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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2241622, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367723

ABSTRACT

Importance: Minimal data are available regarding the postdischarge treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Objectives: To evaluate clinical characteristics associated with duration of postdischarge glucocorticoid use and assess postdischarge clinical course, laboratory test result trajectories, and adverse events in a multicenter cohort with MIS-C. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients with MIS-C hospitalized with severe illness and followed up for 3 months in an ambulatory setting. Patients younger than 21 years who were admitted between May 15, 2020, and May 31, 2021, at 13 US hospitals were included. Inclusion criteria were inpatient treatment comprising intravenous immunoglobulin, diagnosis of cardiovascular dysfunction (vasopressor requirement or left ventricular ejection fraction ≤55%), and availability of complete outpatient data for 3 months. Exposures: Glucocorticoid treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were patient characteristics associated with postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment, laboratory test result trajectories, and adverse events. Multivariable regression was used to evaluate factors associated with postdischarge weight gain (≥2 kg in 3 months) and hyperglycemia during illness. Results: Among 186 patients, the median age was 10.4 years (IQR, 6.7-14.2 years); most were male (107 [57.5%]), Black non-Hispanic (60 [32.3%]), and Hispanic or Latino (59 [31.7%]). Most children were critically ill (intensive care unit admission, 163 [87.6%]; vasopressor receipt, 134 [72.0%]) and received inpatient glucocorticoid treatment (178 [95.7%]). Most were discharged with continued glucocorticoid treatment (173 [93.0%]); median discharge dose was 42 mg/d (IQR, 30-60 mg/d) or 1.1 mg/kg/d (IQR, 0.7-1.7 mg/kg/d). Inpatient severity of illness was not associated with duration of postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment. Outpatient treatment duration varied (median, 23 days; IQR, 15-32 days). Time to normalization of C-reactive protein and ferritin levels was similar for glucocorticoid duration of less than 3 weeks vs 3 or more weeks. Readmission occurred in 7 patients (3.8%); none was for cardiovascular dysfunction. Hyperglycemia developed in 14 patients (8.1%). Seventy-five patients (43%) gained 2 kg or more after discharge (median 4.1 kg; IQR, 3.0-6.0 kg). Inpatient high-dose intravenous and oral glucocorticoid therapy was associated with postdischarge weight gain (adjusted odds ratio, 6.91; 95% CI, 1.92-24.91). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort of patients with MIS-C and cardiovascular dysfunction, postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment was often prolonged, but clinical outcomes were similar in patients prescribed shorter courses. Outpatient weight gain was common. Readmission was infrequent, with none for cardiovascular dysfunction. These findings suggest that strategies are needed to optimize postdischarge glucocorticoid courses for patients with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Hyperglycemia , Pneumonia, Viral , Child , Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Aftercare , Ventricular Function, Left , Weight Gain
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2238804, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301542

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persistence of COVID-19 symptoms beyond 2 months, or long COVID, is increasingly recognized as a common sequela of acute infection. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of and sociodemographic factors associated with long COVID and to identify whether the predominant variant at the time of infection and prior vaccination status are associated with differential risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study comprised 8 waves of a nonprobability internet survey conducted between February 5, 2021, and July 6, 2022, among individuals aged 18 years or older, inclusive of all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Main Outcomes and Measures: Long COVID, defined as reporting continued COVID-19 symptoms beyond 2 months after the initial month of symptoms, among individuals with self-reported positive results of a polymerase chain reaction test or antigen test. Results: The 16 091 survey respondents reporting test-confirmed COVID-19 illness at least 2 months prior had a mean age of 40.5 (15.2) years; 10 075 (62.6%) were women, and 6016 (37.4%) were men; 817 (5.1%) were Asian, 1826 (11.3%) were Black, 1546 (9.6%) were Hispanic, and 11 425 (71.0%) were White. From this cohort, 2359 individuals (14.7%) reported continued COVID-19 symptoms more than 2 months after acute illness. Reweighted to reflect national sociodemographic distributions, these individuals represented 13.9% of those who had tested positive for COVID-19, or 1.7% of US adults. In logistic regression models, older age per decade above 40 years (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.12-1.19) and female gender (adjusted OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.73-2.13) were associated with greater risk of persistence of long COVID; individuals with a graduate education vs high school or less (adjusted OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56-0.79) and urban vs rural residence (adjusted OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.86) were less likely to report persistence of long COVID. Compared with ancestral COVID-19, infection during periods when the Epsilon variant (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.95) or the Omicron variant (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.92) predominated in the US was associated with diminished likelihood of long COVID. Completion of the primary vaccine series prior to acute illness was associated with diminished risk for long COVID (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.86). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that long COVID is prevalent and associated with female gender and older age, while risk may be diminished by completion of primary vaccination series prior to infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Acute Disease , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
5.
Cir. Esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 100(9): 562-568, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-208257

ABSTRACT

Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el impacto de los congresos del American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress (ACSCC2020) y del Congreso Nacional de Cirugía de la Asociación Española de Cirujanos (CNC2020) en formato virtual por la pandemia SARS-CoV-2 según la huella digital. Material y métodos Se estudiaron los hashtags de Twitter #ACSCC20 y #CNCirugia2020 para determinar tuits, retuits, usuarios e impresiones. Se analizaron los datos sobre las cuentas con mayor influencia y la evolución histórica de los congresos entre 2015 y 2020. Utilizamos el software symplur para la recogida y análisis de los datos. Resultados Entre 2015 y 2017 hubo un incremento consistente en el número de tuits, participantes e impresiones. Entre 2018 y 2020, el ACS mantiene el número de impresiones con menor cantidad de tuits. Sin embargo, el CNC sigue creciendo y logra sus mejores métricas en el presente 2020. Encontramos diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las cuentas más prolíficas del ACSCC frente al CNC (p<0,002), pero no existen diferencias entre las 10 cuentas más influyentes (p=0,19) o las cuentas con mayor número de impresiones (p=0,450). Conclusiones Los congresos virtuales generan un impacto global a través del uso de Twitter para la diseminación de conocimiento. En el presente 2020 el crecimiento del impacto en redes sociales ha sido proporcionalmente mayor en el CNC que en el ACSCC. No obstante, el congreso virtual del ACS generó mayor impacto en las redes sociales medido por el número de usuarios, tuits e impresiones entre 2015 y 2020 (AU)


Aim The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress (ACSCC2020) and the National Surgery Congress of the Spanish Association of Surgeons (CNC2020) in virtual format due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic according to the fingerprint.Material and methods The Twitter hashtags # ACSCC20 and # CNCirugia2020 were studied to determine tweets, retweets, users and impressions. The data on the accounts with the greatest influence and the historical evolution of the congresses between 2015 and 2020 were analyzed. We used the symplur software to collect and analyze the data. Results Between 2015 and 2017 there was a consistent increase in the number of tweets, participants and impressions. Between 2018 and 2020, the ACS maintains the number of impressions with the fewest number of tweets. However, the CNC continues to grow and achieves its best metrics in 2020. We found statistically significant differences between the most prolific accounts of the ACSCC versus the CNC (P<.002) but there are no differences between the 10 most influential accounts (P=.19) or the accounts with the highest number of impressions (P=.450). Conclusions Virtual congresses generate a global impact through the use of Twitter for the dissemination of knowledge. In the present 2020, the growth of the impact on social networks has been proportionally greater in the CNC than in the ACSCC. However, the ACS virtual congress generated the greatest impact on social networks measured by the number of users, tweets and impressions between 2015 and 2020 (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pandemics , Congresses as Topic , Online Social Networking , Societies, Medical , United States , Spain
6.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 50(5): 57-60, sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-208637

ABSTRACT

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a common treatment for patients with allergic asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. There is evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic could have altered the administration of AIT in patients in some countries, as the pandemic caused major limitations to healthcare access and delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the disruption imposed by the pandemic on the perceptions and administration of AIT therapies in Italy. An online survey was carried out among Italian allergists between 22 February 2021 and 12 April 2021. The results show that Italian physicians (N=66) did not consider that the COVID-19 pandemic presented an added risk to patients with allergic asthma or rhinitis receiving AIT. Although most treatments continued, there were reduced rates of AIT therapy initiations and sublingual AIT was favored over subcutaneous AIT (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Desensitization, Immunologic/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Sublingual Immunotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 222(7): 406-411, ago. - sept. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-207423

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos La pandemia por COVID-19 ha provocado cambios globales que afectan a la vida diaria de la población mundial, con un impacto directo sobre la salud física y mental de los individuos, así como en sus hábitos sociales y recreativos. Métodos Análisis retrospectivo de aspectos demográficos y clínicos de los pacientes atendidos por intoxicaciones agudas en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario durante 3 períodos distintos: prepandemia (2019), tras el confinamiento domiciliario (2020) y en el período pospandémico (2021), analizando en cada uno los meses de junio y julio. Resultados Se incluyeron 1.182 intoxicaciones agudas. En relación con la etapa prepandémica, el número de intoxicados disminuyó durante el confinamiento (2019: 1,9 vs. 2020: 1,5%; p<0,01), incrementándose la ratio varón/mujer (2,0 vs. 1,4; p=0,02) y la edad media (2019: 31,4 vs. 2020: 41,3; p<0,001), tendencia que se mantuvo en el año 2021 (38,3). La intoxicación con motivación suicida también aumentó en dicho período (2019: 8,71 vs. 2020: 21,0%; p<0,01), mientras que las lúdicas decrecieron (2019: 76,1 vs. 2020: 62,0%; p<0,01), con un aumento no significativo en el último año 2021 (69,0%; p=0,07). Conclusiones La pandemia por COVID-19 ha generado cambios clínicos y epidemiológicos en las intoxicaciones agudas atendidas en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario durante las distintas fases de la pandemia (AU)


Background The COVID-19 pandemic has caused global changes that affect the daily life of the world's population, with a direct impact on individuals’ physical and mental health as well as on their social and recreational habits. Methods This study aimed to retrospectively analyze the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients attended to for acute poisoning in a hospital emergency department (ED) at three different periods of time: pre-pandemic (2019), after strict lockdown of the population in Spain (2020), and post-pandemic (2021). We analyzed 2 months (June and July) in each period. Results A total of 1,182 cases of acute poisoning were included. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, during lockdown, the number of patients with acute poisoning decreased (2019: 1.9% vs. 2020: 1.5%; p<.01); the ratio of men to women increased (2.0 vs. 1.4; p=.02); and the mean age of patients increased (2019: 31.4 vs. 2020: 41.3; p<.001), a trend which continued in 2021 (38.3). Poisoning with suicidal intention also increased during the pandemic (2019: 8.71% vs. 2020: 21.0%; p<.01) whereas poisonings with a recreational intention declined (2019: 76.1% vs. 2020: 62.0%; p<.01) with a non-significant increase in 2021 (69.0%, p=.07). Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic generated clinical and epidemiological changes in the acute poisonings attended to in a hospital emergency department during the various phases of the pandemic (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poisoning/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Acute Disease , Spain/epidemiology
8.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(3): 316-323, 2022 Mar.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a decade, we faced two pandemic viruses, influenza A H1N1pdm09 and SARS CoV-2, whose most serious manifestation is pneumonia. AIM: To compare the clinical, epidemiological and management aspects of pneumonias caused by each pandemic virus in adults requiring hospitalization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative, observational study carried out at a regional Chilean hospital, including 75 patients with influenza A H1N1pdm09 prospectively studied in 2009 and 142 patients with SARS-CoV-2 studied in 2020. RESULTS: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were older (56 and 39.7 years respectively, p < 0.01) and had significantly more comorbidities. Cough, fever and myalgias were more frequent in influenza. Dyspnea was more frequent in COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 had more extensive lung involvement and a longer hospitalization (13.6 and 8.6 days respectively, p = 0.01). There was no difference on ICU admission requirements and mortality attributable to pneumonia. Patients with influenza had greater APACHE scores and a higher frequency of a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 200. During COVID-19pandemic chest sean replaced x-ray examination. Also high-flow nasal cannulas and awake prone position ventilation were added as treatments. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients were older, had fewer classic flu symptoms but more dyspnea and longer hospitalization periods than patients with influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(2): 329-337, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was to describe the clinical characteristics, chest CT image findings, and potential role of T cells immunity in adenovirus positive pneumonia. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records of 53 adult Adv+ patients who were admitted to the Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, from May 2015 to August 2019 were included. The presence of adenovirus and other respiratory viruses was detected using polymerase chain reaction of throat swabs samples. Clinical features and chest computed tomography (CT) findings were compared between patients with Adv+ pneumonia and Adv+ non-pneumonia. RESULTS: The top 3 most commonly occurring symptoms in Adv+ pneumonia patients were fever (66.7%), cough (63.3%), and tachypnea (16.7%). Patients with Adv+ pneumonia showed significantly higher rates of cough and fever and longer duration of hospitalization than patients with Adv+ non-pneumonia. In the Adv+ pneumonia group, consolidation (73.3%) was the most common imaging finding on chest CT scan, and the likelihood of involvement of bilateral lobes (60%) was high. Classical conspicuous consolidation with surrounding ground-glass opacity was observed in 5 (16.6%) patients with Adv+ pneumonia. Patients with Adv+ pneumonia showed a higher inhibition of T-cell immunity than did patients with Adv+ non-pneumonia, and counts of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cells may predict the presence of pneumonia in Adv+ patients. DISCUSSION: With regard to Adv+ pneumonia, the most frequent symptoms were cough and fever, and the most common CT pattern was consolidation; classical CT findings such as consolidation with surrounding ground-glass opacity could also be observed. Furthermore, our data indicated the incidence of abrogated cellular immunity in patients with Adv+ pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral , Adenoviridae , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146844

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has become a global health problem specially exacerbated with the continuous appearance of new variants. Healthcare workers (HCW) have been one of the most affected sectors. Children have also been affected, and although infection generally presents as a mild disease, some have developed the Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). We recruited 190 adults (HCW and cohabitants, April to June 2020) and 57 children (April 2020 to September 2021), of whom 12 developed PIMS-TS, in a hospital-based study in Spain. Using an in-house Luminex assay previously validated, antibody levels were measured against different spike and nucleocapsid SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants of concern (VoC). Seropositivity rates obtained from children and adults, respectively, were: 49.1% and 11% for IgG, 45.6% and 5.8% for IgA, and 35.1% and 7.3% for IgM. Higher antibody levels were detected in children who developed PIMS-TS compared to those who did not. Using the COVID-19 IgM/IgA ELISA (Vircell, S.L.) kit, widely implemented in Spanish hospitals, a high number of false positives and lower seroprevalences compared with the Luminex estimates were found, indicating a significantly lower specificity and sensitivity. Comparison of antibody levels against RBD-Wuhan versus RBD-VoCs indicated that the strongest positive correlations for all three isotypes were with RBD-Alpha, while the lowest correlations were with RBD-Delta for IgG, RBD-Gamma for IgM, and RBD-Beta for IgA. This study highlights the differences in antibody levels between groups with different demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as reporting the IgG, IgM, and IgA response to RBD VoC circulating at the study period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
11.
Arch. esp. urol. (Ed. impr.) ; 75(6): 559-566, Aug. 28, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-209637

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV2 pandemic has altered the normal activity in our day-to-day life. During the most critical moments of the pandemic at the hospital, attendance and programmed activities had to be reduced to a minimum, including kidney transplants. Hospitals with this kind of activity had to suspend or restructure it due to the decrease in the number of donors with a solid organ donation profile, the lack of knowledge as to whether the disease could be transmitted through transplantation or the risk that was believed to be associated with the admission of patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease or immunosuppressive treatment. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients who had received a kidney transplant at Doctor Peset University Hospital in Valencia was performed from March 2020 to March 2021. The objective was to study the safety of kidney transplantation and the incidence of COVID-19 disease in kidney transplant patients during this pandemic period. Results: 56 cases of kidney transplantation were included, most of them male with an average age of 56 years old, and variable comorbidity such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, an average body mass index of 26 and undergoing renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis. Regarding the organ donors, more than 50% were male patients and the donation was in encephalic death. The average cold ischemia time was 15 hours. Postoperative complications were mostly graded I and II in the Clavien-Dindo classification. 5.4% of the recipients had passed the SARS-CoV2 infection prior to the transplant and 5.4% were infected with COVID-19 after the transplant. Conclusion: In our experience, the current kidney transplant program seems viable and safe, even during periods of health emergencies (AU)


Introducción: La pandemia por SARS-CoV2 ha alterado la actividad habitual en nuestro día a día. Durante losmomentos más críticos de la pandemia a nivel hospitalariose tuvieron que reducir al mínimo la presencialidad y la actividad programada, incluyendo dentro de ésta el trasplanterenal. Los hospitales con dicha actividad tuvieron que suspenderla o bien reestructurarla debido a la disminución en elnúmero de donantes con perfil para la donación de órganossólidos, al desconocimiento de si la enfermedad podía transmitirse a través del trasplante o al riesgo que se creía quepodría conllevar ingresar pacientes con enfermedad renalcrónica terminal o en tratamiento inmunosupresor.Métodos: Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de lospacientes que recibieron un trasplante renal en el Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset de Valencia desde marzo de2020 hasta marzo de 2021 con el objetivo de estudiar la seguridad del trasplante renal y la incidencia de enfermedadpor COVID-19 en los pacientes trasplantados renales durante este periodo de pandemia.Resultados: Se incluyeron 56 casos de trasplante renal, la mayor parte de ellos de sexo masculino, con una edadmedia de 56 años, un índice de masa corporal medio de 26 yen tratamiento renal sustitutivo mayoritariamente mediantehemodiálisis (50%). Con respecto a los donantes, más del50% eran de sexo masculino y la donación fue en muerteencefálica. El tiempo medio de isquemia fría fue de 15 horas. Las complicaciones posquirúrgicas fueron en su mayoría de grado I y II en la clasificación de Clavien-Dindo.Un 5.4% de los receptores habían pasado la infección porSARS-CoV2 previamente al trasplante y un 5.4% se infectaron por COVID-19 posteriormente al trasplante.Conclusión: En nuestra experiencia, parece viable yseguro el programa de trasplante renal vigente, incluso durante periodos de emergencia sanitaria. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Retrospective Studies
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5653-5668, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002399

ABSTRACT

Many people who have survived COVID-19 have experienced negative persistent impacts on health. Impacts on health have included persistent respiratory symptoms, decreased quality of life, fatigue, impaired functional capacity, memory deficits, psychological impacts, and difficulties in returning to paid employment. Evidence is yet to be pooled to inform future directions in research and practice, to determine the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual impacts of the illness which extend beyond the acute phase of COVID-19 survivors. This umbrella review (review of systematic reviews) critically synthesized physical (including abnormal laboratory parameters), psychological, social, and spiritual impacts which extended beyond the acute phase of COVID-19 survivors. The search strategy was based on the sample, phenomena of interest, design, evaluation, research model and all publications were double screened independently by four review authors for the eligibility criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted in parallel independently. Eighteen systematic reviews were included, which represented a total of 493 publications. Sample sizes ranged from n = 15 to n = 44 799 with a total of n = 295 455 participants. There was incomplete reporting of several significant data points including the description of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variant, COVID-19 treatments, and key clinical and demographic data. A number of physical, psychological, and social impacts were identified for individuals grappling with post-COVID condition. The long term sequalae of acute COVID-19 and size of the problem is only beginning to emerge. Further investigation is needed to ensure that those affected by post-COVID condition have their informational, spiritual, psychological, social, and physical needs met in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Holistic Health , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors , Systematic Reviews as Topic
13.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273364, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040960

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 usually recover and return to normal health, however some patients may have symptoms that last for weeks or even months after recovery. This persistent state of ill health is known as Long COVID if it continues for more than three months and are not explained by an alternative diagnosis. Long Covid has been overlooked, especially in the low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, we conducted an online survey among the COVID-19 survivors in the community to explore their Long COVID symptoms, factors associated with Long COVID and how Long COVID affected their work. A total of 732 COVID-19 survivors responded, with 56% were without or with mild symptoms during their acute COVID-19 conditions. One in five COVID-19 survivors reported of experiencing Long COVID. The most commonly reported symptoms were fatigue, brain fog, depression, anxiety and insomnia. Females had 58% higher odds (95% CI: 1.02, 2.45) of experiencing Long COVID. Patients with moderate and severe levels of acute COVID-19 symptoms had OR of 3.01 (95% CI: 1.21, 7.47) and 3.62 (95% CI: 1.31, 10.03) respectively for Long COVID. Recognition of Long COVID and its associated factors is important in planning prevention, rehabilitation, clinical management to improve recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Survivors
14.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 236, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presented major challenges for critical care facilities worldwide. Infections which develop alongside or subsequent to viral pneumonitis are a challenge under sporadic and pandemic conditions; however, data have suggested that patterns of these differ between COVID-19 and other viral pneumonitides. This secondary analysis aimed to explore patterns of co-infection and intensive care unit-acquired infections (ICU-AI) and the relationship to use of corticosteroids in a large, international cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter, international, observational study, including adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis admitted to ICUs at the peak of wave one of COVID-19 (February 15th to May 15th, 2020). Data collected included investigator-assessed co-infection at ICU admission, infection acquired in ICU, infection with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and antibiotic use. Frequencies were compared by Pearson's Chi-squared and continuous variables by Mann-Whitney U test. Propensity score matching for variables associated with ICU-acquired infection was undertaken using R library MatchIT using the "full" matching method. RESULTS: Data were available from 4994 patients. Bacterial co-infection at admission was detected in 716 patients (14%), whilst 85% of patients received antibiotics at that stage. ICU-AI developed in 2715 (54%). The most common ICU-AI was bacterial pneumonia (44% of infections), whilst 9% of patients developed fungal pneumonia; 25% of infections involved MDRO. Patients developing infections in ICU had greater antimicrobial exposure than those without such infections. Incident density (ICU-AI per 1000 ICU days) was in considerable excess of reports from pre-pandemic surveillance. Corticosteroid use was heterogenous between ICUs. In univariate analysis, 58% of patients receiving corticosteroids and 43% of those not receiving steroids developed ICU-AI. Adjusting for potential confounders in the propensity-matched cohort, 71% of patients receiving corticosteroids developed ICU-AI vs 52% of those not receiving corticosteroids. Duration of corticosteroid therapy was also associated with development of ICU-AI and infection with an MDRO. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19 in the first wave, co-infection at admission to ICU was relatively rare but antibiotic use was in substantial excess to that indication. ICU-AI were common and were significantly associated with use of corticosteroids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04836065 (retrospectively registered April 8th 2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Viral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981816

ABSTRACT

Background: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), first described in 2001, is a cause of acute respiratory tract infection in the elderly, with symptoms ranging from mild to severe, including pneumonia, but outbreaks are rarely described. Methods: Between 1 July and 31 December 2018, there were three outbreaks of Influenza-like Illness (ILI) where hMPV was the primary pathogen observed, among 64 aged-care facilities (ACFs) in Western Sydney. These outbreaks were investigated by the Western Sydney Local Health District (WSLHD) Public Health Unit (PHU); multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was performed on nasopharyngeal swabs collected by the ACF. Results: hMPV was the main causative pathogen in three outbreaks (27, 28, and 15 symptomatic cases, respectively) in late winter and early spring. Fifty-five residents and 15 staff cases (70 total cases) were identified; hMPV was detected in 12 of 63 specimens submitted. Of the cases in residents, eight were hospitalised (8/63; 15%), including five with confirmed hMPV and a further one epidemiologically linked to a positive case. Six residents died (6/63; 11%) during the hMPV outbreaks; four of these had laboratory-confirmed hMPV, with a further case epidemiologically linked to a hMPV case, with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia/viral pneumonia. The sixth death was not epidemiologically linked, nor did this case exhibit any respiratory symptoms during the outbreak; however, it was reported in line with public health guidelines. Conclusion: A major challenge in 2018 was the incompleteness of testing for, and awareness of, hMPV as a viral cause of ILI by facilities, laboratories, and emergency departments, which generally opted for rapid testing for influenza and RSV only. There is no licensed vaccine or approved treatment for hMPV, so efficient infection control measures are most important.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
16.
J Clin Virol ; 154: 105244, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus type B7 (HAdV-B7) has been reported to cause pneumonia. However, there are limited data about the epidemiological and clinical features of HAdV-B7 pneumonia in young adults. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 52 patients diagnosed of human adenovirus B7 pneumonia in Nanjing, China from February 7, 2016, to February 20, 2016. We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features, treatments and outcomes. RESULTS: The median age of the 52 patients was 19.5 years (IQR 18.0-21.0). The most common symptoms were fever (50, 96.2%), cough (49, 94.2%), and expectoration (48, 92.3%). Most of the routine hematology and blood chemistry parameters were within the normal range. The predominant abnormal patterns seen on chest CT were unilateral (33, 66%), multifocal (36, 72%), and ground-glass opacity (27, 54%), mainly involving the left lower lobes (41 [36.0%] of 114 affected segments). As the disease progressed in the second week after symptom onset, consolidation and mixed patterns became more common, while the ground glass opacity pattern decreased. The single-agent ribavirin therapy group had a significantly shorter duration of nonrespiratory symptoms, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the single-agent methylprednisolone group and the nonglucocorticoid group. CONCLUSIONS: The main symptoms in immunocompetent patients with adenovirus type 7 are fever, cough and sputum, with no significant abnormalities in laboratory tests. Chest CT scan mostly shows a ground-glass opacity at the beginning of the disease, which subsequently changes to a mixed pattern. Ribavirin and glucocorticoids did not shorten the course of disease.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough , Disease Outbreaks , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Lung , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(5): 463-469, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017559

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, there has been a large increase in the consumption of antimicrobials, both as a form of treatment for viral pneumonia, which has been shown to be ineffective, and in the treatment of secondary infections that arise over the course of the severe presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This increase in consumption, often empirical, ends up causing an increase in the incidence of colonization and secondary infections by multi and pan-resistant germs. RECENT FINDINGS: The presence of a hyperinflammatory condition induced by the primary infection, associated with the structural damage caused by viral pneumonia and by the greater colonization by bacteria, generally multiresistant, are important risk factors for the acquisition of secondary infections in COVID-19. Consequently, there is an increased prevalence of secondary infections, associated with a higher consumption of antimicrobials and a significant increase in the incidence of infections by multi and pan-resistant bacteria. SUMMARY: Antimicrobial stewardship and improvement in diagnostic techniques, improving the accuracy of bacterial infection diagnosis, may impact the antibiotic consumption and the incidence of infections by resistant pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 452, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a serious problem that threatens the health of newborns. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of hospitalized term and preterm infants with community-acquired viral pneumonia. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of cases of community-acquired viral pneumonia in the Neonatal Department. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples were collected for pathogen detection, and clinical data were collected. We analysed pathogenic species and clinical characteristics among these infants. RESULTS: RSV is the main virus in term infants, and parainfluenza virus (PIV) 3 is the main virus in preterm infants. Patients infected with PIV3 were more susceptible to coinfection with bacteria than those with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection (p < 0.05). Preterm infants infected with PIV3 were more likely to be coinfected with bacteria than term infants (p < 0.05), mainly gram-negative bacteria (especially Klebsiella pneumonia). Term infants with bacterial infection were more prone to fever, cyanosis, moist rales, three concave signs, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, respiratory failure and the need for higher level of oxygen support and mechanical ventilation than those with simple viral infection (p < 0.05). The incidence of hyponatremia in neonatal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was high. CONCLUSIONS: RSV and PIV3 were the leading causes of neonatal viral CAP. PIV3 infection is the main cause of viral CAP in preterm infants, and these individuals are more likely to be coinfected with bacteria than term infants, mainly gram-negative bacteria. Term infants with CAP coinfected with bacteria were more likely to have greater disease severity than those with single viral infections.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Virus Diseases , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
19.
Cardiol Clin ; 40(3): 277-285, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851451

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, has resulted in unprecedented morbidity and mortality worldwide. While COVID-19 typically presents as viral pneumonia, cardiovascular manifestations such as acute coronary syndromes, arterial and venous thrombosis, acutely decompensated heart failure (HF), and arrhythmia are frequently observed. Many of these complications are associated with poorer outcomes, including death. Herein we review the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes among patients with COVID-19, cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19, and cardiovascular complications associated with COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(7): e00001022, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894360

ABSTRACT

Off-label use of azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, and ivermectin (the "COVID kit") has been suggested for COVID-19 treatment in Brazil without clinical or scientific evidence of efficacy. These drugs have known adverse drug reactions (ADR). This study aimed to analyze if the sales of drugs in the "COVID kit" are correlated to the reported number of ADR after the COVID-19 pandemic began. Data was obtained from the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (Anvisa) website on reported sales and ADRs for azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, and ivermectin for all Brazilian states. The period from March 2019 to February 2020 (before the pandemic) was compared to that from March 2020 to February 2021 (during the pandemic). Trend adjustment was performed for time series data and cross-correlation analysis to investigate correlation between sales and ADR within the same month (lag 0) and in the following months (lag 1 and lag 2). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the magnitude of the correlations. After the pandemic onset, sales of all investigated drugs increased significantly (69.75% for azithromycin, 10,856,481.39% for hydroxychloroquine, and 12,291,129.32% for ivermectin). ADR levels of all medications but azithromycin were zero before the pandemic, but increased after its onset. Cross-correlation analysis was significant in lag 1 for all drugs nationwide. Spearman's correlation was moderate for azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine but absent for ivermectin. Data must be interpreted cautiously since no active search for ADR was performed. Our results show that the increased and indiscriminate use of "COVID kit" during the pandemic correlates to an increased occurrence of ADRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pneumonia, Viral , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
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