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1.
Neurobiol Aging ; 117: 212-221, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780561

ABSTRACT

We explored the brain metabolism correlates of emergent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a group of 26 patients with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Distinct volumes of interest (VOIs) expressed the sites of correlation between CSF biomarkers and brain metabolism as determined on [18F]FDG-PET images, as well as of significant hypometabolism in patients compared to healthy controls. Neurogranin- and α-synuclein-VOIs included left precuneus and/or posterior cingulate cortex (PC and/or PCC) and partially overlapped hypometabolism at those sites. ß-synuclein- and neurofilament light chain (NfL)-VOIs regarded either left or right lateral temporal areas, respectively, with partial overlap with hypometabolism only for the ß-synuclein-VOI, whereas the NfL-VOI did not include hypometabolic regions. We speculate that CSF neurogranin and α-synuclein express an already established hippocampal damage leading to PC and/or PCC deafferentation and hypometabolism. ß-synuclein may represent the progression of synaptopathy in the temporal lobe, while NfL the axonal injury in right temporal regions where neuronal loss is not yet evident.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Humans , Neurogranin , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Preliminary Data , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism , beta-Synuclein/metabolism
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 335, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neonatal Emergency Transport Services play a fundamental role in neonatal care. Stabilization before transport of newborns suffering from severe respiratory failure is often a challenging problem and some critically ill infants may benefit from High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) as rescue treatment. In these cases, transition to conventional ventilation for transport may cause a deterioration in clinical conditions. HFOV during neonatal transport has been only exceptionally used, due to technical difficulties. Since May 2018, a new neonatal transport unit is available at the Neonatal Protected Transport Service of the Meyer University Hospital in Florence, equipped with a pulmonary ventilator capable of delivering HFOV. Therefore, we conducted an analysis on patients transferred in HFOV to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), in order to evaluate the safety and feasibility of its use during neonatal transport. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed reviewing medical records of the neonates transported by Meyer Children Hospital's Neonatal Transport Service between May 2018 and December 2020, and newborns treated with HFOV during ground neonatal transport were identified. Safety was assessed by the comparison of vital signs, hemogas-analysis values and pulmonary ventilator parameters, at the time of departure and upon arrival in NICU. The dose of inotropes, the main respiratory complications (air leak, dislocation or obstruction of the endotracheal tube, loss of chest vibrations) and the number of deaths and transfer failures were recorded. RESULTS: Out of the approximate 400 newborns transported during the analysis period, 9 were transported in HFOV. We did not find any statistically significant difference in vital parameters, hemogas-analytical values and pulmonary ventilator settings recorded before and after neonatal transport of the nine patients' parameters (p > 0,05). No patient required additional inotropes during transport. No transport-related deaths or significant complications occurred during transport. CONCLUSIONS: The interest of our report is in the possibility of using HFOV during inter-hospital neonatal transfer. As far as our experience has shown, HFOV appears to be safe for the transportation of newborns with severe respiratory failure. Nevertheless, further larger, prospective and multicentre studies are needed to better evaluate the safety and efficacy of HFOV during neonatal transport.


Subject(s)
High-Frequency Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Insufficiency , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Preliminary Data , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
4.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 159: 111214, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759914

ABSTRACT

The management of tracheal wall lacerations is debated. Current treatments are mainly derived by the experience on adults and include conservative or surgical treatments depending on the clinical condition of the patient. We report our preliminary data with removable tracheal stents in 3 children with tracheal tears and respiratory failure. If performed in specialized centers with appropriate endoscopic and clinical follow-up, airway stents can be considered a valid and safe conservative treatment for tracheal tears and an alternative to intubation or tracheostomy. Further studies are needed to compare different therapeutic options and better define the management and duration of stent treatment.


Subject(s)
Conservative Treatment , Trachea , Adult , Child , Humans , Preliminary Data , Stents , Trachea/injuries , Trachea/surgery , Treatment Outcome
5.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 35: e1667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35766612

ABSTRACT

AIM: Hydatidosis is a rare and endemic parasitic disease in Brazil that causes the proliferation of cysts mainly in the liver, leading to many complications, such as compression of vessels and biliary ducts, liver failure, portal hypertension, and cirrhosis. The treatment of choice is the resection of the lesions combined with albendazole therapy. This disease is a rare indication for liver transplantation, a feasible treatment option in more advanced stages. The purpose of this study was to describe two cases of patients from northern Brazil who underwent liver transplantation due to hepatic hydatidosis. METHODS: This is a retrospective study with data collected from medical records. RESULTS: Case 1: A 51-year-old female patient presented pain in the right hypochondriac, dyspepsia, consumptive syndrome, and obstructive jaundice, with a previous diagnosis of Caroli's disease with no possibility of surgical resection and a MELD score of 24. She underwent liver transplantation, and the anatomopathological result demonstrated hydatidosis. Case 2: A 52-year-old female patient presented multiple episodes of cholangitis in 30 years, with three liver resections and clinical treatment with albendazole for hydatidosis. She underwent liver transplantation due to recurrent cholangitis with a MELD score of 20. Both patients underwent post-transplant clinical therapy with albendazole, had good outcomes, and remain in follow-up without complications after 5 and 96 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: The patients benefited from the procedure and have a good prognosis due to the absence of metastasis, early reintroduction of antiparasitic drugs, and continuous follow-up.


Subject(s)
Cholangitis , Echinococcosis , Liver Transplantation , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Echinococcosis/surgery , Female , Humans , Liver Transplantation/methods , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Retrospective Studies
6.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(4): 1611-1620, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699263

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the Therapy Program for Management of Chronic Cough (TMCC) in laryngeal sensations and symptoms related to the cough in individuals with chronic refractory cough (CRC). METHOD: This research is a randomized double-blind clinical trial (Register Number: RBR-4m6x29). Eleven participants were allocated to two groups by parallel randomization: The Experimental Group-consisting of six individuals who underwent the TMCC; and the Control Group-consisting of five individuals who underwent the Comprehensive Vocal Rehabilitation Program (CVRP). Two primary outcomes were analyzed: self-perception of laryngeal sensations (Newcastle Laryngeal Hypersensitivity Questionnaire [LHQ-Br]) and self-perception of symptoms of upper airway-related cough (Cough Severity Index [CSI-Br]). The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the evaluation moments and intervention groups. For multiple comparisons, the Tukey test with Bonferroni correction was used. To evaluate the effect size, eta partial square was used. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups for any outcomes analyzed. There was a statistically significant difference with a large effect size for the moment factor in all outcomes. A statistically significant difference was observed with a large effect size for the interaction effect between group and moment for LHQ-Br total and CSI-Br psychological and functional. CONCLUSIONS: The TMCC and CVRP were effective for the rehabilitation of CRC, considering the viewpoint of the subject. The TMCC improved laryngeal sensations and psychological and functional symptoms, while CVRP was relevant to improve psychological and functional symptoms in individuals with CRC.


Subject(s)
Cough , Larynx , Chronic Disease , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/therapy , Humans , Preliminary Data , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Acta Biomed ; 93(2): e2022162, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The management of prediabetes and hyperglycemia is an increasingly important aspect of care in patients with thalassemia. In light of the limited evidence about the management of GD (glucose dysregulation) with glucose-lowering agents (GLAs), we have conducted a retrospective survey in TDT and NTDT patients with diabetes mellitus to collect more detailed information on GLA use in order to make preliminary recommendations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHOD: A questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the tertiary thalassemia care Centers of ICET-A Network. RESULTS: Eight  thalassemia care Centers [Bulgaria, Greece, Iran, Italy (4 Centers) and Qatar], following 1.554 with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT), 132 (8.4%) with diabetes and 687 with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT), 27 (3.9%) with diabetes, participated in the retrospective survey. The records of 117 TDT patients and 9 NTDT patients with diabetes treated with GLAs were analyzed. Metformin, a biguanide, was the most frequently used drug (47.6 %), followed by alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (5.5 %), incretins (4.7%) and insulin secretagogues (3.1%).  In 68 (61.2) patients  GLAs was prescribed as monotherapy, while the remaining  49  (38.8%), who had inadequate glucose control with metformin, were treated with combination treatment. Fifty-one patients  of 126 (40.4%) initially treated with oral GLA, for a mean duration of 61.0 ± 35.6 months (range: 12- 120 months), required insulin therapy for better metabolic control. CONCLUSION: This retrospective study covers an unexplored area of research in patients with thalassemia and GD. Oral GLAs appear to be safe and effective for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in patients with thalassemia, and can achieve adequate glycemic control for a substantial period of time.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Metformin , Thalassemia , beta-Thalassemia , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glucose , Humans , Insulin/therapeutic use , Preliminary Data , Retrospective Studies , Thalassemia/therapy
8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564801

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: We find the incidence of clubfoot in Italy from "Certificate of Delivery Care Registry (CeDAP)", a database of the Italian Ministry of Health, the most comprehensive public data available for this purpose. (2) Methods: The CeDAP registry is a web system that provides epidemiological and sociodemographic information about newborns. It started on 1 January 2002, following the ministerial Decree no. 349 of 16 July 2001. The certificate is structured into six sections; each collects specific information referring to the birthplace, parents, pregnancy, childbirth, newborn, and the possible presence of congenital malformations or the causes of neonatal mortality. The midwife or the doctor draws up the certificate no later than ten days after birth. Each region transmits the data every six months to the Ministry of Health. The period between 2013 and 2017 has been selected for the study, with every Italian region's data. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study. (3) Results: The overall rate in northern Italy is 1.09 (with some exceptions described), but we think it is essential to reevaluate this number again, given more accurate data collections by every Italian hospital. (4) Conclusions: This study intends to build a framework for future epidemiologic studies about clubfoot in Italy.


Subject(s)
Clubfoot , Clubfoot/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Preliminary Data , Registries , Retrospective Studies
9.
San Salvador; MINSAL; abr. 21, 2022. 4 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1366980

ABSTRACT

Informe que presenta la situación epidemiológica El Salvador al 18 de abril de 2022 (Datos preliminares) Principales causas de consulta, acumuladas desde el 11 de abril a la fecha, años 2021 ­ 2022 Total consultas, emergencias y referencias, Semana Santa El Salvador 2020 ­ 2021 Informe de COVID-19 I. Contexto mundial de COVID -19 II. Contexto Centroamérica y República Dominicana III. Situación Nacional, Programación semanal de tamizajes comunitarios, semana santa 2022 Recursos Humanos a disposición para este periodo del sistema integrado de salud


Report presenting the epidemiological situation of El Salvador as of April 18, 2022 (Preliminary data) Main causes of consultation, accumulated from April 11 to date, years 2021 - 2022 Total queries, emergencies and referrals, Easter El Salvador 2020 ­ 2021 COVID-19 Report I. Global Context of COVID -19 II. Context Central America and the Dominican Republic III. National Situation, Weekly programming of community screening, Holy Week 2022 Human resources available for this period of the integrated health system


Subject(s)
Health , Epidemiology , Electronic Publications , Holidays , Infections , Mass Screening , El Salvador , Preliminary Data
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 80-88, abril 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363652

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La evidencia actual indica que la gravedad de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) es menor en la población pediátrica, los datos locales aún son limitados. Objetivo: caracterizar los aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la infección por COVID-19 en menores de 18 años en Argentina. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal, observacional y analítico de casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 0 y 18 años asistidos entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021 en 19 centros pediátricos de referencia de Argentina. Se realizó un análisis multivariado para identificar las variables predictoras de cuadros graves. Resultados. Se incluyeron 2690 casos de COVID-19: 77,7 % residentes del área metropolitana de Buenos Aires, 50,1 % de sexo masculino, mediana de edad de 5,6 años. El 90 % ocurrió entre las semanas epidemiológicas 20-47 del 2020; 60,4 % con antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19; y 96,6 % en el entorno familiar. El 51,4 % presentó síntomas respiratorios; 61,6 % síntomas generales; 18,8 % síntomas gastrointestinales; 17,1 % síntomas neurológicos; 7,2 % otros y 21,5 % fueron asintomáticos. El 59,4 % fue hospitalizado; 7,4 fueron graves o críticos. Se registraron 57 casos de síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico. El antecedente de asma, displasia broncopulmonar, cardiopatía congénita, desnutrición moderada a grave, obesidad, enfermedad neurológica crónica y/o edad menor de 6 meses resultaron predictores independientes de gravedad. Residir en barrios vulnerables resultó protector. Conclusiones. Más de la mitad de los casos refirieron antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19 en el entorno familiar. La hospitalización no respondió a criterios clínicos de gravedad. La gravedad se encuentra asociada a la existencia de ciertas comorbilidades.


Introduction. The current evidence indicates that the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lower in the pediatric population but local data are still limited. Objective: To characterize the clinical and epidemiological aspects of COVID-19 infection in patients younger than 18 years in Argentina. Population and methods. Cross-sectional, observational, and analytical study of confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 0-18 years seen between March 2020 and March 2021 at 19 referral children's hospitals of Argentina. A multivariate analysis was done to identify predictors of severe cases. Results. A total of 2690 COVID-19 cases were included: 77.7% lived in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires; 50.1% were males; patients' median age was 5.6 years. Of them, 90% were seen during epidemiological weeks 20-47 of 2020; 60.4% had a history of contact with COVID-19 patients; and 96.6% in their family setting. Also, 51.4% had respiratory symptoms; 61.6%, general symptoms; 18.8%, gastrointestinal symptoms; 17.1%, neurological symptoms; 7.2%, other symptoms; and 21.5% were asymptomatic. In addition, 59.4% of patients were hospitalized and 7.4% had a severe or critical course. A total of 57 patients developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome. A history of asthma, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, moderate to severe malnutrition, obesity, chronic neurological disease and/or age younger than 6 months were independent predictors of severity.Livinginavulnerableneighborhoodwas a protective factor. Conclusions. More than half of cases referred a history of contact with COVID-19 patients in the family setting. Hospitalization was not based on clinical criteria of severity. Severity was associated with the presence of certain comorbidities


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Pandemics , Preliminary Data
11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409689

ABSTRACT

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social skills and specific behaviors and interests. Among other environmental factors, iron may play a role in the development of ASD. The aim of this study is to compare the iron status of children with ASD with that of children affected by neurodevelopmental disorders other than ASD (OND). A total of 167 patients were enrolled, including 93 children with ASD and 74 children with OND. In the two groups, we determined ferritin, iron, transferrin, hemoglobin, HCT, and MCV in the serum. We found a significant difference in serum ferritin and MCV levels between the two groups (p < 0.05), with lower ferritin and higher MCV values in the ASD group. There was no significant association with the other variables. Our results may support the hypothesis of altered iron status in ASD, justifying more frequent examinations of blood iron parameters in these children.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Child , Ferritins , Humans , Iron , Preliminary Data
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 30: 100711, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431069

ABSTRACT

Cysticercosis caused by the larval stages of Taenia hydatigena has a significant global impact on livestock production, particularly of goats and sheep. Despite this, global data on prevalence and genetic variance of this parasite are still scarce. In Ghana, as in most African countries, numerous anecdotal observations agree that it is widespread and frequent. To obtain baseline data, we screened 251 goats and 248 sheep in northern Ghana (Upper East Region) for T. hydatigena metacestode and molecularly characterized the isolates using the mtDNA cox1 gene sequence. Prevalence was 58.57% in goats and 60.48% in sheep, confirming the abundance of this parasite in the region. Gene sequences revealed high diversity (π 0.00346, hd 0.809) and significant negative Tajima D and Fu's Fs values, a characteristic of a population experiencing an expansion after a recent bottleneck. This is the first account of the genetic structure of T. hydatigena in Ghana, intended as a basis for subsequent studies in the region.


Subject(s)
Goat Diseases , Parasites , Sheep Diseases , Taenia , Animals , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/parasitology , Goats/parasitology , Livestock , Phylogeny , Preliminary Data , Prevalence , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Taenia/genetics
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e052180, 2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450891

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Primary postoperative ileus is one of the principal factors affecting in-hospital recovery after colorectal surgery. Research on the relationship between anaesthetic depth and perioperative outcomes has been attracting growing attention. However, the impact of anaesthetic depth on the recovery of gastrointestinal function after surgery is unclear. We aimed to conduct a single-centre, prospective, randomised, controlled trial to explore the effect of anaesthetic depth on primary postoperative ileus after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this single-centre, prospective, patient-blinded and assessor-blinded, parallel, randomised, controlled trial, a total of 854 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III patients, aged between 18 and 65 years and scheduled for laparoscopic colorectal surgery lasting ≥2 hours, will be randomly assigned to deep anaesthesia group (Bispectral Index (BIS) 30-40) or light anaesthesia group (BIS 45-55). The primary outcome is primary postoperative ileus during the hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were time to gastrointestinal function recovery, another defined postoperative ileus, 15-item quality of recovery score, length of postoperative stay, postoperative 30-day complications and serum concentrations of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein at 6 hours after surgery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was approved by Medical Ethics Committee of Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University (Approval number: NFEC-2018-107) prior to recruitment. All participants will provide written informed consent before randomisation. Findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800018725.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , Colorectal Surgery , Ileus , Laparoscopy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Humans , Ileus/etiology , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Preliminary Data , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Young Adult
14.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 688-692, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440292

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease associated with the formation of hard inflammatory and fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum. Taking into consideration the fact that RPF is a rare disease with different subtypes, we compared the basal clinical and biochemical characteristics of the vascular and urorenal subtypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2005 until December 2021, 27 patients were identified as vascular subtype (18 males) and 11 as urorenal subtype (9 males). RESULTS: Patients with a primary urorenal origin had significantly worse kidney function as reflected by serum creatinine and eGFR (both p < 0.001); they also had higher serum cholesterol (p < 0.01). Hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and nicotinism were significantly more prevalent in vascular subtype (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Vascular subtype is more prevalent in our study with more cardiovascular risk factor present. Due to the diversity of symptoms, diagnosis of RPF becomes a challenge for specialists as well as therapy.


Subject(s)
Retroperitoneal Fibrosis , Female , Humans , Male , Preliminary Data , Rare Diseases , Retroperitoneal Fibrosis/diagnosis , Retroperitoneal Fibrosis/therapy
15.
Neurosci Lett ; 781: 136655, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Developmental stuttering is thought to be underpinned by structural impairments in the brain. The only way to support the claim that these are causal is to determine if they are present before onset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted on 18 neonates, aged 8-18 weeks, 6 of whom were determined to be genetically at risk of stuttering. RESULTS: With tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, no statistically significant differences were found between the at-risk group and the control group. However, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in the corpus callosum of the at-risk group were lower (uncorrected) than in the control group. Automated Fiber Quantification (AFQ) yielded lower FA in the at-risk group than in the control group in the medial section of the callosum forceps minor. DISCUSSION: The findings, albeit with a small number of participants, support the proposition that reduced integrity of white matter in the corpus callosum has a causal role in developmental stuttering. Longitudinal research to determine if children with this impairment at birth later start to stutter is needed to confirm this. The left arcuate fasciculus is thought to develop as speech develops, which likely explains why there were no abnormal findings in this area in our at-risk neonates so soon after birth. This is the first study to investigate the brains of children before the onset of stuttering, and the findings warrant further research.


Subject(s)
Stuttering , White Matter , Anisotropy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Child , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Diffusion Tensor Imaging/methods , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Preliminary Data , Stuttering/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
16.
Hernia ; 26(3): 865-871, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399142

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Physical therapy (PT) and rehabilitation are widely utilized in a variety of disease processes to improve function, return to activities of daily living (ADLs), and promote overall recovery. However, hernia repair has struggled to adopt this practice despite operations occurring in one of the most dynamic parts of the body - the abdominal core. This study sought to understand perspectives and perceived barriers regarding the incorporation of PT and rehabilitation in hernia care. METHODS: A standardized rehabilitation protocol was developed by the Abdominal Core Health Quality Collaborative (ACHQC), a national quality improvement initiative specific to hernia disease, and launched in 2019. Empiric data from the ACHQC was then obtained to describe preliminary utilization. A prospective electronic survey was then deployed to all surgeons participating in the ACHQC to aid in interpreting the identified trends. The survey included questions regarding the current use of PT in their practice, as well as further opinions on the functionality, benefit, and barriers to its use. RESULTS: We identified 1,544 patients who were listed as receiving some form of postoperative rehabilitation, of which 992 (64.2%) had a primary diagnosis of ventral hernia and 552 (35.8%) had an inguinal hernia. Among patients who had a ventral hernia, 863 (87.0%) received self-directed rehabilitation exercises compared to 488 (88.4%) of inguinal hernia patients. The subsequent survey exploring these trends was completed by 46 ACHQC surgeons (10.2%). More than half (52%) reported using PT for hernia patients, primarily in abdominal wall reconstruction cases (92%). Of those who did not report using PT, 50% cited unknown clinical benefit and another 27% cited unknown PT resources. PT utilization was typically concentrated to the postoperative period (58%), while 42% reported also using it preoperatively. Despite 72% of respondents citing a perceived benefit of PT in hernia patients, overall use of PT was primarily reported as 'occasional' by 42%, with another 27% reporting 'rarely.' Perceived benefits of PT included increased core strength, stability, mobility, patient satisfaction, education, independence, earlier return to work and ADLs, overall improved recovery, and decreased risk of postoperative issues. Reported barriers to implementing PT in practice or adapting the ACHQC Rehabilitation Protocol included lack of education, lack of evidence of clinical benefit, and difficulties operationalizing the protocol. CONCLUSION: A national survey of hernia surgeons demonstrated willingness to adopt PT and rehabilitation protocols in their clinical practices and noted a high perceived benefit to patients. However, lack of education and evidence regarding the protocol may represent important barriers to overcome in widely disseminating these resources to patients. These gaps can be addressed through dedicated educational venues and additional studies establishing PT and rehabilitation as critical future adjuncts for the recovery of hernia repair patients.


Subject(s)
Hernia, Inguinal , Hernia, Ventral , Activities of Daily Living , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Hernia, Ventral/surgery , Herniorrhaphy/methods , Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities , Preliminary Data , Prospective Studies , Standard of Care
17.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 157: 111129, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443229

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Olfactory preference emerges very early in life, and the sense of smell in children rapidly develops until the second decade of life. It is still unclear whether hedonic perception of odors is shared in children inhabiting different regions of the globe. METHODS: Five-hundred ten healthy children (N = 510; ngirls = 256; nboys = 254) aged from 5 to 8 years from 18 countries rated the pleasantness of 17 odors. RESULTS: The hedonic perception of odors in children aged between 5 and 8 years was rather consistent across 18 countries and mainly driven by the qualities of an odor and the overall ability of children to label odorants. CONCLUSION: Conclusions from this study, being a secondary analysis, are limited to the presented set of odors that were initially selected for the development of U-Sniff test and present null findings for the cross-cultural variability in hedonic perception of odors across 18 countries. These two major issues should be addressed in the future to either contradict or replicate the results presented herewith. This research lays fundament for posing further research questions about the developmental aspects of hedonic perception of odors and opens a new door for investigating cross-cultural differences in chemosensory perception of children.


Subject(s)
Odorants , Smell , Child , Child, Preschool , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , Preliminary Data
18.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(2): 80-88, 2022 04.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338811

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current evidence indicates that the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lower in the pediatric population but local data are still limited. Objective: To characterize the clinical and epidemiological aspects of COVID-19 infection in patients younger than 18 years in Argentina. POPULATION AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational, and analytical study of confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 0-18 years seen between March 2020 and March 2021 at 19 referral children's hospitals of Argentina. A multivariate analysis was done to identify predictors of severe cases. RESULTS: A total of 2690 COVID-19 cases were included: 77.7% lived in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires; 50.1% were males; patients' median age was 5.6 years. Of them, 90% were seen during epidemiological weeks 20-47 of 2020; 60.4% had a history of contact with COVID-19 patients; and 96.6% in their family setting. Also, 51.4% had respiratory symptoms; 61.6%, general symptoms; 18.8%, gastrointestinal symptoms; 17.1%, neurological symptoms; 7.2%, other symptoms; and 21.5% were asymptomatic. In addition, 59.4% of patients were hospitalized and 7.4% had a severe or critical course. A total of 57 patients developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome. A history of asthma, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, moderate to severe malnutrition, obesity, chronic neurological disease and/or age younger than 6 months were independent predictors of severity. Living in a vulnerable neighborhood was a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of cases referred a history of contact with COVID-19 patients in the family setting. Hospitalization was not based on clinical criteria of severity. Severity was associated with the presence of certain comorbidities.


Introducción. La evidencia actual indica que la gravedad de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) es menor en la población pediátrica, los datos locales aún son limitados. OBJETIVO: caracterizar los aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la infección por COVID-19 en menores de 18 años en Argentina. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal, observacional y analítico de casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 0 y 18 años asistidos entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021 en 19 centros pediátricos de referencia de Argentina. Se realizó un análisis multivariado para identificar las variables predictoras de cuadros graves. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 2690 casos de COVID-19: 77,7 % residentes del área metropolitana de Buenos Aires, 50,1 % de sexo masculino, mediana de edad de 5,6 años. El 90 % ocurrió entre las semanas epidemiológicas 2047 del 2020; 60,4 % con antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19; y 96,6 % en el entorno familiar. El 51,4 % presentó síntomas respiratorios; 61,6 % síntomas generales; 18,8 % síntomas gastrointestinales; 17,1 % síntomas neurológicos; 7,2 % otros y 21,5 % fueron asintomáticos. El 59,4 % fue hospitalizado; 7,4 % fueron graves o críticos. Se registraron 57 casos de síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico. El antecedente de asma, displasia broncopulmonar, cardiopatía congénita, desnutrición moderada a grave, obesidad, enfermedad neurológica crónica y/o edad menor de 6 meses resultaron predictores independientes de gravedad. Residir en barrios vulnerables resultó protector. CONCLUSIONES: Más de la mitad de los casos refirieron antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19 en el entorno familiar. La hospitalización no respondió a criterios clínicos de gravedad. La gravedad se encuentra asociada a la existencia de ciertas comorbilidades.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Preliminary Data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
19.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(6): 1828-1837, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transition-related patient safety errors are high among patients discharged from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), and interventions are needed to improve communication between hospitals and SNF providers. Our objective was to describe the implementation of a pilot telehealth videoconference program modeled after Extension for Community Health Outcomes-Care Transitions and examine patient safety errors and readmissions. METHODS: A multidisciplinary telehealth videoconference program was implemented at two academic hospitals for patients discharged to participating SNFs. Process measures, patient safety errors, and hospital readmissions were evaluated retrospectively for patients discussed at weekly conferences between July 2019-January 2020. Results were mapped to the constructs of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) model. Descriptive statistics were reported for the conference process measures, patient and index hospitalization characteristics, and patient safety errors. The primary clinical outcome was all-cause 30-day readmissions. An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was conducted using logistic regression models fit to compare the probability of 30-day hospital readmission in patients discharged to participating SNFs across 7 months prior to after telehealth project implementation. RESULTS: There were 263 patients (67% of eligible patients) discussed during 26 telehealth videoconferences. Mean discussion time per patient was 7.7 min and median prep time per patient was 24.2 min for the hospital pharmacist and 10.3 min for the hospital clinician. A total of 327 patient safety errors were uncovered, mostly related to communication (54%) and medications (43%). Differences in slopes (program period vs. pre-implementation) of the probability of readmission across the two time periods were not statistically significant (OR 0.95, [95% CI 0.75, 1.19]). CONCLUSIONS: A pilot care innovations telehealth videoconference between hospital-based and SNF provider teams was successfully implemented within a large health system and enhanced care transitions by optimizing error-prone transitions. Future work is needed to understand process flow within nursing homes and its impact on clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Patient Transfer , Telemedicine , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Preliminary Data , Retrospective Studies , Skilled Nursing Facilities , United States , Videoconferencing
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 120, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic is the major public health problem in the world actually. It's associated with high morbidity and mortality. To date, no therapeutic measure has a curative potential. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a drug with immunomodulatory properties that has demonstrated antiviral efficacy in in vitro experiments, with conflicting results in in vivo studies. METHODS: A single-center, prospective and interventional study, that evaluates the impact on mortality of the HCQ use in 154 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a Brazilian public hospital. The study also aims to determine prognostic factors that predict mortality, ICU admission and endotracheal intubation in this population. RESULTS: 154 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR and hospitalized were included. There was a male predominance (87/154, 56.5%), median age 60 years and 88% (136/154) had comorbidities. Among these, 76% (117/154) were admitted to the ICU and 29.2% (45/154) experienced EOT. The OMR was 51.3% (79/154). There was no difference in mortality between patients treated with HCQ (N = 95) and non-HCQ (N = 59) (44.1% × 55.8%, p = 0.758). In univariate analysis, age ≥ 60 years (HR 3.62, p < 0.001), need for mechanical ventilation (HR 2.17, p = 0.001), ≥ 2 comorbidities (HR 1.83, p = 0.049), SAH (HR: 1.56, p = 0.054) were predictors of mortality, as well as no use of prophylactic or therapeutic heparin (HR 3.60, p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis identified admission to the ICU (HR 8.98, p = 0.002) and advanced age (HR 3.37, p < 0.01) as independent predictors of mortality, although, use of heparin (HR 0.25, p = 0.001) was independently associated with a favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the absence of a benefit associated with the use of HCQ in Brazilian patients hospitalized with COVID-19. However, prophylactic or therapeutic heparin was an independent predictor for reducing mortality in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Preliminary Data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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