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2.
Indian J Tuberc ; 68S: S86-S88, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538398

ABSTRACT

Smoking, TB and Covid-19 are high prevalence entities with public health consequences. All three of them have a possible complex interaction at cellular level. Smoking behavior makes it difficult to maintain infection control measures. Smoking is known to increase TB infection and also adversely affect treatment outcomes in TB. There is also upcoming evidence which suggests that smoking and TB increase the risk of severe Covid-19 symptoms. Simple infection control measures like, social distancing, cough etiquette, isolation, hand hygiene, quarantine, use of masks etc. play a pivotal role in prevention of these diseases. There is need of strengthening of the public health policies and incorporation of the Covid-19 safety awareness measures into the various national programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Smoking/adverse effects , Tuberculosis/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
3.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(11): 1031-1032, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483264

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This brief report summarizes the comparative experience of an inpatient rehabilitation facility dealing with two episodes of COVID-19 infection, one before and one after the availability of vaccination, which was deployed to staff. The experience exemplifies the high rate of infection and potential for asymptomatic presentation of COVID-19 as well as the protective advantage of the vaccine for healthcare workers in this report. With a significant reduction in the rate of infection, from nearly 30% before vaccination to only 2.5% after vaccination. The data presented should serve as an encouragement for vaccination across all populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Rehabilitation Centers , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Mass Screening , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 39: 32-39, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417121

ABSTRACT

Mathematical modelling has played a pivotal role in understanding the epidemiology of and guiding public health responses to the ongoing coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we review the role of epidemiological models in understanding evolving epidemic characteristics, including the effects of vaccination and Variants of Concern (VoC). We highlight ways in which models continue to provide important insights, including (1) calculating the herd immunity threshold and evaluating its limitations; (2) verifying that nascent vaccines can prevent severe disease, infection, and transmission but may be less efficacious against VoC; (3) determining optimal vaccine allocation strategies under efficacy and supply constraints; and (4) determining that VoC are more transmissible and lethal than previously circulating strains, and that immune escape may jeopardize vaccine-induced herd immunity. Finally, we explore how models can help us anticipate and prepare for future stages of COVID-19 epidemiology (and that of other diseases) through forecasts and scenario projections, given current uncertainties and data limitations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48263

ABSTRACT

As máscaras se tornaram uma das maiores aliadas da população contra a transmissão do Coronavírus desde o início da pandemia. Especialistas alertam que a máscara ainda deve ser item obrigatório no vestuário, tanto para se proteger quanto para evitar a transmissão do vírus que já levou, até esta data (18 de junho de 2021), aproximadamente 496 mil brasileiros a óbito. É importante também saber diferenciar o grau de proteção das máscaras pois, dada material utilizado na fabricação possui uma trama capaz de impedir que parte das gotículas respiratórias que exalamos seja transferida para outra pessoa ou fique no ar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/virology
6.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48241

ABSTRACT

A pandemia da Covid-19, doença provocada pelo novo coronavírus trouxe uma série de dúvidas. Com diversas informações circulando sobre o assunto, umas das dúvidas é quanto ao risco de contaminação das gestantes e, consequentemente, dos bebês. Essa matéria esclarece sobre quais cuidados as gestantes devem adotar, riscos de contágio e procedimentos para as puérperas ou parturientes, ou seja, as mulheres que se encontram em trabalho de parto ou tiveram bebês recentemente.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Postpartum Period
7.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48224

ABSTRACT

A pandemia da Covid-19 altera rotinas e dinâmicas familiares no Brasil desde março de 2020. Muitas vezes, aqueles contaminados pelo vírus precisam realizar o isolamento social dentro da própria casa, nesse caso, as precauções com a higiene e os limites do espaço de convívio são essenciais para que se evite novos contágios, conforme descrito no artigo.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Social Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission
8.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48226

ABSTRACT

A solução de hipoclorito de sódio (NaClO), popularmente conhecida como água sanitária, é comumente utilizada na higienização de ambientes, pois, quando diluída em água, forma o ácido hipocloroso (HClO), eficaz contra os microorganismo patogênicos. Nesse período de pandemia, é importante saber a correta manipulação desse produto, principalmente por segurança, mas também para que não haja um mau uso e consequentemente o gasto desnecessário de dinheiro. Buscando orientar a população sobre a forma correta de higienizar a casa com água sanitária e assim evitar a contaminação pelo novo coronavírus, o Conselho Federal de Química (CFQ) desenvolveu uma cartilha com perguntas e respostas sobre o manejo desse composto


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Disinfection , Bleaching Agents
9.
Opt Express ; 29(12): 18688-18704, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154120

ABSTRACT

The transmission of airborne pathogens represents a major threat to worldwide public health. Ultraviolet light irradiation can contribute to the sanification of air to reduce the pathogen transmission. We have designed a compact filter for airborne pathogen inactivation by means of UVC LED sources, whose effective irradiance is enhanced thanks to high reflective surfaces. We used ray-tracing and computational fluid dynamic simulations to model the device and to maximize the performance inside the filter volume. Simulations also show the inhibition of SARS-Cov-2 in the case of high air fluxes. This study demonstrates that current available LED technology is effective for air sanification purposes.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
13.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48219

ABSTRACT

A retomada das atividades presenciais da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora - UFJF - só ocorrerá sob recomendação do Comitê de Monitoramento e Orientação de Condutas sobre coronavírus da UFJF, através da observação e da avaliação periódica das cidades de Juiz de Fora e de Governador Valadares, entretanto, o Conselho Superior (Consu) da UFJF publicou, dia 20/08/2020, a Resolução nº 34/2020. O documento aprova os Protocolos de Biossegurança da UFJF, elaborados pela Comissão de Infraestrutura e Saúde, e tem vigência enquanto durar a pandemia de Covid-19, provocada pelo novo coronavírus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards
14.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48222

ABSTRACT

Os indícios de que a transmissão do vírus Sars-CoV-2, causador da pandemia de covid-19, pode ser feita por vias aéreas provocaram a necessidade de revisão de práticas e da infraestrutura de climatização de ambientes fechados. Essa matéria apresenta o um estudo publicado pelo Centro de Controle e Prevenção de Doenças de Guangzhou, na China, e uma série de sugestões elaboradas pelos servidores da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), campus de Governador Valadares, para minimizar o risco de transmissão em ambientes fechados,


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
15.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48207

ABSTRACT

Desde a chegada da pandemia de Covid-19, sintomas como: dor de cabeça, febre e diarreia têm causado mais preocupação às pessoas. Entretanto, quem apresenta esses sintomas pode não estar contaminado pelo novo coronavírus; o quadro é característico, também, em casos de dengue e influenza (gripe comum). Por isso, é importante conhecer os sintomas de cada doença, e intensificar ainda mais os hábitos de prevenção.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Dengue/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Signs and Symptoms ,
17.
Fam Syst Health ; 39(1): 101-111, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014733

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The fourth sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus, COVID-19, emerged in late 2019, leading to the most devastating pandemic since the Spanish influenza (H1N1) of 1918, which seized 50 million lives worldwide (https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-pandemic-h1n1.html). Elected officials must make critical system-level decisions for stymieing the spread of the virus. Businesspersons must make personnel, financial, and operational decisions to minimize transmission while preserving their business's vitality. Members of the public must make personal decisions about personal protective equipment and changing social, recreational, occupational, and spiritual behavior to protect themselves and others. The scientific community can shift how they illustrate the virus's behavior to the public in an appropriate and understandable way so that the public can make informed decisions. This article suggests the use of a single-case design and logarithmic analyses to improve the current methodologies for COVID-19 analysis and illustration. METHOD: The Standard Celeration Chart was used with Theil's incomplete regression and a 7-point change analysis; the authors demonstrate a suitable virus-tracking and mitigation methodology. RESULTS: Analysis and data visualization are standardized, providing an accurate depiction of the virus's growth for public dissemination and decision-making. An analytic strategy is demonstrated for retrospectively detecting meaningful changes in viral growth or prospectively measuring such changes that coincide with known mitigation strategies. DISCUSSION: The authors suggest improvements in bridging science to application by making COVID-19 informatics more meaningful and actionable by lawmakers, businesspersons, and the public. Limitations and future directions for COVID-19 informatics are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Decision Making , Medical Informatics/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Consumer Health Information , Health Promotion , Humans , Information Dissemination , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018706

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This paper aims to investigate the Portuguese general public views regarding the criteria that should guide critical COVID-19 patients to receive medical devices (ventilators and IUC beds) during the current pandemic context. Based on rationing principles and protocols proposed in ethical and medical literature the authors explore how Portuguese general public evaluates the fairness of five allocation principles: "prognosis", "severity of health condition", "patients age", "instrumental value" (frontline healthcare professionals should be prioritized during the pandemic) and "lottery". DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: An online questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 586 Portuguese citizens. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used to define a hierarchy of prioritization criteria and to test for the association between respondents support to them and their socio-demographic and health characteristics. FINDINGS: Respondents gave top priority to prognosis when faced with absolute scarcity, followed closely by the severity of health condition, patient's age with instrumental value receiving lowest support, on average. However, when the age of the patients was confronted with survival, younger-first principle prevailed over recovery. In a pandemic context, lottery was considered the least fair allocation method. The findings suggest that respondents' opinions are aligned with those of ethicists but are partially in disagreement with the protocol suggested for Portugal. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study represents the first attempt to elicit public attitudes towards distributive criteria during a pandemic and, therefore, in a real context where the perception is that life and death decisions have to be made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Care Rationing , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Opinion , Age Factors , Decision Making , Health Personnel , Health Priorities , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Portugal , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Social Values , Surveys and Questionnaires , Value of Life
19.
Sci Adv ; 7(22)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039613

ABSTRACT

Globally, there is an urgency to develop effective, low-cost therapeutic interventions for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We previously generated the stable and ultrapotent homotrimeric Pittsburgh inhalable Nanobody 21 (PiN-21). Using Syrian hamsters that model moderate to severe COVID-19 disease, we demonstrate the high efficacy of PiN-21 to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasal delivery of PiN-21 at 0.6 mg/kg protects infected animals from weight loss and substantially reduces viral burdens in both lower and upper airways compared to control. Aerosol delivery of PiN-21 facilitates deposition throughout the respiratory tract and dose minimization to 0.2 mg/kg. Inhalation treatment quickly reverses animals' weight loss after infection, decreases lung viral titers by 6 logs leading to drastically mitigated lung pathology, and prevents viral pneumonia. Combined with the marked stability and low production cost, this innovative therapy may provide a convenient and cost-effective option to mitigate the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Single-Domain Antibodies/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols/administration & dosage , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Male , Mesocricetus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Load/drug effects
20.
S Afr Med J ; 111(3): 227-233, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on mask use in the general population is needed to inform SARS-CoV-2 responses. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cloth and medical masks for preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission in community settings. METHODS: Two rapid reviews were conducted searching three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library) and two clinical trials registries on 30 and 31 March 2020. RESULTS: We screened 821 records and assessed nine full-text articles for eligibility. One and seven RCTs were included for cloth and medical mask reviews, respectively. No SARS-CoV-2-specific RCTs and no cloth mask RCTs in community settings were identified. A single hospital-based RCT provided indirect evidence that, compared with medical masks, cloth masks probably increase clinical respiratory illnesses (relative risk (RR) 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 - 2.49) and laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infections (RR 1.54; 95% CI 0.88 - 2.70). Evidence for influenza-like illnesses (ILI) was uncertain (RR 13.00; 95% CI 1.69 - 100.03). Two RCTs provide low-certainty evidence that medical masks may make little to no difference to ILI infection risk versus no masks (RR 0.98; 95% CI 0.81 - 1.19) in the community setting. Five RCTs provide low-certainty evidence that medical masks may slightly reduce infection risk v. no masks (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.55 - 1.20) in the household setting. CONCLUSIONS: Direct evidence for cloth and medical mask efficacy and effectiveness in the community is limited. Decision-making for mask use may consider other factors such as feasibility and SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics; however, well-designed comparative effectiveness studies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Masks , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
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