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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(6): 750-758, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830167

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and other ongoing public health challenges have highlighted deficiencies in the US public health system. The United States is in a unique moment that calls for a transformation that builds on Public Health 3.0 and its focus on social determinants of health and partnerships with diverse sectors while also acknowledging how the pandemic altered the landscape for public health. Based on relevant literature, our experience, and interviews with public health leaders, we describe seven areas of focus within three broad categories to support transformational change. Contextual areas of focus include increasing accountability and addressing politicization and polarization. Topical areas of focus highlight prioritizing climate change and sharpening the focus on equity. Technical areas of focus include advancing data sciences, building the workforce, and enhancing communication capacity. A transformed public health system will depend highly on leadership, funding incentives, and both bottom-up and top-down approaches. A broad effort is needed by public health agencies, governments, and academia to accelerate the transition to a next phase for public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , United States , Social Determinants of Health , Pandemics , Leadership , SARS-CoV-2 , Politics
2.
J Med Biogr ; 32(2): 220-228, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832559

ABSTRACT

Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari was a doctor and remarkable political figure in the late 19th century and the first half of 20th century. After studying medicine in Edinburgh, he returned to his country and became interested in political issues. Not unlike other educated Indian Muslims, Ansari first expressed his concerns about the situation in the Ottoman empire and went to Istanbul as the head of the medical mission. Ansari, who became more interested in politics after his days in Istanbul, came to the forefront as one of the leading figures of the Indian independence movement. Along with Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948), Ansari did not engage in violence but supported the unity of Muslims and Hindus and opposed communalism. Despite his active political life, Ansari continued his medical studies with great seriousness and played an active role in establishing the Delhi Medical Association in 1914. During this period, his most important aim was to graft animal testicles onto human beings.


Subject(s)
Islam , History, 20th Century , India , History, 19th Century , Islam/history , Physicians/history , Ottoman Empire , Humans , Altruism , Politics , Scotland
3.
Lancet ; 403(10442): 2362, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823980
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0299063, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870217

ABSTRACT

On October 18, 2019, Chile experienced the most important social upheaval since the country regained democracy in the late 1980s. The "Social Outbreak" surprised economic and political elites and seemed paradoxical to the international community who had often praised Chile as a model of successful development. In this paper, we used structural-demographic theory to analyze the interaction between the overproduction of elites and the stagnation in the relative income of the population as the underlying structural cause of Chilean political instability. This theory was able to predict the three most significant instances of political tension in the recent history of Chile: the crisis of the late 1960s that culminated in the coup d'état of 1973, popular mobilizations during the 1980s, and the recent student mobilizations and social upheaval. Our results suggest that, at least during the period 1938-2019, Chilean sociopolitical dynamics is determined by the same structural drivers.


Subject(s)
Politics , Chile , Humans , Demography , Income , Models, Theoretical , Socioeconomic Factors
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(24): e2403116121, 2024 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848300

ABSTRACT

Recent advancements in large language models (LLMs) have raised the prospect of scalable, automated, and fine-grained political microtargeting on a scale previously unseen; however, the persuasive influence of microtargeting with LLMs remains unclear. Here, we build a custom web application capable of integrating self-reported demographic and political data into GPT-4 prompts in real-time, facilitating the live creation of unique messages tailored to persuade individual users on four political issues. We then deploy this application in a preregistered randomized control experiment (n = 8,587) to investigate the extent to which access to individual-level data increases the persuasive influence of GPT-4. Our approach yields two key findings. First, messages generated by GPT-4 were broadly persuasive, in some cases increasing support for an issue stance by up to 12 percentage points. Second, in aggregate, the persuasive impact of microtargeted messages was not statistically different from that of non-microtargeted messages (4.83 vs. 6.20 percentage points, respectively, P = 0.226). These trends hold even when manipulating the type and number of attributes used to tailor the message. These findings suggest-contrary to widespread speculation-that the influence of current LLMs may reside not in their ability to tailor messages to individuals but rather in the persuasiveness of their generic, nontargeted messages. We release our experimental dataset, GPTarget2024, as an empirical baseline for future research.


Subject(s)
Persuasive Communication , Politics , Humans , Language
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 628, 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to examine the impact of using the MOODLE e-learning platform in ideological and political education on Chinese students' motivation and academic performance. METHODS: The study involved 447 students from China-based universities (the experimental group - 232 students who studied using electronic educational platforms, and the control group - 215 students who used no digital technologies in their learning). The following methods were used: Measuring the need to achieve success among students; T. I. Ilyina's method for studying motivation to study at university; Method for studying student success motivation; Method for studying the motives of students' educational activities; Method for determining the main motives for choosing a profession (E. M. Pavlyutenkov); Motivation of learning activities: Levels and types (I. S. Dombrovskaya). Students' academic performance was assessed by testing in the studied disciplines at the beginning and end of the study. RESULTS: As a result, the significance of the motivational component in achieving the success of ideological and political education and the impact on students' motivation to use e-learning platforms is theoretically substantiated. CONCLUSIONS: It has been confirmed that using e-learning platforms in ideological and political education helps increase student motivation and academic performance.


Subject(s)
Motivation , Humans , China , Universities , Female , Male , Politics , Academic Performance , Education, Distance , Students/psychology , Young Adult , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods
9.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0302399, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843142

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study aimed to determine 1) whether German citizens' adherence to health professionals' recommendations and mandates regarding protective masks during the COVID-19 pandemic varied according to their political party affiliations, and 2) how behavioral cues provided by members of shared social groups, such as family and friends, influenced individual mask-wearing behavior. A quota-based sample of German voters (n = 330) consisting of 55 citizens whose voting intentions aligned with each of the country's six main political parties responded to an online questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice and open-ended questions. Univariate descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data were conducted, and multiple regressions were performed to determine log odds and significant variations among group-based responses. A pragmatic inductive coding process was used to conduct a thematic analysis of qualitative data. Results indicated that those participants who expressed an intention to vote for the populist radical right party were the least likely to follow health experts' recommendations and the most likely to express anger and dissatisfaction over mask mandates. Prospective Left Party voters were the most likely to adhere to the advice of their doctors, while those associated with the Green Party were the most likely to adhere to the advice of public health experts. Most survey participants reported aligning their mask-wearing behavior with that of family and friends, with prospective CDU/CSU voters particularly likely to consider the mask-wearing behavior of family members. The results indicate that public health officials should consider how group-related factors influence public health compliance in order to encourage protective mask-wearing in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Politics , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Germany/epidemiology , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Social Identification , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cues
11.
Cogn Emot ; 38(4): 411-417, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874558

ABSTRACT

Democratic societies have to face the challenge of increasing affective polarisation - a strong, emotionally fuelled, opposition between adherents of different political parties, or conflicting views and attitudes in different social groups. Social and psychological sciences can contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon and the special role of emotion theory and research in this respect. In their invited contribution, Bakker and Lelkes note the lack of conceptual precision of the term affective and invite emotion scientists to fill this notion with a theoretical structure that encourages systematic research across different problem areas and cultures. Two invited comments on this article support this initiative but favour an approach that privileges discrete emotions. In his comment, Von Scheve argues that intentionality and the associated action tendencies are essential to understand the emotional basis of polarisation. Halperin et al., based on a conceptual analysis and their own empirical research, they highlight the multi-faceted emotion of disappointment, covering both negative and positive aspects, as the most promising candidate. Finally, I consider the potential role of mixed or blended emotions as well as the potential contributions of appraisal theory, especially with respect to appraisal bias and ensuing emotion dispositions and action tendencies.


Subject(s)
Emotions , Politics , Humans , Psychological Theory
13.
Science ; 384(6700): 1057, 2024 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843340

ABSTRACT

Republicans attack retired research institute head, while Democrats rally to his defense.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.) , Politics , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology
14.
Cogn Emot ; 38(4): 418-436, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847476

ABSTRACT

While many believe that affective polarisation poses a significant threat to democratic stability, the definition and operationalisation of the concept varies greatly. This leads to conceptual slippage as well as imprecise tests of the causes and consequences of affective polarisation. In order to clearly identify and target its micro-foundations, we must understand the degree to which political divides are, in fact, affective. In this paper, we do so. We begin by delineating affective polarisation, a social divide that is purportedly distinct from policy-based disagreements. Subsequently, we explore the influence of emotions in politics, including how affect is conceptualised within the framework of polarisation. Where possible, our literature review is supplemented with analyses of existing datasets to support our points. The paper concludes by proposing a series of questions emotion researchers could address in the study of polarisation.


Subject(s)
Affect , Politics , Humans , Emotions
15.
Sci Adv ; 10(24): eadn2965, 2024 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865461

ABSTRACT

Political extremism varies across people and contexts, but which beliefs will a person support through extreme actions? We propose that ambivalent attitudes, despite reducing normative political actions like voting, increase support for extreme political actions. We demonstrate this hypothesized reversal using dozens of measures across six studies (N = 13,055). The effect was robust to relevant covariates and numerous methodological variations and was magnified when people's attitudinal or ideological positions were more polarized. It appears to occur because being conflicted about political issues can feel psychologically uncomfortable, making extreme actions more appealing. Notably, this emerged when people thought ambivalence was justified, whereas leading them to consider ambivalence unjustified suppressed the effect, suggesting that ambivalent people are coping with but not necessarily trying to reduce their ambivalence. These results highlight the interplay of affective and cognitive influences in extreme behavior, showing that beliefs people feel justifiably conflicted about can promote extremism.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Politics , Humans , Male , Female , Adult
17.
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