in discharged patients; P<.001) CONCLUSION: Introduction of high-sensitivity troponin testing was associated with a decrease in troponin ordering. While the reasons for this are unclear, it is possible that physicians became more selective in their ordering behavior because of the lower specificity of high-sensitivity troponin.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Troponin , Biomarkers , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Retrospective Studies
7.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(3): 386-395, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679506

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Like buprenorphine, methadone is a life-saving medication that can be initiated in the emergency department (ED) to treat patients with an opioid use disorder (OUD). The purpose of this study was to better understand the attitudes of emergency physicians (EP) on offering methadone compared to buprenorphine to patients with OUD in the ED. METHODS: We distributed a perception survey to emergency physicians through a national professional network. RESULTS: In this study, the response rate was 18.4% (N = 141), with nearly 70% of the EPs having ordered either buprenorphine or methadone. 75% of EPs strongly or somewhat agreed that buprenorphine was an appropriate treatment for opioid withdrawal and craving, while only 28% agreed that methadone was an appropriate treatment. The perceived barriers to using buprenorphine and methadone in the ED were similar. CONCLUSION: It is essential to create interventions for EPs to overcome stigma and barriers to methadone initiation in the ED for patients with opioid use disorder. Doing so will offer additional opportunities and pathways for initiation of multiple effective medications for OUD in the ED. Subsequent outpatient treatment linkage may lead to improved treatment retention and decreased morbidity and mortality from ongoing use.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , Opioid-Related Disorders , Physicians , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Attitude , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Methadone/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 460, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical medical education is essential in physician training. This study developed recommendations for medical residency course design on the basis of the perspectives of learners in China and how they interact with their environment. The central research topic was the professional development and learning process of residents, including the obstacles that hinder and factors that promote their learning, their views on existing teaching methods, interaction between teachers and medical teams, and suggestions for designing future residency training programs. METHODS: This study had a qualitative research design. Interviews were conducted between July and October 2019 with 17 specialist residents and 12 assistant general practitioner residents from the department of education of the hospital. The participants were recruited from Qingyuan People's Hospital in Guangdong Province, China. The interview outlines focused on the following four themes: clinical learning experiences and reflections on learning, experience of interaction with patients, experience of working with other medical personnel, and future learning directions. RESULTS: To overcome challenges in clinical learning, the residents mainly learned from their teachers and focused specifically on their own experiences. Regarding teaching methods and designs in clinical medicine, the residents preferred large-group, small-group, and bedside teaching and reported that bedside teaching enables the resolution of clinical problems, initiates self-learning, and improves diagnostic thinking. They disliked teachers with low teaching motivation or who were reluctant to interact with them and favored teachers who had strong teaching skills and respect for their students. CONCLUSIONS: The residents suggested that clinical and active learning must be the main learning method for developing general medical competencies. Residency training must be conducted in an environment that facilitates residents' learning and meaningful learning activities. The interdependent symbiotic relationships in the education ecosystem can serve as a reference for designing residency courses.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Physicians , Ecosystem , Humans , Problem-Based Learning , Qualitative Research , Teaching
9.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(7 Suppl 1): S15-S20, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Physicians can lose board certification through revocation related to professionalism violations or expiration due to failure to complete continuing certification requirements. The purpose of this study was to analyze the causes of board certification loss for physicians with board certification through the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study analyzed the certification status of 5541 American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation diplomates between 1993 and 2019 to determine reasons for certification loss. A focused analysis of diplomates with expired certificates in 2019 was conducted to further examine reasons for certificate expiration. RESULTS: Of 5541 physicians, 496 (9%) had certification expiration due to failure to meet continuing certification requirements and 60 (1%) had certification revocation due to disciplinary actions, without regaining certification across the study years. A focused analysis of physicians with expired certificates in 2019 revealed that the majority had failed to complete multiple components of continuing certification. Practice improvement was the single most common incomplete requirement. Failure to pass the knowledge assessment was an uncommon cause for certification loss. CONCLUSIONS: Certification expiration through failure to complete all continuing certification requirements, versus revocation, is responsible for most instances of board certification loss. Practice improvement was the most common incomplete requirement.


Subject(s)
Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Physicians , Certification , Clinical Competence , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Specialty Boards , United States
10.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(7 Suppl 1): S26-S29, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our goals were to estimate how many physicians who were enrolled in a physical medicine and rehabilitation residency program are licensed to practice medicine without American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation board certification and to compare risk of state medical board disciplinary action with those who are board certified. DESIGN: We matched physicians who completed training in physical medicine and rehabilitation before 2019 with the Federation of State Medical Boards database. We compared certified versus noncertified physicians registered with Federation of State Medical Boards and frequencies of disciplinary action. RESULTS: There were 14,729 physicians with matched American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Federation of State Medical Boards data. Of these, 13,707 (93.1%) had attained initial American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation certification and 1022 (6.9%) had not. Certification status predicted a disciplinary action (odds ratio = 2.76; 95% confidence interval = 2.202-3.463; P < 0.001). Compared with the board-certified physicians, those who never passed part I (attempted once or more) were 4.68 times more likely to have a disciplinary action (P < 0.001), and those who passed part I with multiple attempts but failed part II (1 or more times) were 3.26 times more likely to have a disciplinary action (P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Absence of American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation certification is noted in approximately 7% of physicians who undertook physical medicine and rehabilitation residency training and obtained medical licensure. These individuals are at higher risk for state medical board disciplinary action.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Physicians , Certification , Clinical Competence , Humans , Specialty Boards , United States
11.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 24(6): 325-335, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678920

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the last 30 years, medical assistance in dying (MAiD) including euthanasia (EU) and physician-assisted death (or suicide, PAS) has become the center of a large debate, particularly when these practices have involved people with psychiatric illness, including resistant depression, schizophrenia, personality, or other severe psychiatric disorders. We performed a review utilizing several databases, and by including the most relevant studies in full journal articles investigating the problem of MAiD in patients with psychiatric disorders but not in physical terminal conditions (non-terminal, MAiD-NT). RECENT FINDINGS: Literature has shown that a small percentage of people with psychiatric disorders died by MAiD-NT in comparison with patients with somatic diseases in terminal clinical conditions (e.g., cancer, AIDS). However, the problem in the field is complex and not solved yet as confirmed by the fact that only a few countries (e.g., the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg) have legalized MAiD-NT for patients with psychiatric disorders, while most have maintained the practices accessible only to people with somatic disease in a terminal phase. Also, how to make objective the criterion of irremediability of a mental disorder; how to balance suicide prevention with assisted suicide; how to avoid the risk of progressively including in requests for MAiD-NT vulnerable segments of the population, such as minors, elderly, or people with dementia, in a productive-oriented society, are some of the critical points to be discussed. The application of MAiD-NT in people with psychiatric disorders should be further explored to prevent end-of-life rights from contradicting the principles of recovery-oriented care.


Subject(s)
Euthanasia , Mental Disorders , Physicians , Psychotic Disorders , Suicide, Assisted , Aged , Canada , Humans , Mental Disorders/psychology , Suicide, Assisted/psychology
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(6): 951-959, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708439

ABSTRACT

Background: Routine medical screening usually involves periodic history taking, physical examination, and laboratory tests on a regular basis for asymptomatic individuals for continuing self-health care. Aim: This study aimed to determine the knowledge, practice, and factors affecting practice of routine medical screening among health workers in Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara. Subjects and Methods: The study population comprised all staff of the hospital. The sample size was determined using the Yamane formula; n = N/1 + N (e) = 295. A structured questionnaire was distributed among the various staff of the hospital that consented to participate in the study by agreeing to complete the questionnaire. Permission for the study was obtained from Ethics committee of the hospital. Data analysis was by SPSS version 22 (IBM). Results: About 297 participants completed their questionnaires. Female respondents (53.20%) participated more than males (46.80%). Nurses made up 25.5%, 18.8% were doctors, and 16.4% were administrative staff. Among the respondents, knowledge score was good in 58.3%, fair in 25.1%, and poor in 25.1%. The perception score among the respondents was good in 187 and poor in 110. The main reasons for not doing routine medical screening in the last one year were attributed to cost of tests (36.4%). The main reasons for doing a medical test in the past one year were mainly because of illness (60.0%). The practice of routine medical screening score was good in (26.2%) and poor in (73.7%). There was statistically significant association between sex and practice of routine medical screening, females had better practice of routine medical screening compared to men, P = 0.004. The main factors that affected routine medical screening were sex, being managed for a medical condition, and cost of the medical screening. Conclusion: The practice of routine medical screening by the health care workers in our region is poor despite the demonstration of a good knowledge. The major factors affecting uptake of routine medical screening were sex, history of being managed for a health condition, and financial constraint. Staff of the hospital should be better enlightened on the use and importance of the Contributory Health Scheme in routine medical screening.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Physicians , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Nigeria , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 159, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health data is important, however, not always well managed. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of patients and primary care physicians, their expectations and the obstacles encountered when using health data - both patient-generated as well as physician-generated. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative interview study. We included adult persons who were ready to talk about the topic. Participants were recruited from primary care. The interviews were recorded using a dictaphone, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content analysis method. RESULTS: Altogether, we conducted 14 individual interviews, with patients (n = 7) and with physicians (n = 7). We found that both patients and physicians emphasized the importance of easy access to health data in digital health information systems. However, patients may not always understand medical terminology and physicians found that the quality of medical documents needs inspection. Both parties found that patient-generated data is a useful source of information, and that it should be used more often. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has highlighted the value of easy access to health data. The development of a health information system is useful to health care providers and patients, enables the transfer of evidence-based medicine, and supports health literacy.


Subject(s)
Motivation , Physicians , Adult , Health Personnel , Humans , Primary Health Care , Qualitative Research
14.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 56, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Retention of human resources in the healthcare system, particularly doctors at district level is a great challenge faced by the decentralized health systems in poorly resourced countries. Medical Officers of Health (MOH), medical doctors who provide preventive health services, are a particularly important human resource in the preventive health sector in Sri Lanka. This study explores the relative importance of different factors affecting the retention of MOHs in the preventive health sector of Sri Lanka. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among Medical Officers of Health in the Colombo district with 18 MOH Offices with 74 medical officers. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used as the study instrument. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 74 medical officers 64 responded with a response rate of response rate of 86.5%. Regression analysis showed that all four variables; recognition, work schedule, remuneration and responsibility are positively and significantly correlated with retention of Medical Officers of Health in the preventive health sector. The variable 'work schedule' showed the highest impact on the retention of Medical Officers of Health. CONCLUSIONS: In order to retain trained Medical Officers of Health in the Sri Lankan preventive health sector, health authorities should address the factors identified in this study. If policymakers fail to address these factors, preventive health services will face negative implications due to the shortage of key service providers.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Preventive Health Services , Sri Lanka
15.
J Comp Eff Res ; 11(11): 789-803, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642553

ABSTRACT

Aim: This research compared patient and physician perceptions of quality of life (QoL) in C0-4 chronic venous disease (CVD). Methods: Qualitative standardized phone interviews were conducted with 100 patients and 60 specialists from Brazil, China, the Czech Republic, Italy and Russia. Results: In addition to the impact of physical symptoms on QoL, patient interviews revealed a high aesthetic and emotional burden of C0-4 CVD that contributes to social isolation and affects relationships. Physicians were aware of the physical impact but underestimated the other implications of CVD on their patients' QoL. Conclusion: Healthcare professional awareness of the overall impact of CVD on QoL needs improvement. All aspects of QoL should be assessed in order to manage CVD effectively.


Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a progressive condition that occurs when the functioning of the veins, which are blood vessels that move blood back to the heart, is compromised, leading to swelling and other physical changes in the legs. CVD can be debilitating to those who suffer from it, so the authors surveyed 100 people with CVD as well as 60 physicians who treat them to understand more about the impact of this disease. The authors found that CVD affects people not only physically but also aesthetically and emotionally, which impacts on relationships and leads to social isolation. Physicians are aware of the physical impact of CVD but often underestimate other burdens their patients might experience, so the authors suggest that physicians consult their patients on these aspects when treating them.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Physicians , Chronic Disease , Humans , Lower Extremity , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 113, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With paediatric patients, deciding whether to withhold/withdraw life-sustaining treatments (LST) at the end of life is difficult and ethically sensitive. Little is understood about how and why physicians decide on withholding/withdrawing LST at the end of life in paediatric patients. In this study, we aimed to synthesise results from the literature on physicians' perceptions about decision-making when dealing with withholding/withdrawing life-sustaining treatments in paediatric patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of empirical qualitative studies. Five electronic databases (Pubmed, Cinahl®, Embase®, Scopus®, Web of Science™) were exhaustively searched in order to identify articles published in English from inception through March 17, 2021. Analysis and synthesis were guided by the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. RESULTS: Thirty publications met our criteria and were included for analysis. Overall, we found that physicians agreed to involve parents, and to a lesser extent, children in the decision-making process about withholding/withdrawing LST. Our analysis to identify conceptual schemes revealed that physicians divided their decision-making into three stages: (1) early preparation via advance care planning, (2) information giving and receiving, and (3) arriving at the final decision. Physicians considered advocating for the best interests of the child and of the parents as their major focus. We also identified moderating factors of decision-making, such as facilitators and barriers, specifically those related to physicians and parents that influenced physicians' decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: By focusing on stakeholders, structure of the decision-making process, ethical values, and influencing factors, our analysis showed that physicians generally agreed to share the decision-making with parents and the child, especially for adolescents. Further research is required to better understand how to minimise the negative impact of barriers on the decision-making process (e.g., difficult involvement of children, lack of paediatric palliative care expertise, conflict with parents).


Subject(s)
Physicians , Withholding Treatment , Adolescent , Child , Death , Decision Making , Humans , Palliative Care , Qualitative Research
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 821, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increase of centralization developments in primary and secondary care practices may cause the organizational needs to increase as well, as the practices grow in size. This continuous change is observed in different stages in various countries since, from the perspective of a physician, it is reinforced by the benefits it adds to flexible work configuration, professional exchange and specialization. However, in order to benefit from the joint practice system, the proper managerial skills of practice managers are required, as doctors are not naturally prepared to fulfill such tasks. This study thus aims to gain insight into physicians' views in group practices and acquire a greater understanding of expectations towards practice management and the emerging role of practice managers (PM). METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was employed which utilized an anonymous online questionnaire. In total, 3,456 physicians were invited to participate in the study between February 8th and March 17th 2021 by the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied to characterize the expectations of physicians towards practice management. RESULTS: The survey yielded 329 replies (9,5%). 50% of the participating practices already had a PM employed. In general, these practices were larger than practices without a PM. Most physicians (85%) considered a medical background to be essential for the task of a PM. While practices without a PM considered it important for PMs to have medical qualifications, practices with a PM favored qualifications in business administration. 77.2% of physicians preferred to educate and recruit PMs out of their current practice staff. Competence in organizational tasks, such as coordination of tasks and quality management, was considered to be an essential skill of a PM and had the highest agreement levels among those surveyed, followed by staff management of non-physicians, billing, bookkeeping, staff management of physicians and recruiting. Based on multivariate regression analysis, larger practices valued the role of a PM more and were more likely to employ a PM. Notably, the effect that size had on these items was more substantial for generalists than specialists. CONCLUSIONS: The benefits and importance of PMs as well as the potential for delegation are recognized, in particular, by larger practices. The positive feelings that physicians who already employ PMs have towards their contribution to ambulatory care are even more significant. Pre-existing medical support staff has been identified to be the most desirable candidates for taking on the role of PM.


Subject(s)
Group Practice , Physicians , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany , Humans , National Health Programs
19.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 63, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When rationing health care, a commonly held view among ethicists is that there is no ethical difference between withdrawing or withholding medical treatments. In reality, this view does not generally seem to be supported by practicians nor in legislation practices, by for example adding a 'grandfather clause' when rejecting a new treatment for lacking cost-effectiveness. Due to this discrepancy, our objective was to explore physicians' and patient organization representatives' experiences- and perceptions of withdrawing and withholding treatments in rationing situations of relative scarcity. METHODS: Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in Sweden with physicians and patient organization representatives, thematic analysis was used. RESULTS: Participants commonly express internally inconsistent views regarding if withdrawing or withholding medical treatments should be deemed as ethically equivalent. Participants express that in terms of patients' need for treatment (e.g., the treatment's effectiveness and the patient's medical condition) withholding and withdrawing should be deemed ethically equivalent. However, in terms of prognostic differences, and the patient-physician relation and communication, there is a clear discrepancy which carry a moral significance and ultimately makes withdrawing psychologically difficult for both physicians and patients, and politically difficult for policy makers. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the distinction between withdrawing and withholding treatment as unified concepts is a simplification of a more complex situation, where different factors related differently to these two concepts. Following this, possible policy solutions are discussed for how to resolve this experienced moral difference by practitioners and ease withdrawing treatments due to health care rationing. Such solutions could be to have agreements between the physician and patient about potential future treatment withdrawals, to evaluate the treatment's effect, and to provide guidelines on a national level.


Subject(s)
Health Care Rationing , Physicians , Humans , Morals , Qualitative Research , Withholding Treatment
20.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e15173, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the global health issue of doctors working excessive hours, working practices for doctors in Japan are currently undergoing reform. We aimed to ascertain the actual situation of excessive working hours among pediatricians and factors influencing these conditions in Japan. METHODS: Pediatricians employed at hospitals throughout Japan completed a questionnaire regarding their current working situation, including the time spent at the hospital and whether their working environment had improved since 2018, when the reform of doctors' working practices began. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify background factors associated with excessive working hours. RESULTS: Questionnaires were sent to 848 Japanese hospitals that submitted insurance reimbursement claims for pediatric inpatient treatment. Valid responses were received from 1,539 pediatricians at 416 hospitals (49% response rate). Of these pediatricians, 51.7% spent ≥60 h/week at their hospital, 14.4% spent ≥80 h/week, and 47.4% worked nights at least four times a month. Compared with 2018, 8.8% and 35.4% responded that their working environment had greatly or somewhat improved, respectively. Working for ≤60 h/week was considered appropriate by 81.9% of pediatricians. Background factors associated with spending ≥80 h/week at the hospital were male sex, age <30 years, lack of children, specialty of pediatric cardiology, annual income exceeding ¥16 million, employment at a private university hospital, and employment at a hospital with a comparatively large number of pediatricians. CONCLUSIONS: This study clarified the background factors and the actual situation of the long working hours among pediatricians working in Japanese hospitals.


Subject(s)
Pediatricians , Physicians , Adult , Child , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Japan , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
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