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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 163-170, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130075

ABSTRACT

Research related to racism and health has evolved in recent decades, with a growing appreciation of the centrality of the social determinants of health, life-course approaches and structural racism, and other upstream factors as drivers of health inequities. Examining how race, class, and structural racism relate to each other and combine over the life course to affect health can facilitate a clearer understanding of the determinants of health. Yet there is ongoing discomfort in many public health and medical circles about research on racism, including opposition to the use of racial terminology. Similarly, most major national reports on racial and ethnic inequities in health have given limited attention to the role of racism. We conclude that there is a need to acknowledge the central role of racism in the national discourse on racial inequities in health, and paradigmatic shifts are needed to inform equity-driven policy and practice innovations that would tackle the roots of the problem of racism and dismantle health inequities.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Racism , Humans , Policy
2.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(5): 730-741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193461

ABSTRACT

Background: Rates of cannabis use appear to be highest among emerging adults (EA). Evidence suggests that cannabis smoking, as well as alternate methods of cannabis use (e.g., vaping, edibles) have become a prevalent mode of consumption among this population. Substance use or misuse peaks during emerging adulthood and may be influenced by extreme economic, social and community developments, such as policy changes, public health concerns, and significant global events such as pandemics. For instance, it is highly likely that cannabis consumption trends among at-risk populations were influenced by the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada, the declaration of the "e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury" or "EVALI" outbreak, and the "COVID-19" pandemic. ObjectivesWe aimed to examine self-reported changes in frequency of cannabis use among EA in Canada (N = 312): pre-legalization, post-legalization; pre-EVALI, post-EVALI; pre-COVID-19, since-COVID-19. ResultsThere was a gradual increase in average frequency of smoking and vaping cannabis across the six different time intervals from the pre-legalization period (2018) to the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020). Males reported higher frequencies of cannabis smoking and vaping compared to females. ConclusionsDespite health concerns and expectations that EVALI and COVID-19 events would lead to decreased consumption, our results suggest an average increase in smoking and vaping cannabis, although the most notable increase was after legalization. There are important sex differences in behavioral factors of cannabis use in EA, though it appears that the "gender-gap" in cannabis consumption is closing. These findings may facilitate the development of intervention programs for policy measures to address cannabis-attributable outcomes in the face of contextual factors that promote use, such as public emergencies or changes in policy landscapes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Policy , Public Health
3.
Nature ; 605(7909): 195, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538366
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 2254411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528363

ABSTRACT

Adding the adequate level of security of information systems dealing with sensitive data, privacy, or defense systems involves some form of access control. The audits performed are dealing with the determination of the allowed activities of the legal users, when attempting to access resources of the system. Usually, full access is provided after the user has been successfully authenticated through an authentication mechanism (e.g., password), while the corresponding authorization control is based on the confidentiality level of the respective resources and the authorization level assigned to each user. A very important diversification occurring in modern digital technologies is related to the identification based on blockchain technology, which is presented as a public, distributed data series, unable to modify its history and grouped in time-numbered blocks. In this work, a blockchain-based verifiable user data access control policy for secured cloud data storage is suggested for a version associated with big data in health care. It is an innovative system of applying classified access policies to secure resources in the cloud, which operates based on blockchain technology. System evaluation is carried out by studying a case in its resilience to Eclipse attack under different malicious user capabilities for routing table poisoning.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Cloud Computing , Computer Security , Information Storage and Retrieval , Policy
5.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 42: 1-7, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503985

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer represents a considerable global health threat, leading the list in terms of cancer-related deaths worldwide. An important proportion of lung cancer cases occur within Latin America, and current projections show that over the next decade, the number of deaths due to lung cancer will double in the region, underscoring the need to implement evidence-based interventions to improve outcomes. Several challenges have limited the progress in lung cancer research in Latin America for many years, though recently the surge of multidisciplinary, transnational, and transcultural research groups have overcome many of these limitations. The increase in region-specific knowledge has improved cancer care in the area, providing clinicians with a specific demographic and molecular profile for Hispanic patients with lung cancer; as a result, the implementation of precision oncology has benefited from a profound knowledge of the patient profile. Nonetheless, there are still challenges to improve research in Latin America, including stabilizing funding sources to continue independent research, supporting mentoring programs and an early immersion in clinical research for early career fellows, and overcoming barriers for publishing.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Mentoring , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Policy , Precision Medicine
6.
BMJ ; 377: o1114, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512812
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e058196, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In 2016, Arizona enacted SB 1487 to nullify Tucson's ordinance permitting the municipality to destroy confiscated and forfeited firearms and instead require the firearms to be resold to the public through an auctioneer. Our objective was to examine whether firearm suicide rates increased in Pima County (greater Tucson area) relative to other Arizona counties following the enactment of Arizona's 2016 pre-emption law. DESIGN: An observational study of a natural policy experiment. We used a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the effects of Arizona enacting SB 1487 on firearm suicide rates in Pima County. Our statistical analyses adjusted for county-level differences in population demographics (age, gender and race) and unemployment rates, as well as a proxy for firearm availability and mental health professional shortage area status. SETTING: 9 Arizona counties from 2014 to 2019. PARTICIPANTS: A policy group was constructed using Pima County (Tucson area) observations. A comparison group was created using data from eight other Arizona counties. 54 county-year observations were analysed. INTERVENTION: SB 1487, which pre-empted Tucson law and allowed firearms that were seized/surrendered to law enforcement to be recirculated instead of destroyed. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Annual rates of firearm and non-firearm suicides per 100 000 persons extracted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER system. RESULTS: Over the study period, comparison group counties had an average of 14.87 firearm suicides per 100 000 persons per year, compared with 11.56 firearm suicides per 100 000 persons per year in Pima County. A 1.13 increase in Pima County's firearm suicides per 100 000 persons coincided with the enactment of Arizona's 2016 pre-emption law, relative to comparison group counties over the same period. CONCLUSIONS: SB 1487 was associated with higher firearm suicide rates in Pima County relative to other areas not targeted by the law, assuming fewer firearms were destroyed and more firearms re-entered the greater Tucson area through 2019.


Subject(s)
Firearms , Suicide , Arizona/epidemiology , Homicide , Humans , Policy , Potassium Iodide , Suicide/prevention & control , United States
8.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(5): e33735, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women's mobile health (mHealth) is a growing phenomenon in the mobile app global market. An increasing number of women worldwide use apps geared to female audiences (female technology). Given the often private and sensitive nature of the data collected by such apps, an ethical assessment from the perspective of data privacy, sharing, and security policies is warranted. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this scoping review and content analysis was to assess the privacy policies, data sharing, and security policies of women's mHealth apps on the current international market (the App Store on the Apple operating system [iOS] and Google Play on the Android system). METHODS: We reviewed the 23 most popular women's mHealth apps on the market by focusing on publicly available apps on the App Store and Google Play. The 23 downloaded apps were assessed manually by 2 independent reviewers against a variety of user data privacy, data sharing, and security assessment criteria. RESULTS: All 23 apps collected personal health-related data. All apps allowed behavioral tracking, and 61% (14/23) of the apps allowed location tracking. Of the 23 apps, only 16 (70%) displayed a privacy policy, 12 (52%) requested consent from users, and 1 (4%) had a pseudoconsent. In addition, 13% (3/23) of the apps collected data before obtaining consent. Most apps (20/23, 87%) shared user data with third parties, and data sharing information could not be obtained for the 13% (3/23) remaining apps. Of the 23 apps, only 13 (57%) provided users with information on data security. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the most popular women's mHealth apps on the market have poor data privacy, sharing, and security standards. Although regulations exist, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation, current practices do not follow them. The failure of the assessed women's mHealth apps to meet basic data privacy, sharing, and security standards is not ethically or legally acceptable.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Telemedicine , Computer Security , Female , Humans , Information Dissemination , Policy , Privacy
9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267004, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522612

ABSTRACT

Public efforts to battle COVID-19 have been portrayed as a trade-off between health and the economy in the U.S. public discourse. We investigate how the U.S. general public prioritizes the health and the income dimensions amid COVID-19 using an incentivized instrument with real monetary consequences. We also employ between-subject information treatments highlighting negative health and income consequences of the pandemic. Specifically, participants have to divide monetary contributions between two charitable organizations representing either the health or the income dimension. An overwhelming majority of participants supports both dimensions, with higher monetary contributions to the health dimension (56%) compared to income (44%), but the difference is not large. Only a small fraction of respondents contributes exclusively to the health (10%) or income (5%) dimensions. Increasing the salience of negative health outcomes of COVID-19 raises differential token allocations in favor of the health-oriented charity. This finding is important since the course of COVID-19 will be shaped by the policies governments implement and how the general public reacts to these policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Income , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 39(1): 153-179, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506604

ABSTRACT

In the summer of 1954, military surgeon Major Robert Elliott was posted to the British Military Hospital in Iserlohn, Germany, to provide medical care to Canadian soldiers, members of the 5,500-strong Canadian Brigade that had earlier been stationed there as part of Canada's commitment to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Like many other military families, Elliott's family had to remain behind until suitable accommodation for them could be found. Based on the letters that Elliott wrote home to his wife during their eight-month separation, this article provides a glimpse of how both old and new Canadian military policies during the early Cold War period had an impact on his work and his family. The Canadian government's decision to place the Brigade under British control reflected, in part, the long-standing attachment to Britain, but Elliott was often frustrated with how imperial/colonial relations played out in the hospital setting. And the military's initial reluctance to officially allow dependents to join their loved ones overseas, a new phenomenon in Canadian military life, undoubtedly contributed to his confusion and anxiety over when family quarters would finally be finished.


Subject(s)
Military Personnel , Canada , Germany , Humans , Policy
11.
Urologe A ; 61(5): 561-570, 2022 May.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511266

Subject(s)
Policy , Humans
12.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0264900, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511809

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the impact of strategic customer behavior on retailers' omni-channel strategies. Customers in the market are classified into strategic omni-channel customers and myopic B&M (brick and mortar) store customers. The retailer firstly charges a full price but will then salvage the leftover inventory at a lower price (markdown policy) for strategic omni-channel customers after the customers' demand is realized. The strategic omni-channel customers choose purchase timing to maximize their own expected profit. While, the myopic B&M store customers do not choose purchase timing. By characterizing rational expectation equilibrium, we find that the inventory level under markdown policy is higher than that in the classic model where no markdown policy is implemented. Also, the policy will transfer more strategic customers to the online channel to buy at full price so that the retailer will benefit from it. Besides, inventory commitment policy can further increase retailer's profit based on markdown policy. In addition, we extend the model to the supply chain and present the contrasting view that the total profit of the decentralized supply chain under the wholesale price contract is higher than that of the centralized supply chain. The influence of strategic customer behavior and system parameters on the retailer's optimal decision is discussed through numerical study.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Myopia , Consumer Behavior , Contracts , Humans , Marketing , Policy
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 427, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measles vaccination was introduced in Taiwan in 1978, and the disease was declared eliminated in Taiwan in 2007. However, new cases have been reported unpredictably since then. Hospital medical staff are at particularly high risk for measles. We evaluated the immunity status of hospital medical staff after changes in national and local hospital vaccination policies. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care medical center from January 2008 to June 2018. Data were retrieved from all healthcare workers receiving employment medical examinations. Those with a full medical record including the geometrical mean titer (GMT) of anti-measles IgG were included. Age and sex differences in the GMT were analyzed by Student's t-tests and Chi-squared tests. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to determine the odds of immunity. RESULTS: The IgG positive rate increased with age group (p < 0.001). Seropositive rates for the birth before 1977 and after 1978 groups were 94.8% and 70.2% (p < 0.001). The odds ratio was also significantly different between both cohorts (1.000 vs. 0.423, p = 0.002). Staff in the examination department showed the lowest positive percentage of 70.3% (95% CI: 66.9-73.7%), whereas staff in preventive and long-term care services disclosed the highest positive percentage of 83.2% (95% CI: 76.1-90.2%). Subgroups 2015, 2017, and 2018 (p = 0.046, 0.046, 0.049), after the vaccination booster policy was launched, showed significant increases in seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: Immunity efficacy is better in birth groups before 1977, which was highly related to natural infection before national policy launched. The policy of vaccination is an effective method, but medical staff attains inadequate protective antibody levels for maintenance of herd immunity. A pre-employment policy of screening a third booster vaccine of measles (or MMR) is recommended to lower the incidence of disease spreading and avoid outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Measles , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Medical Staff , Policy , Retrospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination
14.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267695, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507558

ABSTRACT

The economic growth of a nation under the competition among countries can result from the interaction of the diversity and complexity of product export and import relations on the globe. This research aims to evaluate the competitiveness of South Korea's trading products and its partner countries' dependency by implementing a product and partner-based analysis. This research raises questions about the transactional positions of products and trading partners based on the diversification of import-export relations of South Korea. This study utilizes the matrix of products and trading partners from the Korean product export and import data from 1995 to 2015. The research analyzes Korea's product competitiveness and dependency of trading countries on Korea using the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and a nonlinear iterative method (NIM). The study finds that the products of several manufacturing industries showed a large production scale. From the global perspective, the trade dependency on Korea was high in Asia and in Africa and South America where the portion of underdeveloped or developing countries is relatively large. This research suggests that Korea may face difficulties of continuing growth if it maintains or intensifies its trade relation pattern under the environment of rapidly changing technology and economy. Therefore, diversification and mutual complementarity could be important for the export of promising products and industrial development policy.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Industry , Asia , Policy , Republic of Korea
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(19): e2123177119, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500117

ABSTRACT

SignificanceAlthough family planning services are crucial for global health and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, their funding remains controversial. We document the health consequences of the "Mexico City Policy" (MCP), which restricts US funding for abortion-related activities worldwide. Since its enactment in 1985, the MCP has been enforced only under Republican administrations and quickly rescinded when a Democrat wins the presidency. Our analysis shows that the MCP makes it harder for women to get information on and support for reproductive health and is associated with higher maternal and child mortality rates and HIV rates worldwide. We estimate that reinstating the MCP between 2017 and 2021 resulted in approximately 108,000 maternal and child deaths and 360,000 new HIV infections.


Subject(s)
Child Health , HIV Infections , Child , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , International Cooperation , Mexico , Policy , Pregnancy
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 419, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543872

ABSTRACT

This paper was aimed at providing a perspective on the assessment of land-use dominant transition. Based on the transfer matrix of land-use type, the dynamic degree of dominant morphology transition was measured, and an active degree index was proposed. The spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics were assessed and analyzed by land use change characteristics in different phases. Our assessment resulted in three types of spatiotemporal differentiation of Hainan Province in China. The whole island can be divided into three regions with two parallel lines at 45° based on spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics. The "slow-type" was distributed in four eastern counties (cities), "steady-type" was distributed in 13 central and western counties (cities), and the "active-type" was distributed in four central counties (cities). Over three phases, namely 2010-2011, 2012-2015, and 2015-2018, four levels of spatiotemporal differentiation of the 21 counties (cities) were assessed, and they were relatively stable, leaping, declining, and unstable. Areas of new construction and fixed assets investments consumed by increased construction land were the positive factors of land-use dominant transition, while output values of secondary industries and area of industrial-mining per capita were the negative factors. Based on these results, a more informative examination of LULC was proposed, and all resulting land management policies will be more targeted and effective.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Mining , China , Cities , Industry , Policy
18.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e34, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543395

ABSTRACT

Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders are associated with substantial impairment and disability. Lack of treatment adherence is a major issue, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite growing evidence supporting second-generation long-acting antipsychotics (LAIs) as an effective strategy to ensure continued maintenance treatment in schizophrenia, access to these technologies has been very limited in constrained-resource settings. Including second-generation LAIs in national and international essential medicines lists and evidence-based guidelines, promoting public health-oriented patent pooling and extending their availability to primary health care settings, are key actions that should urgently be implemented to increase access to long-acting technologies. Implementing these policy actions can pragmatically improve treatment adherence, ultimately tackling schizophrenia-related impairment and disability in LMICs, which can be regarded as a global health priority.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Drugs, Essential , Schizophrenia , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Developing Countries , Humans , Policy , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1801-1807, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502077

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This retrospective database analysis study aims to present the scientometric data of journals publishing in the field of ophthalmology and to compare the scientometric data of ophthalmology journals according to the open access (OA) publishing policies. Methods: The scientometric data of 48 journals were obtained from Clarivate Analytics InCites and Scimago Journal & Country Rank websites. Journal impact factor (JIF), Eigenfactor score (ES), scientific journal ranking (SJR), and Hirsch index (HI) were included. The OA publishing policies were separated into full OA with publishing fees, full OA without fees, and hybrid OA. The fees were stated as US dollars (USD). Results: Four scientometric indexes had strong positive correlations; the highest correlation coefficients were observed between the SJR and JIF (R = 0.906) and the SJR and HI (R = 0.798). However, journals in the first quartile according to JIF were in the second and third quartiles according to the SJR and HI and in the fourth quartile in the ES. The OA articles published in hybrid journals received a median of 1.17-fold (0.15-2.71) more citations. Only HI was higher in hybrid OA; other scientometric indexes were similar with full OA journals. Full OA journals charged a median of 1525 USD lower than hybrid journals. Conclusion: Full OA model in ophthalmology journals does not have a positive effect on the scientometric indexes. In hybrid OA journals, choosing to publish OA may increase citations, but it would be more accurate to evaluate this on a journal basis.


Subject(s)
Ophthalmology , Periodicals as Topic , Humans , Journal Impact Factor , Policy , Retrospective Studies
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