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1.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 41(2): 78-86, abr.-jun2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-176

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hipertensión arterial (HTA) representa el principal factor de riesgo individual, con mayor carga a nivel mundial de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV). En nuestro país, algunos trabajos epidemiológicos han mostrado marcadas diferencias en las prevalencias de estos factores de riesgo de acuerdo con la población evaluada. Sin embargo, no hay estudios epidemiológicos de evaluación de factores de riesgo cardiovascular exclusivos referentes a barrios vulnerables con muy bajos recursos económicos, socioculturales y poca accesibilidad a los sistemas de salud. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional de corte transversal multicéntrico en habitantes de comunas vulnerables de muy bajos recursos, como asentamientos populares y barrios carenciados con muestreo aleatorizado simple de casas. Se realizaron tomas de presión arterial (PA), medidas antropométricas, así como cuestionarios epidemiológicos, económicos y socioculturales. Se describen los hallazgos: prevalencia, conocimiento y control de la PA en las distintas regiones. Se efectuó una regresión logística para determinar las variables independientes a los resultados principales. Resultados: Se analizaron 989 participantes. La prevalencia de HTA global fue de 48,2%. Un total de 82% tenía un índice de masa corporal (IMC) >25 kg/m2. De estos pacientes, 45,3% tenían menos de seis años de educación. Este último aspecto se asoció a mayor prevalencia de HTA de forma independiente. De los hipertensos, 44% desconocían su padecimiento y solo en 17,2% estaba controlado, asociándose esto a tener obra social (OS) y mayor nivel educativo. Únicamente 24% estaban bajo tratamiento combinado. Conclusión: La prevalencia de HTA en barrios vulnerables es elevada, superando a la de otros estratos sociales con niveles de conocimiento, tratamiento y control de la HTA bajos, similar a otras poblaciones. Se detectó un uso insuficiente de la terapia combinada.


Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) represents the primary individual risk factor, contributing significantly to the global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In our country, epidemiological research has highlighted substantial variations in the prevalence of these risk factors across different populations. However, there is a lack of epidemiological studies assessing exclusive cardiovascular risk factors within vulnerable neighborhoods characterized by extremely limited economic resources, sociocultural challenges, and inadequate healthcare access. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional observational study was conducted among individuals residing in economically deprived and marginalized communities, including informal settlements and underprivileged neighborhoods. Simple random sampling of households was employed. Blood pressure measurements, anthropometric assessments, and epidemiological, economic, and sociocultural questionnaires were administered. Results encompass prevalence rates, awareness levels, and blood pressure control across diverse regions. Logistic regression was utilized to identify independent variables influencing primary outcomes. Results: A total of 989 participants were analyzed. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 48.2%. About 82% had a body mass index (BMI) >25. Approximately 45.3% had less than 6 years of formal education. Independent association was established between education levels below 6 years and higher hypertension prevalence Among hypertensive individuals, 44% were unaware of their condition, with only 17.2% achieving control, correlated with having health insurance and a higher educational background. Merely 24% were receiving combined therapy. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension within vulnerable neighborhoods is alarmingly high, surpassing rates in other social strata. Knowledge, treatment, and control levels of hypertension are suboptimal, comparable to other populations... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Sciences , Epidemiology , Hypertension , Social Determinants of Health , Prevalence , Knowledge , Argentina
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310064, abr. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537219

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil constituyen un problema de salud pública. El inicio de la pandemia por COVID-19 pudo haber favorecido esta patología. El puntaje Z del índice de masa corporal (Z-IMC) es un indicador aceptado para su diagnóstico y seguimiento. Objetivo. Evaluar si la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó durante la pandemia. Población y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes asistidos en efectores públicos de salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (GCABA), de 2 a 5 años de edad, con registro de peso y talla en dos consultas, antes y después de haber comenzado el aislamiento social preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO). Se registró estado nutricional (Z-IMC) y variación del Z-IMC entre ambas consultas. Resultados. Se evaluaron 3866 sujetos, edad promedio 3,4 ± 0,8 años; el 48,1 % fueron mujeres. El intervalo promedio entre consultas fue 14,3 ± 2,5 meses. La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad aumentó del 12,6 % (IC95% 11,6-13,6) al 20,9 % (IC95% 19,6-22-2); p <0,001, al igual que el Z-IMC (0,4 ± 1,1 vs. 0,8 ± 1,3; p <0,001). Conclusión. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó significativamente durante la pandemia.


Introduction. Childhood overweight and obesity are a public health problem. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to this condition. The body mass index (BMI) Z-score has been accepted as an indicator for overweight and obesity diagnosis and follow-up. Objective. To assess whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased during the pandemic. Population and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Patients included were those seen at public health care facilities in the City of Buenos Aires (CABA), who were aged 2 to 5 years, had weight and height values recorded at 2 different visits, before and after the establishment of the preventive and mandatory social isolation policy. Patients' nutritional status (BMI Z-score) and the variation in this indicator between both visits were recorded. Results. A total of 3866 subjects were assessed; their average age was 3.4 ± 0.8 years; 48.1% were girls. The average interval between both visits was 14.3 ± 2.5 months. The prevalence of overweight/ obesity increased from 12.6% (95% CI: 11.6­13.6) to 20.9% (95% CI: 19.6­22.2), p < 0.001, and so did the BMI Z-score (0.4 ± 1.1 versus 0.8 ± 1.3, p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased significantly during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Actas urol. esp ; 48(3): 228-237, abr. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-231928

ABSTRACT

Introducción Los tumores malignos del tracto urinario están asociados a gran morbimortalidad siendo su prevalencia variable a nivel global. Recientemente el estudio IDENTIFY ha publicado resultados sobre la prevalencia del cáncer del tracto urinario a nivel internacional. Este estudio evalúa la prevalencia de cáncer dentro de la cohorte española del estudio IDENTIFY para determinar si los resultados publicados son extrapolables a nuestra población. Material y métodos Se realizó un análisis de los datos de la cohorte de pacientes españoles del estudio IDENTIFY. Se trata de una cohorte prospectiva de pacientes derivados al hospital con sospecha de cáncer, predominantemente por hematuria. Los pacientes fueron reclutados entre diciembre de 2017 y diciembre de 2018. Resultados En total 706 pacientes procedente de 9 centros españoles fueron analizados. Doscientos setenta y siete pacientes (39,2%) fueron diagnosticados de cáncer, 259 (36,7%) de cáncer vejiga, 10 (1,4%) de tracto urinario superior, 9 (1,2%) renal y 5 (0,7%) de próstata. El aumento de la edad (OR: 1,05; IC 95%: 1,03-1,06; p<0,001), presencia de hematuria visible (OR: 2,19; IC 95%: 1,13-4,24; p=0,02) y el hábito tabáquico (exfumadores: OR: 2,11; IC 95%: 1,30-3,40; p=0,002; fumadores: OR: 2,36; IC 95%: 1,40-3,95; p=0,001) se asocia con mayor probabilidad de cáncer vesical. Conclusión Este estudio resalta el riesgo que existe en pacientes con HV y hábito tabáquico de presentar cáncer de vejiga. El cáncer de vejiga presentó la mayor prevalencia, siendo esta mayor que la expuesta en series previas y la presentada en el estudio IDENTIFY. Trabajos futuros deben evaluar otros factores asociados que permitan crear modelos de predicción de cáncer para seguir aumentando la detección de estos en nuestros pacientes. (AU)


Introduction Malignant tumors of the urinary tract are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and their prevalence can vary worldwide. Recently, the IDENTIFY study has published results on the prevalence of urinary tract cancer at a global level. This study evaluates the prevalence of cancer within the Spanish cohort of the IDENTIFY study to determine whether the published results can be extrapolated to our population. Patients and methods An analysis of the data from the Spanish cohort of patients in the IDENTIFY study was performed. This is a prospective cohort of patients referred to secondary care with suspected cancer, predominantly due to hematuria. Patients were recruited between December 2017 and December 2018. Results A total of 706 patients from 9 Spanish centers were analyzed. Of these, 277 (39.2%) were diagnosed with cancer: 259 (36.7%) bladder cancer, 10 (1.4%) upper tract urothelial carcinoma, 9 (1.2%) renal cancer and 5 (0.7%) prostate cancer. Increasing age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06; P<.001), visible hematuria (VH) OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.13-4.24; P=.02)and smoking (ex-smokers: OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.30-3.40; P=.002); (smokers: OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.40-3.95; P=.001) were associated with higher probability of bladder cancer. Conclusion This study highlights the risk of bladder cancer in patients with VH and smoking habits. Bladder cancer presented the highest prevalence; higher than the prevalence reported in previous series and presented in the IDENTIFY study. Future work should evaluate other associated factors that allow us to create cancer prediction models to improve the detection of cancer in our patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Kidney Neoplasms , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Spain , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies
5.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe.; 2024-04-05. (WHO/EURO:2024-9389-49161-73359).
in English | WHO IRIS | ID: who-376407

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected millions of people across the WHO European Region. While the acute phase of the pandemic has passed, it is estimated that 10–20% of those infected with SARS-CoV-2 continue to have symptoms long after their initial illness. Using a tool devised by WHO for collecting data on the management of the post COVID-19 condition (PCC), also known as long COVID, three countries – Israel, Italy and the United Kingdom – and two autonomous regions of Spain – Aragon and Catalonia – collated detailed descriptions of service delivery models that support patients with PCC. This report synthesizes findings from those countries and regions, showing differences and similarities, and concludes with suggestions as to how other health systems can adjust their services to better meet the needs of patients with this debilitating condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prevalence , Health Services , Europe
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 171: 105243, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564980

ABSTRACT

The rise of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), poses a significant global health challenge, urging immediate action and continuous surveillance. With no available vaccines, monitoring pathogen presence is critical to identify at-risk areas promptly. A study was designed to assess the incidence of CCHF virus in goats and cattle using commercial ELISA IgG kits in tribal-dominated regions. Overall, 16% of the samples (n = 63/393) were positive for CCHF virus-specific IgG antibodies, whereas sero-prevalence detected in cattle 11.6% [95% CI:7-17.7] and in goats 18.9% [95% CI: 13.76-24.01], respectively. Statistically, Animal gender and age didn't significantly affect prevalence (p-value >0.05). Our finding indicates unnoticed CCHF virus circulation. Notably, lack of public awareness about zoonotic diseases in the study region was recorded. To combat this emerging tick-borne disease effectively, it's crucial to screen individuals with hemorrhagic manifestations in healthcare settings and active surveillance of ticks to prevent unwarranted public health outbreaks and design preventive interventions.


Subject(s)
Goat Diseases , Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean , Animals , Cattle , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/veterinary , Livestock , Public Health , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Goats , Antibodies, Viral , India/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G , Goat Diseases/epidemiology
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2337161, 2024 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566539

ABSTRACT

The epidemiological and clinical aspects of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women have been extensively studied. However, there is a lack of information regarding HPV characteristics in males. In this study, we conducted a retrospective and observational study of 3737 consecutive male individuals attending outpatient clinics of Guangdong Women and Children Hospital from 2012 to 2023 in Guangzhou, South China, to determine the age- and genotype-specific prevalence of HPV in men. The results showed the overall prevalence of HPV among men was 42.15% (1575/3737), with variations ranging from 29.55% to 81.31% across distinct diagnostic populations. Low-risk HPV6 (15.47%), HPV11 (8.94%), and high-risk HPV52 (5.51%) were the most common types. The annual HPV prevalence decreased significantly (Z = -3.882, p < .001), ranging from 31.44% to 52.90%. 28.77% (1075/3737) of men manifested infection with a singular HPV type, predominantly identified as a low-risk type. The age-specific distribution of HPV infections revealed distinctive peaks in the < 25 y age group (47.60%, 208/437) and the 40-44 y age group (44.51%, 154/346). Notably, the positive rate of Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly higher among HPV-positive individuals in comparison to HPV-negatives (16.14% vs. 11.25%, p < .05). Our findings reveal a substantial prevalence of HPV infection among outpatient men in Guangzhou, South China. It is recommended to consider the inclusion of HPV vaccination for adolescent males in national immunization schedules, once an adequate supply of vaccines is accessible.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , Genotype , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination , Young Adult , Adult
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 173: 317-325, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with lower socioeconomic status. To date, however, scarce research has examined the prevalence, comorbidity, and incremental burden of obesity in relation to medical, psychiatric, functional, and homelessness measures among low-income veterans. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1004 low-income U.S. veterans was examined. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess relationships between obesity and medical and psychiatric comorbidities, functioning, and homelessness measures. RESULTS: The prevalence estimate of obesity among low-income U.S. veterans was 38.2% (confidence interval (CI): 34.2; 42.2), which is higher than previously reported for the general U.S. veteran population. It was particularly high among young, females with children. Obesity was associated with co-occurring medical (chronic pain, diabetes, sleep disorders, high blood pressure, heart disease) and psychiatric (trauma- and anxiety-related) conditions, poor functioning, and current psychiatric medication use. Veterans with obesity were less likely to have current savings and more likely to have current debt. They also were more likely to have experienced evictions and foreclosures and less likely to use active coping or positive reframing as a means of dealing with stressful situations. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obesity among U.S. veterans is high. Specific demographic groups particularly vulnerable to developing obesity warrant targeted interventions. Modifying weight management programs, understanding coping styles, and assessing, monitoring, and treating obesity in low-income veterans may help improve overall health and quality of life in multiple domains.


Subject(s)
Ill-Housed Persons , Veterans , Female , Child , Humans , Veterans/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Prevalence , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/psychology
9.
Vertex ; 35(163, ene.-mar.): 42-50, 2024 Apr 10.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619997

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El riesgo de suicidio en el Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA) ha emergido como una problemática poco considerada durante mucho tiempo. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo explorar la prevalencia, la evaluación y los tratamientos disponibles para el riesgo de suicidio en los adultos con autismo. Metodología: Se practicó una revisión narrativa sobre tres aspectos relacionados con el riesgo de suicido en la población adulta con TEA: la prevalencia, la evaluación y las intervenciones disponibles basadas en evidencia. La búsqueda bibliográfica fue realizada utilizando los buscadores de Pubmed, Scielo, Dialnet y Psychinfo, limitándose a artículos publicados a partir del año 2010 en adelante. Con el fin de identificar la literatura relevante, se utilizaron diversas combinaciones de palabras clave, tales como "riesgo de suicidio", "trastorno del espectro autista", y "suicidio en autismo", tanto en español como en inglés. Conclusión: Los hallazgos principales sugieren un elevado riesgo de suicidio en la población autista, lo que destaca la necesidad de desarrollar protocolos estandarizados para evaluarlo. Además, la Terapia Dialéctico Conductual se ha establecido como una opción terapéutica prometedora para disminuir la suicidabilidad en esta población, pero aún se requiere de mayor investigación para establecer su eficacia y estandarización como tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Suicide , Adult , Humans , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
10.
Parasitol Res ; 123(4): 183, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622363

ABSTRACT

Dientamoeba fragilis and Blastocystis sp. are single-celled protozoan parasites of humans and animals. Although they are found in the intestines of healthy hosts, the pathogenicity of them is still unclear. To date, there is no report on D. fragilis and only two studies (without subtyping) on the occurrence of Blastocystis sp. in Musca domestica. In this study, fly samples were collected from livestock farms and their surroundings in the Kirsehir province (Central Anatolia Region) of Türkiye from May to August 2023. A total of 150 microscopically identified M. domestica samples were analyzed for the detection of D. fragilis and Blastocystis sp. molecularly. The overall prevalence of Blastocystis sp. and D. fragilis in M. domestica was determined to be 3.3% (5/150) and 8.0% (12/150), respectively. The SSU rRNA gene sequences of the isolates indicated genotype 1 of D. fragilis. Eleven isolates were identical and represented a single isolate (KAU-Dfrag1). BLAST analysis of KAU-Dfrag1 indicated identity with the isolates reported from humans, cattle, sheep, and budgerigars. The other isolate (KAU-Dfrag2) was polymorphic at two nucleotides from KAU-Dfrag1 and three nucleotides from known genotypes from GenBank and represented a variant of genotype 1. The Blastocystis sp. isolates were found to be identical and represent a single genotype (KAU-Blast1). BLAST analysis revealed that the KAU-Blast1 genotype belonged to the potentially zoonotic subtype 5 (ST5) and exhibited the highest genetic identity (ranging from 99.4 to 99.6%) with pigs, cattle, and sheep from different countries. Our study provides the first data on the molecular prevalence, epidemiology, and genotypic characterization of D. fragilis and Blastocystis sp. in M. domestica.


Subject(s)
Blastocystis Infections , Blastocystis , Houseflies , Muscidae , Humans , Animals , Sheep , Cattle , Swine , Dientamoeba , Blastocystis Infections/epidemiology , Blastocystis Infections/veterinary , Blastocystis Infections/parasitology , Genotype , Feces/parasitology , Prevalence , Nucleotides
11.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 88, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The analysis of dental caries has been a major focus of recent work on modeling dental defect data. While a dental caries focus is of major importance in dental research, the examination of developmental defects which could also contribute at an early stage of dental caries formation, is also of potential interest. This paper proposes a set of methods which address the appearance of different combinations of defects across different tooth regions. In our modeling we assess the linkages between tooth region development and both the type of defect and associations with etiological predictors of the defects which could be influential at different times during the tooth crown development. METHODS: We develop different hierarchical model formulations under the Bayesian paradigm to assess exposures during primary central incisor (PMCI) tooth development and PMCI defects. We evaluate the Bayesian hierarchical models under various simulation scenarios to compare their performance with both simulated dental defect data and real data from a motivating application. RESULTS: The proposed model provides inference on identifying a subset of etiological predictors of an individual defect accounting for the correlation between tooth regions and on identifying a subset of etiological predictors for the joint effect of defects. Furthermore, the model provides inference on the correlation between the regions of the teeth as well as between the joint effect of the developmental enamel defects and dental caries. Simulation results show that the proposed model consistently yields steady inferences in identifying etiological biomarkers associated with the outcome of localized developmental enamel defects and dental caries under varying simulation scenarios as deemed by small mean square error (MSE) when comparing the simulation results to real application results. CONCLUSION: We evaluate the proposed model under varying simulation scenarios to develop a model for multivariate dental defects and dental caries assuming a flexible covariance structure that can handle regional and joint effects. The proposed model shed new light on methods for capturing inclusive predictors in different multivariate joint models under the same covariance structure and provides a natural extension to a nested hierarchical model.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries , Incisor , Child , Humans , Bayes Theorem , Tooth, Deciduous , Prevalence , Dental Enamel
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 135, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Renal artery variations are clinically significant due to their implications for surgical procedures and renal function. However, data on these variations in Sudanese populations are limited. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of renal artery variations in a Sudanese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in Khartoum state from October 2017 to October 2020. A total of 400 Sudanese participants who underwent abdominal CT scans were included. Data on demographic characteristics, kidney measurements, and renal vasculature were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential tests. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 46.7 ± 18 years, with a nearly equal gender distribution. Overall, renal artery variations were present in 11% of participants, with accessory renal arteries observed in 6% of the study population. Among those with accessory vessels, 50% were on the right side, 29.2% on the left, and 20.8% bilateral, distributed across hilar 29.2%, lower polar 29.2%, and upper polar 41.7% regions. No significant associations were found between accessory renal arteries and age or gender (p-value > 0.05). However, participants with accessory renal arteries exhibited significantly narrower width 5.0 ± 1.4 than those with no with accessory renal arteries 5.8 ± 1.1 (p-value 0.002) Early dividing renal arteries were found in 5% of participants, with nearly half being bilateral. No significant associations were found between the presence of early dividing renal arteries and demographic or renal measurements (p-value > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study provides valuable insights into the prevalence and characteristics of renal artery variations in a Sudanese population. The findings contribute to our understanding of renal anatomy in this demographic and can inform clinical practice and surgical planning, particularly in renal transplantation and other renal procedures.


Subject(s)
Renal Artery , Vascular Diseases , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Renal Artery/surgery , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Kidney/blood supply , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 237, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic vascular diseases are a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality. Dyslipidemia, a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, remains poorly understood among adult cardiac patients in in the study area. This study aims to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and identify associated factors in this population. METHODS: Hospital-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from May to August 2021. A total of 319 participants (153 cardiac cases, 166 healthy controls, aged ≥ 18) were included in the study. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and clinical data were collected using the WHO STEPS survey instrument through systematic sampling. Overnight fasting blood samples were obtained, and serum lipid profiles were analyzed using a COBAS 6000 analyzer. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 20.0, employing bivariable and multivariable logistic regression. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia, encompassing at least one lipid abnormality, was 80.3% among 256 participants. Among cardiac cases, the prevalence rates were as follows: 72.5% for low HDL-cholesterol, 12.4% for hypercholesterolemia, 9.8% for elevated LDL-cholesterol, and 30.1% for hypertriglyceridemia. In controls, corresponding rates were 69.9%, 9.6%, 7.2%, and 32.5%. Significant factors linked to low HDL- cholesterol were female gender (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.7-4.7) and obesity (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.5). Abdominal obesity was associated with hypercholesterolemia (AOR: 5.2, 95% CI 1.9-14.3) and elevated LDL-cholesterol (AOR: 5.1, 95% CI 1.6-15.8). High blood pressure, overweight, and abdominal obesity were significantly linked to hypertriglyceridemia (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dyslipidemia was high among the study participants. Overweight, obesity, central adiposity, and high blood pressure were significantly associated with dyslipidemia in cardiac patients. This alarms the need for lipid profile assessment for patients periodically, with treatment follow-up to monitor any rising patterns and cardiovascular-related risks.


Subject(s)
Dyslipidemias , Hypercholesterolemia , Hypertension , Hypertriglyceridemia , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Hypercholesterolemia/complications , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity, Abdominal/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/complications , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Prevalence , Hospitals , Cholesterol , Lipids
14.
Adv Rheumatol ; 64(1): 27, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Enteropathic spondyloarthritis is underdiagnosed and inflammatory biomarkers and ultrasonography (US) could be useful for screening inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of spondyloarthritis (SpA) in IBD patients, according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria and the correlation of results of US of entheses and joints with plasma calprotectin levels. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study. Patients from the IBD outpatient clinic of a reference center were evaluated according to ASAS criteria classification, results of US of entheses and joints, and inflammatory biomarker measurements (erythrocyte sedimentation rates, C-reactive protein levels, fecal and plasma calprotectin levels). A p value lower than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 30.5% of the studied sample (n = 118) of patients with IBD presented at least one inflammatory musculoskeletal manifestation. The overall prevalence of enteropathic SpA was 13.55%, with 10.16% axial SpA and 4.23% peripheral SpA according to the ASAS criteria. A total of 42.1% of patients had an MASEI score greater than 18, 35.2% had synovitis, and 14.7% had tenosynovitis on US, increasing the frequency of diagnosis of enteropathic SpA to 22.8%. Plasma calprotectin levels were similar to those in healthy controls, and correlated only with the fecal calprotectin level (p 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: A total of 13.5% of patients met the criteria in accordance with the ASAS criteria for enteropathic SpA, which increased to 22.8% with the addition of US. The prevalence of enthesitis, synovitis and tenosynovitis by US of symptomatic joints and entheses were 42%, 35% and 14.7% respectively. Plasma calprotectin was correlated with fecal calprotectin but not with inflammatory biomarkers or US or ASAS criteria.


Subject(s)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Spondylarthritis , Synovitis , Tenosynovitis , Humans , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Spondylarthritis/diagnostic imaging , Spondylarthritis/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Biomarkers
15.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080612, 2024 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This modelling study aimed to estimate the burden for allergic diseases in children during a period of 30 years. DESIGN: Population-based observational study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The data on the incidence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for childhood allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and asthma, were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019 online database. This data set spans various groups, including different regions, ages, genders and Socio-Demographic Indices (SDI), covering the period from 1990 to 2019. RESULTS: In 2019, there were approximately 81 million children with asthma and 5.6 million children with AD worldwide. The global incidence of asthma in children was 20 million. Age-standardised incidence rates showed a decrease of 4.17% for asthma, from 1075.14 (95% uncertainty intervals (UI), 724.63 to 1504.93) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 1030.33 (95% UI, 683.66 to 1449.53) in 2019. Similarly, the rates for AD decreased by 5.46%, from 594.05 (95% UI, 547.98 to 642.88) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 561.61 (95% UI, 519.03 to 608.29) in 2019. The incidence of both asthma and AD was highest in children under 5 years of age, gradually decreasing with age. Interestingly, an increase in SDI was associated with a rise in the incidence of both conditions. However, the mortality rate and DALYs for asthma showed a contrasting trend. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past three decades, there has been a worldwide increase in new asthma and AD cases, even though mortality rates have significantly declined. However, the prevalence of these allergic diseases among children varies considerably across regions, countries and age groups. This variation highlights the need for precise prevalence assessments. These assessments are vital in formulating effective strategies for prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Dermatitis, Atopic , Child , Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Global Burden of Disease , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Prevalence , Incidence , Asthma/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Global Health , Risk Factors
16.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of cerebral palsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), providing evidence for interdisciplinary medical service for children with cerebral palsy. DESIGN: A large-scale nationwide population-based study. SETTING: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). PATIENTS: 177 899 children aged 3-17 years among NHIS participants from 1997 to 2003 and 2008 to 2018. RESULTS: Among the 177 899 children included in this analysis, 602 (0.33%) had cerebral palsy, 1997 (1.16%) had ASD, and 13 697 (7.91%) had ADHD. Compared with children without cerebral palsy, children with cerebral palsy had a higher prevalence of ASD (6.09% vs 1.15%; p<0.001) and ADHD (15.91% vs 7.89%; p<0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family highest education level, family income level and geographical region, the OR among children with cerebral palsy, compared with children without cerebral palsy, was 5.07 (95% CI 3.25 to 7.91) for ASD (p<0.001) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.43 to 2.66) for ADHD (p<0.001). Furthermore, the association of cerebral palsy with ASD and ADHD remained significant in all subgroups stratified by age, sex and race. CONCLUSION: In a large, nationally representative sample of US children, this study shows that children with cerebral palsy are at an increased risk of ASD and ADHD.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Cerebral Palsy , Child , Humans , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Cerebral Palsy/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 182, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonia can affect all age groups, but people with weakened immune systems, young children, and the elderly are at a higher risk. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most common causative agents of pneumonia, and they have developed high MDR in recent decades in Ethiopia. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of bacterial pneumonia and multidrug resistance in Ethiopia. METHODS: The articles were searched extensively in the electronic databases and grey literature using entry terms or phrases. Studies meeting the eligibility criteria were extracted in MS Excel and exported for statistical analysis into STATA version 14 software. The pooled prevalence of bacterial pneumonia and multidrug resistance were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed by using the I2 value. Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot and Egger's test. A sensitivity analysis was done to assess the impact of a single study on the pooled effect size. RESULT: Of the 651 studies identified, 87 were eligible for qualitative analysis, of which 11 were included in the meta-analysis consisting of 1154 isolates. The individual studies reported prevalence of bacterial pneumonia ranging from 6.19 to 46.3%. In this systematic review and metanalysis, the pooled prevalence of bacterial pneumonia in Ethiopia was 37.17% (95% CI 25.72-46.62), with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 98.4%, p < 0.001) across the studies. The pooled prevalence of multidrug resistance in bacteria isolated from patients with pneumonia in Ethiopia was 67.73% (95% CI: 57.05-78.40). The most commonly isolated bacteria was Klebsiella pneumoniae, with pooled prevalence of 21.97% (95% CI 16.11-27.83), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae, with pooled prevalence of 17.02% (95% CI 9.19-24.86), respectively. CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of bacterial isolates from bacterial pneumonia and their multidrug resistance were high among Ethiopian population. The initial empirical treatment of these patients remains challenging because of the strikingly high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pseudomonas Infections , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Aged , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Bacteria , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Prevalence
18.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 459, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dental caries in young children is a difficult global oral health problem. In the last decade, China has put a great deal of effort into reducing the prevalence of dental caries. This study, which is part of the China Population Chronic Disease and Nutrition Surveillance 2021, aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental caries among children aged 5 in Shanghai, China, and its associated factors. METHODS: A total of 1281 children aged 5 years from 6 districts in Shanghai were selected by a stratified sampling method. The survey consisted of an oral health questionnaire and an oral health examination. The questionnaire included questions on oral health knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours. The oral health examination used WHO standards. After screening, the data were input and analysed. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to study the relevant factors affecting dental caries. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental caries among 1281 children was 51.0%, the dmft index score was 2.46, the Significant Caries Index (SiC) score was 6.39, and the SiC10 score was 10.35. Dental caries experience was related to the frequency of sweet drink consumption, the age of starting tooth brushing, eating habits after brushing, whether the children had received an oral examination provided by the government (p < 0.05), and the mother's education level but was not related to sex, the use of fluoride toothpaste, the frequency of brushing, whether the parents assisted brushing, or the frequency of flossing (p > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the region of residence, eating after brushing and the age of starting brushing were associated with dental caries. CONCLUSIONS: Dental caries remained prevalent among 5-year-old children in Shanghai, China. Prevention strategies that target the associated factors including region of residence, eating after brushing, and the age of starting brushing should be considered.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries , Humans , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , DMF Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oral Health , Prevalence
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 282, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627754

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the commonest mental disorders affecting more than 250 million people globally. Patients with chronic illnesses had higher risks for developing MDD than the general population. Neurolathyrism is a chronic illness characterized by lifelong incurable spastic paralysis of lower extremities; causing permanent disability. It is highly prevalent in Dawunt district, Ethiopia; with a point prevalence of 2.4%. Despite this, there were no previous studies assessing the prevalence of MDD among patients with neurolathyrism in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of MDD and to identify its associated factors among patients with neurolathyrism in Dawunt district, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 260 samples in Dawunt district from February 01 to March 30/ 2021. Multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. The patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression screening tool was used to diagnose MDD. PHQ-9 is a standardized depression screening tool and a PHQ-9 score of ≥ 10 has a sensitivity and specificity of 88.0% [95% CI (83.0-92.0%)] and 85.0% [95% CI (82.0-88.0%)] for screening MDD. Data were collected by interview; entered to EpiData version 4.2.0; exported to SPSS version 25.0 for analysis; descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model were used; AOR with 95% CI was used to interpret the associations; and finally results were presented by texts, charts, graphs, and tables. RESULTS: A total of 256 adult patients with neurolathyrism were participated; and the prevalence of MDD was found to be 38.7%. Being female [AOR = 3.00; 95% CI (1.15, 7.84)], living alone [AOR = 2.77; 95% CI (1.02-7.53)], being on neurolathyrism stage-3 [AOR = 3.22; 95% CI (1.09, 9.54)] or stage-4 [AOR = 4.00; 95% CI (1.28, 12.48)], stigma [AOR = 2.69; 95% CI (1.34, 5.39)], and lack of social/ family support [AOR = 3.61; 95% CI (1.80, 7.24)] were found to have statistically significant association with an increased odds of MDD; while regular exercise and ever formal counselling were found to have statistically significant association with a decreased odds of MDD. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MDD among neurolathyrism patients in Dawunt district was high. Lack of social support, stigma, not getting formal counselling, and not involving in regular exercise were modifiable risk factors. Therefore, social support, reducing stigma, formal counselling, and encouraging regular exercise might help to reduce the burden of MDD among neurolathyrism patients.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Lathyrism , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Prevalence , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology
20.
Syst Rev ; 13(1): 109, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of mental illness in nursing home residents compared to older adults living in the community. This was highlighted in the most recent comprehensive systematic review on the topic, published in 2010. In the context of a rapidly aging population and increased numbers of older adults requiring residential care, this study aims to provide a contemporary account of the prevalence of mental illness among nursing home residents. METHODS: This protocol was prepared in line with the PRISMA-P 2015 Statement. Systematic searches will be undertaken across six electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycNET, CINAHL, and Abstracts in Social Gerontology. Peer-reviewed studies published from 2009 onwards which report the prevalence of mental illness within nursing home populations will be included. Database searches will be supplemented by forward and backward citation searching. Titles and abstracts of records will be screened using a semi-automated process. The full text of selected records will be assessed to confirm inclusion criteria are met. Study selection will be recorded in a PRISMA flowchart. A pilot-tested form will be used to extract data from included studies, alongside the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data. A study characteristics and results table will be prepared to present key details from each included study, supported by a narrative synthesis. Random-effects restricted maximum likelihood meta-analyses will be performed to compute pooled prevalence estimates for mental illnesses represented in the identified studies. Heterogeneity will be assessed using Cochran's Q and Higgins' I2 statistics. A Funnel plot and Egger's test will be used to assess publication bias. The GRADE approach will be used to assess the quality of the body of evidence identified. DISCUSSION: The study will provide a comprehensive and contemporary account of the prevalence of mental illness among nursing home residents. Meta-analyses will provide robust prevalence estimates across a range of presentations. Key insights will be highlighted, including potential sources of heterogeneity. Implications for residents, researchers, care providers, and policymakers will be noted. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42023456226.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Humans , Aged , Prevalence , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Research Design
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