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1.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 577-586, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic gave rise to concerns about its potential impact on the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women as the general postpartum depression rates increased. METHODS: Three postpartum questionnaires (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale - EPDS; Anxiety and Depression Scale - HAD; and a demographic questionnaire about isolation and information acquisition) were used to evaluate the mental health of women with and without COVID-19 and determine the factors associated with depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 12). RESULTS: Data from 184 participants with a mean of 56 postpartum days were analyzed. The rate of symptoms compatible with postpartum depression (PPD) was 38.8%, with a 14.3% positive response to item 10 on the EPDS (suicidal ideation - SI). Listening to the news about COVID-19 averaged 4.45 hours a day. Factors related to PPD were concerns about lack of hospital beds (OR = 2.45), absence of a partner (OR = 2.70), and anxiety symptoms (OR = 10). Factors related to SI were anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.56) and friends as a source of information (OR = 5.60). LIMITATIONS: Considering the rapidly changing epidemiological conditions of this pandemic, this study may only be the photograph of an instant. CONCLUSIONS: Higher rates of PPD in the Brazilian population are related not only to anxiety but also to an inadequate family environment, kind of information acquisition and concerns about the lack of hospital beds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Depression , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131833, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426128

ABSTRACT

Due to the poor living and healthcare conditions, preterm birth (PTB) in rural population is a pressing health issue. However, PTB studies in rural population are rare. To explore the effects of air pollutants on PTB in rural population, we collected 697,316 medical records during 2014-2016 based on the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between air pollutants and PTB and the modifying effects of demographic characteristics. Relative contribution and principal component analysis-generalized linear model (PCA-GLM) analysis were used to explore the most significant air pollutant and gestational period. Our results demonstrated that PTB risk is positively associated with exposure to air pollutants including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO, while negatively associated with O3 exposure (P < 0.05). In addition, we found that NO2 was the largest contributor to the risk of PTB caused by air pollutants (26.5%). The third trimester of pregnancy was the most sensitive exposure window. PCA-GLM analysis showed that the first component (a combination of PM, SO2, NO2, and CO) increased the risk of PTB. Moreover, we found that rural women who are younger, had higher educated, multi-parity, or smoke appeared to be more sensitive to the association between air pollutants exposure and PTB (P-interaction<0.05). Our findings suggested that increased air pollutants except O3 were associated with elevated PTB risk, especially among vulnerable mothers. Therefore, the effects of air pollutants exposure on PTB should be mitigated by restricting emission sources of NO2 and SO2 in rural population, especially during the third trimester.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Premature Birth , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/chemically induced , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Rural Population
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131802, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion (SAB) brings serious physical and psychological sequelae to women and their families. Though a growing body of individual studies have suggested the possible linkage between chronic particulate matter (PM) exposure and risks of SAB, the provided results were rather contradictory. We therefore performed an evidence-based meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for available studies published before February 1, 2021 which reported associations between PM exposure and SAB. Corresponding models were applied to combine relative risks (RRs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) from eligible studies according to heterogeneity test. The GRADEpro app was used to evaluate the certainty of evidence. Sensitivity analyses and a publication bias assessment were also utilized to determine the stability of results. RESULTS: Of the initial 2358 citations, 6 papers examining the chronic effects of PM exposure were deemed eligible and a total population of approximately 723,000 was observed. Pooled RR for SAB risks associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and particulate matter ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were 1.20 (95%CI: 1.01-1.40) and 1.09 (95%CI: 1.02-1.15), respectively. The GRADE results of PM2.5 and PM10 were both categorized as "moderate" certainty evidence. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed a significant increase of SAB hazards related with maternal PM exposure, and this study may therefore provide new evidence for personal protection to improve reproductive health.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Abortion, Spontaneous/chemically induced , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pregnancy
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149790, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined whether air pollution is associated with adverse births outcomes, but it is not clear if socioeconomic status (SES) modifies this relationship. OBJECTIVES: We investigated if maternal education and area-level socioeconomic status modified the relationship between ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) on preterm births (PTB; gestational age <37 weeks) and term low birth weight (TLBW; weight < 2500 g on term deliveries). METHODS: Analyses were based on almost 1 million singleton live births in São Paulo municipality between 2011 and 2016. The final sample included 979,306 births for PTB analysis and 888,133 for TLBW analysis. Exposure to PM10, NO2 and O3 were based on date of birth and estimated for the entire gestation and for each trimester. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to examine the effect of air pollutants on both adverse birth outcomes and whether it was modified by individual and area-level SES. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, over the entire pregnancy, a 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 and PM10 was associated with increased chance of PTB (odds ratio; OR = 1.14 CI 1.13, 1.16 and 1.08 CI = 1.02, 1.15 respectively) and PM10 with TLBW (OR = 1.08 CI 1.03, 1.14). Associations were modified by maternal educational and area-level SES for both outcomes. Mothers of lower education had an additional chance of PTB and TLBW due to PM10 exposure (OR = 1.04 CI 1.04, 1.05 and 1.10 CI 1.08, 1.14 respectively), while mothers living in low SES areas have an additional chance for TLBW (OR = 1.05 CI 1.03, 1.06). Similar modification effects were found for O3 exposure. Trimester specific associations were weaker but followed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status modifies the effect of air pollution on adverse birth outcomes. Results indicate that mothers with lower SES may be more susceptible to air pollution effects.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Female , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Pregnancy , Social Class
5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131636, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358894

ABSTRACT

Inhalation exposure to polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P), one of the primary biocides used in humidifier disinfectants, caused a fatal pulmonary disease in Korea. Pregnant women were also exposed to PHMG-P, and subsequent studies showed that PHMG-P inhalation during pregnancy adversely affects their health and embryo-fetal development. However, the postnatal developmental effects after birth on prenatally PHMG-P-exposed offspring have not yet been investigated. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the postnatal development of prenatally PHMG-P-exposed offspring. Pregnant rats (22 or 24 females per group) were exposed to PHMG-P during pregnancy in a whole-body inhalation chamber at the target concentrations of 0, 0.14, 1.60, and 3.20 mg/m3. After parturition, the prenatally exposed offspring were transferred to non-exposed surrogate mothers to minimize the secondary effects of severe maternal toxicities. Postnatal development of offspring was then examined with a modified extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study design. At 3.20 mg/m3 PHMG-P, increased perinatal death rates and decreased viability index (postnatal survival of offspring between birth and postnatal day 4) were observed. In addition, F1 offspring had lower body weight at birth that persisted throughout the study. PHMG-P-exposed pregnant rats also had severe systemic toxicities and increased gestation period. At 1.60 mg/m3 PHMG-P, a decreased viability index was also observed with systemic toxicities of PHMG-P-exposed pregnant rats. These results indicate that prenatal PHMG-P exposure adversely affects the offspring's future health and could be used for human risk assessment.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Humidifiers , Animals , Disinfectants/analysis , Disinfectants/toxicity , Female , Guanidines , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/analysis , Lung/chemistry , Pregnancy , Rats , Reproduction
6.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131809, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humans are regularly exposed to metals and metalloids present in air, water, food, soil and domestic materials. Most of them can cross the placental barrier and cause adverse impacts on the developing foetus. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prenatal concentrations of metals and metalloids and to study the associated sociodemographic, environmental and dietary factors in pregnant Spanish women. METHODS: Subjects were 1346 pregnant women of the INMA Project, for whom the following metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl) and zinc (Zn) were determined in urine, at both the first and the third trimesters of gestation. Sociodemographic, dietary and environmental information was collected through questionnaires during pregnancy. Multiple linear mixed models were built in order to study the association between each metal and metalloid concentrations and the sociodemographic, environmental and dietary factors. RESULTS: The most detected compounds were As, Co, Mo, Sb, Se and Zn at both trimesters. Zn was the element found in the highest concentrations at both trimesters and Tl was detected in the lowest concentrations. We observed significant associations between As, Cd, Cu, Sb, Tl and Zn concentrations and working situation, social class and age. Seafood, meat, fruits, nuts, vegetables and alcohol intake affected the levels of all the metals but Cd and Cu. Proximity to industrial areas, fields and air pollution were related to all metals except Cd, Sb and Se. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large prospective longitudinal study on the exposure to metals and metalloids during pregnancy and associated factors to include several cohorts in Spain. The present study shows that some modifiable lifestyles, food intakes and environmental factors could be associated with prenatal exposure to metal(loid)s, which may be considered in further studies to assess their relationship with neonatal health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Metalloids , Metals, Heavy , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Metalloids/analysis , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Placenta/chemistry , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Spain
7.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131844, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392196

ABSTRACT

The etiology of hypospadias and cryptorchidism, which are the two most common genital anomalies in males, has not been elucidated. Although prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may increase the risks of hypospadias and cryptorchidism, the associations have not been confirmed. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to establish the relationships between prenatal exposure to EDCs and male genital anomalies. A systematic search of PubMed, EMbase, and Cochrane Library CENTRAL for relevant published studies providing quantitative data on the associations between prenatal EDCs exposure and hypospadias/cryptorchidism in humans was conducted. In total, sixteen case-controlled studies were included. Prenatal exposure to overall EDCs was associated with an increased risk of hypospadias in males (OR, 1.34, 95 % CI 1.12 to 1.60). Although there was no statistically significant association between overall EDCs exposure and cryptorchidism (OR, 1.11, 95 % CI 0.99 to 1.24), exposure to phenol substances was associated with an increased risk of cryptorchidism (OR, 1.81, 95 % CI, 1.12 to 2.93). Using the GRADE tool, we found the overall evidence to be of moderate certainty. In conclusion, the current evidence suggests prenatal EDCs exposure may increase the risk of hypospadias in males.


Subject(s)
Cryptorchidism , Endocrine Disruptors , Hypospadias , Case-Control Studies , Cryptorchidism/chemically induced , Cryptorchidism/epidemiology , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Female , Genitalia , Humans , Hypospadias/chemically induced , Hypospadias/epidemiology , Male , Pregnancy
8.
Food Chem ; 371: 131189, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600367

ABSTRACT

Visible - near infrared spectroscopy coupled with variable selection using simulated annealing PLS regression was tested to predict immunoglobulin fractions (g/L) of bovine colostrum, namely IgG, IgA and IgM. Immunoglobulins were quantified in 678 samples using the gold standard radial immunodiffusion. Samples were divided in calibration (50%) and validation (50%) datasets. Maximum number of selected variables were limited to 200 and root mean squared error in cross validation (RMSECV) was used as loss function. Performance of the final model developed using the calibration dataset was assessed on the validation dataset. Overall, simulated annealing PLS improved validation RMSECV compared to ordinary PLS regression by 3% to 17%. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the calibration model for accurate quantification of IgG, the most abundant immunoglobulin of bovine colostrum (RMSECV = 13.28 g/L; R2 = 0.83). These outcomes could be useful to assess colostrum quality intended for animal and human usage.


Subject(s)
Colostrum , Immunoglobulin G , Animals , Cattle , Female , Humans , Immunodiffusion , Least-Squares Analysis , Pregnancy , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
9.
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am ; 34(1): 201-212, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728146

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to clarify clinically impactful features of the perioperative and postoperative pharmacologic management of pregnant and lactating patients in the maxillofacial or dental setting. Before prescribing any drug to a nursing mother or pregnant patient, the maxillofacial surgeon and other dental and medical providers should consider the available evidence, benefits, and risk for that particular drug. There are many complex factors to consider when prescribing in order to maintain the safety of the pregnant individual, fetus, and infant. This article aims to provide concise, memorable, and actionable information to use in your clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Lactation , Surgery, Oral , Female , Humans , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Pregnancy
10.
Theriogenology ; 177: 165-171, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710648

ABSTRACT

Exfoliative cytology of human amniotic fluid (AF) has been extensively studied since 1940s, but no data exist in equine species. The AF compartment represents the environment in which the foetus grows and matures, and its composition changes, reflecting foetal well-being and development. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time the morphology of equine AF cells and amniotic membrane (AM) with light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AF was collected at parturition within 5 min after the appearance of the AM with a 60 mL syringe from 34 mares and samples of AM were collected from a subset of 7 mares with normal pregnancy hospitalized for attended parturition. For LM observation, a sample of cytocentrifuged fresh AF was stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa and AM sections were stained with H-E. For TEM observation, AF and AM were fixed, embedded in epoxy resins, then sectioned and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate solutions. Nucleated and anucleated squamous cells with basophilic cytoplasm, intensely basophilic cornified cells, polymorphonuclear cells, and clusters of eosinophilic amorphous substance were observed. Cells presumably derived from tracheal epithelium and small round nucleated cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm presumably derived from amniotic or urinary epithelium were occasionally found. Lamellar body-like structures (LBs) were present in some epithelial cells. In AM, epithelial, basal and mesenchymal layers were clearly visible with both techniques as previously described. Epithelial cells had several cytoplasmic vacuolization and microvilli were present on apical surface. The connective tissue presented fibroblasts, mesenchymal and rare polymorphonuclear cells, surrounded by abundant extracellular matrix, with distribution of collagen fibres. This is the first report about equine amniotic compartment description by LM and TEM. As recently reported in human medicine, the AM could be a second potential source of pulmonary surfactant, given the finding of LBs inside the cells which could have the same function as in humans. Further studies in samples collected at different gestational ages could increase the knowledge of AF cells and their modification during pregnancy, as well as a better comprehension of the role of AM as a secondary source of pulmonary surfactant in the horse. The diagnostic evaluation of AF cellular composition in high-risk pregnancies may also be investigated.


Subject(s)
Amnion , Amniotic Fluid , Animals , Epithelial Cells , Female , Gestational Age , Horses , Parturition , Pregnancy
11.
Theriogenology ; 177: 172-182, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715542

ABSTRACT

Artificial insemination (AI) is a proven breeding technology which has been widely used in pig reproduction. Low temperature can cause very serious damage to pig sperm below 15 °C and the situation is even more serious at lower temperature. Besides, the preservation of pig sperm is mainly carried out at 17 °C because of its outstanding performance in pig reproduction. However, the accumulation of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the preservation process is the main reason for the deterioration of sperm quality. In our research, by adding different concentrations of hydroxytyrosol to the diluent during the storage of pig sperm at 17 °C, we compared them with the traditional diluent to study the sperm motility, the cumulative amount of ROS, the extent of sperm membrane damage, the sperm acrosome integrity, the sperm DNA damage and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, T-AOC, SOD, GSH-PX, MDA) to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol on the sperm quality during storage. We used proteomics sequencing technology to monitor difference in sperm protein between the control samples and the addition of 120 µmol/L hydroxytyrosol samples (optimum concentration) after three days storage. Ultimately, we selected the control samples and the addition of 120 µmol/L hydroxytyrosol samples to test the effect of AI. The results of our research showed that during storage of pig sperm at 17 °C, the sperm quality and antioxidant capacity of the hydroxytyrosol-treated samples significantly improved (HT 120 µmol/L) (P < 0.05). Proteomics sequencing analysis proved that the addition of 120 µmol/L hydroxytyrosol treatment samples had potential value in improving sperm quality. The significant increase in sow pregnancy rate and piglet birth weight proved that hydroxytyrosol had important practical value in pig reproduction. Based on our results, we demonstrated that the addition of hydroxytyrosol to the diluent could improve the quality of pig sperm and the efficiency of AI.


Subject(s)
Semen Preservation , Sperm Motility , Animals , Female , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Male , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Pregnancy , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Spermatozoa , Swine
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126759, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391970

ABSTRACT

Human labor is associated with feto-maternal-derived signals that coordinate to initiate delivery. Exposure to environmental chemicals can prematurely trigger labor-initiating signals at the feto-maternal interface (FMi: decidua, amniochorion), leading to spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Testing the association between environmental chemical exposure and PTB is difficult due to many limitations in vivo or in vitro. Physiological organ-on-chips (OOCs) are potential alternatives for studying mechanisms leading to PTB. The presented study tested the effect of maternal exposure to cadmium (Cd), an environmental toxin, using the FMi-OOC that incorporates maternal decidua cells and three different fetal cells (chorion, amnion mesenchymal, and amnion epithelial cells). Cd transport through the FMi and its impact on cell cycle, cell death, and inflammation were analyzed. Cd treatment resulted in significant cell death and a pro-inflammatory environment in the maternal decidua, but had minimal effect on the fetal chorion cells, and no effect in the fetal amnion cells compared to controls. The maternal response, but lack of fetal response, indicates that Cd-mediated adverse effects originate from maternal pathophysiology rather than fetal-derived triggers of preterm labor. This study demonstrates that the FMi-OOC can indeed predict the response of FMi upon exposure to chemicals, opening the possibility for using OOC models for environmental toxin screens.


Subject(s)
Decidua , Premature Birth , Amnion , Cadmium/toxicity , Chorion , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/chemically induced
13.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 437-448, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196812

ABSTRACT

Since allergic diseases are of great public health relevance, effective primary prevention strategies are urgently needed. This chapter gives an overview of existing primary prevention programs on environmental exposures and dietary strategies based on epidemiological studies which have defined risk- and protective factors for the development of allergic diseases.The allergy protective effect mediated by growing up on a traditional farm environment is well studied. But the exact underlying mechanisms have still not been fully clarified and have not yet led to concrete prevention strategies. The beneficial effect of avoiding cigarette smoke exposure, indoor moisture and molds in pregnancy and childhood on the development of asthma is well documented. Whereas the avoidance of house dust mite exposure is not recommended to prevent eczema or allergy. Dietary supplementation with vitamins, pre- and probiotics in pregnant woman and their offspring is not harmful but evidence for the prevention of allergic diseases is still lacking. Fish oil consumption was shown to be asthma protective. The early introduction of peanuts and egg protein to prevent peanut and egg allergy in children with atopic dermatitis is promising. Further studies are needed to increase the overall evidence in allergy prevention. Most studies lack methodological standards such as randomization and blinding. More evidence is in demand on the potential beneficial impact of multifaceted interventional studies. The future of allergy prevention strategies might be based on individual risk assessment. Therefore, research in the immunological and molecular basis of allergic diseases needs to be promoted.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Dermatitis, Atopic , Eczema , Hypersensitivity , Child , Diet , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Infant , Pregnancy
14.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132375, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597632

ABSTRACT

Evidence of associations of pre- and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with cognitive development beyond early childhood is inconsistent. A previous report from this cohort observed adverse associations between early life PCB exposures and infant Bayley scores at age 16 months. The present study examines pre- and postnatal PCB exposures in relation to both behavior and cognitive development at age 45 months. Participants were 472 mother-child pairs residing in an area of eastern Slovakia characterized by environmental contamination with PCBs, which resulted in elevated blood serum concentrations. PCB-153 and PCB-118 concentrations were measured in maternal and in infant 6-, 16-, and 45-month serum samples. At age 45 months, children were administered five subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III), and mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Negative binomial and multiple linear regressions were used to estimate PCB-CBCL and PCB-WPPSI-III subtest score associations, respectively. Pre- and postnatal levels of PCB-153 and PCB-118 were not associated with cognitive performance on the WPPSI-III in this cohort. There was some suggestion that higher postnatal PCB concentrations were associated with more sleep problems and feelings of depression and anxiousness.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollutants , Polychlorinated Biphenyls , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Child, Preschool , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/chemically induced , Slovakia
15.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132115, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826892

ABSTRACT

Despite being restricted by many authorities, di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is still widely detected in the environment and biospecimens. To indentify populations of high risk and evaluate the effects of DEHP restrictions, we elucidated the geographic distribution of DEHP exposure levels among pregnant women and different age groups, and compared the time trend of exposure levels with the time course of productions/restrictions. The estimated daily intake (EDI) was calculated based on biomonitoring data in published epidemiological studies, and then the group EDI (EDIG) was calculated for one particular population, region, or period by weighting EDIs by sample sizes. Overall, 144,965 samples from 45 nations were included, with the sampling time ranging from 1982 to 2017. Children had the highest exposure level (5.50 µg/kg bw/day) worldwide, while infants and pregnant women had low levels (2.13 and 1.89 µg/kg bw/day, respectively). The EDIGs varied considerably between countries, and the majority of corresponding hazard quotients were less than 1; however, the risk behind can not be ignored. In the general population, the DEHP exposure level showed a downtrend from 4.40 µg/kg bw/day before 2000 to 2.23 µg/kg bw/day in 2015-2017. In the European Union, the annual trend of DEHP EDIGs of children and adults fitted the production and consumption volume, and the EDIGs decreased more sharply in children. The EDIGs of children decreased with a delay along with the regulations on the use of DEHP. Cutting productions/consumptions and restrictions are effective to reduce DEHP exposure, but current efforts are far from enough on a worldwide scale.


Subject(s)
Diethylhexyl Phthalate , Phthalic Acids , Adult , Biological Monitoring , Child , Environmental Exposure/analysis , European Union , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy
16.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132046, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474386

ABSTRACT

Phthalate is an environmental endocrine disruptor that causes direct and intergenerational male reproductive damage. However, its mechanisms require further investigation. The role of gut microbiota in male reproductive function has been gradually revealed in the past. To explore the intergenerational testicular injury and the influence on offspring gut microbiota of the widely used phthalate dibutyl phthalate (DBP), we conducted a prenatal DBP exposure experiment with microbiota sequencing. We finally explained the gestational DBP exposure-induced gut dysbacteriosis, which is one of the mechanisms of testicular injury in the offspring. The occurrence of seminiferous atrophy and spermatogenic cells apoptosis showed a slight increase. Our study partially supported the results of previous research works on the characteristics of gut dysbacteriosis, which featured the increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Prevotella and P. copri. Focusing on the role of gut microbiota in reproductive function is important. Future studies need to investigate the relationship between environmental pollution and human health.


Subject(s)
Endocrine Disruptors , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Dibutyl Phthalate/toxicity , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Reproduction , Testis
17.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118468, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748887

ABSTRACT

Maternal exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy, but little is known about which constituents and sources are most relevant to glycemic effects. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1148 pregnant women to investigate associations of PM2.5 chemical components with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and to identify the most harmful sources in Heshan, China from January 2015 to July 2016. We measured PM2.5 using filter-based method and analyzed them for 28 constituents, including carbonaceous species, water-soluble ions and metal elements. Contributions of PM2.5 sources were assessed by positive matrix factorization (PMF). Logistic regression model was used to estimate composition-specific and source-specific effects on GDM/IGT. Random forest algorithm was applied to evaluate the relative importance of components to GDM and IGT. PM2.5 total mass and several chemical constituents were associated with GDM and IGT across the early to mid-gestation periods, as were the PM2.5 sources fossil fuel/oil combustion, road dust, metal smelting, construction dust, electronic waster, vehicular emissions and industrial emissions. The trimester-specific associations differed among pollutants and sources. The third and highest quartile of elemental carbon, ammonium (NH4+), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) across gestation were consistently associated with higher odds of GDM/IGT. Maternal exposures to zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti) and vehicular emissions during the first trimester, and vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), road dust and fossil fuel/oil combustion during the second trimester were more important for GDM/IGT. This study provides important new evidence that maternal exposure to PM2.5 components and sources is significantly related to elevated risk for abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Glucose Intolerance , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Blood Glucose , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
18.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118476, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763012

ABSTRACT

Preconception and prenatal exposure to phthalates has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. However, it is unclear whether there are periods of heightened susceptibility during pregnancy. This prospective cohort study included 386 women undergoing fertility treatment who gave birth to a singleton infant during 2005 through 2018. Eleven phthalate metabolites were measured in spot urine samples collected at each trimester. In approximately 50% of participants, two metabolites of 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH), a phthalate substitute, were also measured. The molar sum of four di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (∑DEHP) was calculated. We evaluated the associations of mean maternal biomarker concentrations with risk of preterm birth using modified log-binomial models and utilized multiple informant models to compare trimester-specific associations. We examined the relative biomarker concentration across gestation comparing women with preterm birth to women with term delivery using quadratic mixed model. The risk ratio for preterm birth associated with a one-unit increase in the natural log-transformed urinary concentrations of ∑DEHP (mean during pregnancy) was 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.72). In multiple informant models, these associations were strongest in the third trimester (RR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.95). Estimated mean ∑DEHP concentrations were higher among women with preterm than term delivery, especially late in gestation. Associations with preterm birth were also observed for each of the four individual DEHP metabolites. Detection of cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid monocarboxyisooctyl ester (MCOCH), a metabolite of DINCH, appeared to be positively related to preterm birth. In this prospective cohort of subfertile couples, maternal ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, particularly during late gestation.


Subject(s)
Infertility , Phthalic Acids , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/chemically induced , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 25-48, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807435

ABSTRACT

Precise cell-specific spatio-temporal molecular signaling cascades regulate the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Importantly, the mechanisms regulating uterine receptivity, conceptus apposition and adhesion to the uterine luminal epithelia/superficial glandular epithelia and, in some species, invasion into the endometrial stroma and decidualization of stromal cells, are critical prerequisite events for placentation which is essential for the appropriate regulation of feto-placental growth for the remainder of pregnancy. Dysregulation of these signaling cascades during this critical stage of pregnancy can lead to pregnancy loss, impaired growth and development of the conceptus, and alterations in the transplacental exchange of gasses and nutrients. While many of these processes are conserved across species, significant variations in the molecular mechanisms governing maternal recognition of pregnancy, conceptus implantation, and placentation exist. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are critical for the establishment and maintenance of a successful pregnancy in humans, rodents, sheep, and pigs. Improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing these processes is critical to enhancing the fertility and reproductive health of humans and livestock species.


Subject(s)
Placentation , Rodentia , Animals , Embryo Implantation , Endometrium , Female , Humans , Placenta , Pregnancy , Sheep , Swine , Uterus
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 49-62, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807436

ABSTRACT

The period of conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membrane) development between fertilization and implantation in mammalian species is critical as it sets the stage for placental and fetal development. The trophectoderm and endoderm of pre-implantation ovine and porcine conceptuses undergo elongation, which requires rapid proliferation, migration, and morphological modification of the trophectoderm cells. These complex events occur in a hypoxic intrauterine environment and are supported through the transport of secretions from maternal endometrial glands to the conceptus required for the biochemical processes of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The conceptus utilizes glucose provided by the mother to initiate metabolic pathways that provide energy and substrates for other metabolic pathways. Fructose, however, is in much greater abundance than glucose in amniotic and allantoic fluids, and fetal blood during pregnancy. Despite this, the role(s) of fructose is largely unknown even though a switch to fructosedriven metabolism in subterranean rodents and some cancers are key to their adaptation to hypoxic environments.


Subject(s)
Embryo, Mammalian , Placenta , Animals , Embryo Implantation , Endometrium , Female , Fructose , Pregnancy , Sheep , Swine , Uterus
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