Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 345.753
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

ABSTRACT

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Galliformes , Prevalence , Animals, Wild
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosomiasis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Deer , Cattle , Sheep , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Indian Ocean , Horses
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248978, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339406

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em pequenos ruminantes do distrito Upper Dir, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Para tanto, o material fecal foi coletado aleatoriamente com dedos enluvados diretamente da região do reto de ovelhas e cabras, e os materiais fecais foram colocados em garrafas plásticas higiênicas com formol a 10%. No total, 315 (n = 184 ovelhas e n = 131 cabras) amostras fecais foram coletadas; destas, 281 foram consideradas positivas para diferentes parasitas. A prevalência de padrões de parasitas GI da área de estudo foi encontrada. Parasitismo global único 89,20% (281/315) com 94,0% (173/184) em ovinos e 82,43% (108/131) em cabras. Infecção parasitária dupla em pequenos ruminantes registrada em Fasciola + Haemonchus contortus em ovinos, sua prevalência foi de 25,54% (47/184). Já em caprinos, a dupla infecção parasitária em que Haemonchus contortus + Trichuris spp foram encontrados e sua prevalência foi de 23,43% (30/131). As espécies encontradas na amostra de ovinos foram: Strongyloides papillosus (41,30%), Heamonchus controtus (21,73%), Trichuris ovis (17,39%) e Fasciola hepatica (13,58%), o valor correspondente para cabra foi Strongyloides spp. 33,33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp. 28,70%, (27/108), Trichuris sp 25,20% (27/184) e Fasciola spp. 10,68% (14/184). As ovelhas da área de estudo estão mais infectadas do que as cabras. Este estudo sugeriu que os parasitas gastrointestinais são os principais problemas de saúde dos pequenos ruminantes na área de estudo. Portanto, um estudo abrangente sobre as espécies de parasitas gastrointestinais que circulam na área, opções de controle, estratégias de baixo custo e conscientização sobre parasitas gastrointestinais entre os agricultores na área de estudo deve ser instituído.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Ruminants , Goats , Sheep , Prevalence , Feces
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246385, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339384

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.


Resumo A doença coronariana (DCC) tem sido associada a significativa morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Embora ainda sejam controversos, vários estudos têm demonstrado a associação de infecções por M. pneumoniae com aterosclerose. Avaliamos a possível associação de infecções por micoplasma em pacientes com diagnóstico de aterosclerose pelos métodos ELISA e PCR. Amostras de tecido aterosclerótico e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a detecção de anticorpos contra micoplasma (IgA) por ELISA de 97 pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). IgA, IgG e IgM específicos para M. pneumoniae foram medidos usando o Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA / IgG / IgM ELISA. A detecção de M. pneumoniae visando o gene de adesão P1 foi realizada por PCR. A infecção aguda por M. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada em 43,3% (42) dos pacientes pela PCR. Os anticorpos específicos para M. pneumoniae foram detectados em 36,1% (35) dos pacientes. Vinte e cinco (25,8%) casos tinham anticorpos IgG, 15 (15,5%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM, 3 (3,1%) casos tinham anticorpos IgA, 10 (10,3%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM + IgG e 1 (1%) caso de cada um tinha anticorpos IgM + IgA e IgG + IgA. Nenhum dos casos foi positivo para os três anticorpos. A análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson revelou uma excelente correlação entre o PCR e os resultados sorológicos (r = 0,921, p < 0,001). A maioria (17, 40,5%) dos pacientes positivos para M. pneumoniae está na faixa etária de 41-50 anos, seguida por 10 (23,8%) pacientes na faixa etária de 61-70 anos e 2 (4,8%) pacientes tinham > 70 anos de idade. Nosso estudo relatou uma prevalência incomumente maior de M. pneumoniae por testes sorológicos (36,1%) e PCR (43,3%). Embora a hipótese da associação de M. pneumoniae e DAC ainda não tenha sido comprovada, a prevalência incomumente alta de M. pneumoniae em pacientes com DAC indica uma associação, se não, no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence , Antibodies, Bacterial , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246887, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285630

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para estimar a prevalência e diversidade de ectoparasitas em pombos-das-rochas em diferentes regiões de Punjab, Paquistão. Um total de 120 aves foram capturadas de março de 2017 a fevereiro de 2019. Os ectoparasitas foram coletados por procedimentos padrão e preservados em etanol 70% contendo uma gota de glicerina. Os dados relativos à idade, estado de saúde, sexo, tipo de área, local de amostragem e época do ano foram coletados em formulário padronizado. Os ectoparasitas foram identificados com base nas características morfológicas por meio de chaves de identificação. Noventa e seis (80%) aves estavam infestadas com ectoparasitas. Um total de sete famílias e treze espécies de diferentes ectoparasitas foram observados. Principalmente, sete espécies de piolhos, duas espécies de moscas, uma espécie de carrapato e três espécies de ácaros foram recuperadas de aves infestadas. Os pombos fêmeas foram infestados mais frequentemente (89,02%) do que os pombos machos (60,52%). A prevalência encontrada foi maior no verão (100%) em comparação com as outras estações. A taxa de infestação foi maior na área Industrial (97,50%) em relação às demais regiões. A maior prevalência de ectoparasitas (100%) foi registrada no distrito de Sargodha. Houve variação significativa (P <0,05) entre o número de ectoparasitas na asa, tórax, cauda e pescoço dentro das faixas etárias, estações do ano e zonas ecológicas. A ocorrência de parasitas em relação à área, idade, estado de saúde, sexo e estação do ano foi significativa. A taxa de infestação de parasitas em pombo-correio é alta em diferentes distritos de Punjab. Recomenda-se que essas aves selvagens infestadas com várias espécies de ectoparasitas possam ser a fonte potencial de infestações em aves domesticadas se entrarem em contato com elas. O contato de aves domesticadas deve ser evitado com aves selvagens para minimizar a chance de transmissão cruzada de ectoparasitas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Parasites , Columbidae , Pakistan/epidemiology , Prevalence , Animals, Wild
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285621

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Prevalence , Genotype
8.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 95(3): 559-571, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Estimate the effort-reward imbalance prevalence (ERI) among physicians. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted from 2005 to 2019 using PRISMA guidelines on the PubMed and EBSCOhost search engines. Data were classified according to the ERI definition used by the authors. A meta-analysis was performed on effort and reward scores and on ERI prevalence rates. RESULTS: Out of 3787 results, we selected 41 studies. The physicians' ERI prevalence rate ranged from 3.50 to 96.9%. The standardized pooled effort mean score was 58.5 for effort and 48.9 for a reward out of 100, respectively. The overall combined ERI rate (when the ratio between effort and reward scores was above 1) was 40.2% among 21,939 practitioners (31.7% in the working European population). ERI rate was 70.2% using a four-point Likert scale and 21.1% using a five-point Likert scale. The highest rate (96.9%) was observed among German rural general practitioners and the lowest rate (3.50%) among Swiss hospital practitioners. The low percentage of variability (I2 = 27%) attributed to effort scores heterogeneity between studies suggested that this dimension is not discriminant in the physician ERI assessment. The high heterogeneity in reward scores (I2 = 83%) indicated that this dimension is sensible in ERI assessment among physicians. The number of items used did not appear as a significant source of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Physician job ERI appeared to be higher than in the working population. Studying each dimension and item indicators could help improve psychosocial risk prevention.


Subject(s)
Job Satisfaction , Physicians , Humans , Physicians/psychology , Prevalence , Reward , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload/psychology
9.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(4): 1017-1024, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Variants in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are recognized as a common and important genetic risk factor for Parkinson disease (PD). However, the impact of variant severity on the clinical phenotype of PD in the Chinese population remains unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the frequency of GBA-related PD (GBA-PD) and the relationship of GBA variant severity with clinical characteristics in a large Chinese cohort. METHODS: Long-range polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing were performed for the entire GBA gene. GBA variant severity was classified into five classes: mild, severe, risk, complex, and unknown. RESULTS: Among the total 737 PD patients, 47 GBA variants were detected in 79 (10.72%) patients, and the most common GBA variants were R163Q, L444P, and R120W. Complete demographic and clinical data were obtained for 673 patients, which revealed that 18.50% of early onset PD patients had GBA variants. Compared with patients without GBA variants, GBA-PD patients experienced PD onset an average of 4 years earlier and had more severe motor and nonmotor symptoms. Patients carrying severe and complex variants had a higher burden of nonmotor symptoms, especially depression, and more mood/cognitive and gastrointestinal symptoms than patients carrying mild variants. CONCLUSIONS: GBA-PD is highly prevalent in the Chinese population. The severity of GBA variants underlies distinct phenotypic spectrums, with PD patients carrying severe and complex variants seeming to have similar phenotypes. PD patient stratification by GBA variant severity should become a prerequisite for selecting specific treatments.


Subject(s)
Glucosylceramidase , Parkinson Disease , China/epidemiology , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Glucosylceramidase/genetics , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Prevalence
10.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 333-339, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of gynecomastia, determine mean glandular breast tissue sizes, and evaluate whether there is any difference in the prevalence rate of gynecomastia according to age using three different reference values of glandular breast tissue size (≥5, ≥10, ≥20 mm) in the pediatric age group. METHODS: Glandular breast tissue sizes were measured retrospectively from thoracic computed tomography (CT) images taken for other reasons in 961 boys aged 1-18 years. RESULTS: When each breast was evaluated separately (1,922 breasts), gynecomastia was observed in 1,001 (52.1%), 719 (37.4%), and 216 (11.2%) breasts with ≥5, ≥10, and ≥20 mm considered as reference values, respectively. A significant difference was found in terms of gynecomastia (p<0.001) and mean glandular breast tissue size (p<0.001) with respect to age. CONCLUSIONS: New studies are currently needed to determine the glandular breast tissue size and the prevalence rate of gynecomastia in boys, and thoracic CT images can be used for this purpose.


Subject(s)
Gynecomastia , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Gynecomastia/diagnostic imaging , Gynecomastia/epidemiology , Humans , Incidental Findings , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
11.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366907

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: estabelecer diagnóstico diferencial das demências em ambulatório de geriatria no Distrito Federal, calculando-se sua prevalência por meio de exame clínico e avaliação multifuncional. Método: estudo longitudinal, retrospectivo, com amostra de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais residentes no Distrito Federal-Brasil, com déficit cognitivo caracterizado por Transtorno Neurocognitivo (TNC) Maior (demência), cadastradas durante os anos de 2010 a 2018. A coleta de dados foi realizada em prontuários para selecionar e avaliar o perfil do idoso com diagnóstico de TNC seguida de avaliação geriátrica ampla e avaliação multifuncional. A análise de dados foi realizada com o cálculo da prevalência, estatística descritiva e índice V de Cramer. Resultados: 158 indivíduos conseguiram concluir todas as avalições. 52,5% possuem de 80 a 89 anos, 62,5% são mulheres e 62,7% caucasianos, 50,6% viúvos e 47,5% analfabetos. A prevalência inicial de Doença de Alzheimer (DA) foi de 45,6%, reduzindo-se para 35,4% após um período de acompanhamento e a demência vascular (DV) foi de 34,2%, inicialmente, e 45,6% ao final. Utilizou-se o Coeficiente V de Cramer, em que se encontrou uma relação fraca de fatores de risco com os diagnósticos das demências apresentados. Conclusão: DV foi a mais prevalente na área estudada. Entende-se ser a maior frequência de DA esteja relacionada à avaliação superficial uma vez que esse tipo de demência é mundialmente mais frequente


Objetivos: estabelecer diagnóstico diferencial das demências em ambulatório de geriatria no Distrito Federal, calculando-se sua prevalência por meio de exame clínico e avaliação multifuncional. Método: estudo longitudinal, retrospectivo, com amostra de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais residentes no Distrito Federal-Brasil, com déficit cognitivo caracterizado por Transtorno Neurocognitivo (TNC) Maior (demência), cadastradas durante os anos de 2010 a 2018. A coleta de dados foi realizada em prontuários para selecionar e avaliar o perfil do idoso com diagnóstico de TNC seguida de avaliação geriátrica ampla e avaliação multifuncional. A análise de dados foi realizada com o cálculo da prevalência, estatística descritiva e índice V de Cramer. Resultados: 158 indivíduos conseguiram concluir todas as avalições. 52,5% possuem de 80 a 89 anos, 62,5% são mulheres e 62,7% caucasianos, 50,6% viúvos e 47,5% analfabetos. A prevalência inicial de Doença de Alzheimer (DA) foi de 45,6%, reduzindo-se para 35,4% após um período de acompanhamento e a demência vascular (DV) foi de 34,2%, inicialmente, e 45,6% ao final. Utilizou-se o Coeficiente V de Cramer, em que se encontrou uma relação fraca de fatores de risco com os diagnósticos das demências apresentados. Conclusão: DV foi a mais prevalente na área estudada. Entende-se ser a maior frequência de DA esteja relacionada à avaliação superficial uma vez que esse tipo de demência é mundialmente mais frequente


Subject(s)
Dementia , Alzheimer Disease , Women , Dementia, Vascular , Geriatric Assessment , Public Health , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Neurocognitive Disorders , Geriatrics , Persons
12.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226288, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1366204

ABSTRACT

Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23- 26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Toothache/epidemiology , Oral Health , Socioeconomic Factors , Dental Health Surveys , Prevalence , Longitudinal Studies , Indonesia/epidemiology
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 205, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In developing nations like India, fertility and mortality have decreased, and diseases related to lifestyle have become more common. Females in India are more prone to being overweight and obese than their male counterparts, more specifically in affluent families than the poor ones. Understanding the overweight and obesity trend may help develop feasible public health interventions to reduce the burden of obesity and associated adverse health outcomes. METHODS: The study utilizes the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-16. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to check the significant relationship between overweight and obesity, and other background characteristics. Income-related inequality in overweight and obesity among women was quantified by the concentration index and the concentration curve. Further, Wagstaff decomposition analysis was done to decompose the concentration index, into the contributions of each factor to the income-related inequalities. RESULTS: Overweight & obesity among women had a significant positive association with their age and educational level. The odds of overweight and obesity were 57% more likely among women who ever had any caesarean births than those who did not [AOR: 1.57; CI: 1.53-1.62]. The likelihood of overweight and obesity was 4.31 times more likely among women who belonged to richest [AOR: 5.84; CI: 5.61-6.08] wealth quintile, than those who belonged to poor wealth quintile. Women who ever terminated the pregnancy had 20% higher risk of overweight and obesity than those who did not [AOR: 1.20; CI: 1.17-1.22]. The concentration of overweight and obesity among women was mostly in rich households of all the Indian states and union territories. Among the geographical regions of India, the highest inequality was witnessed in Eastern India (0.41), followed by Central India (0.36). CONCLUSION: The study results also reveal a huge proportion of women belonging to the BMI categories of non-normal, which is a concern and can increase the risks of developing non-communicable diseases. Hence, the study concludes and recommends an urgent need of interventions catering to urban women belonging to higher socio-economic status which can reduce the risks of health consequences due to overweight and obesity. Development nutrition-specific as well as sensitive interventions can be done for mobilization of local resources that addresses the multiple issues under which a woman is overweight or obese.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Overweight , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Social Class
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 209, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When a worker is abused, threatened, or assaulted while at work, it poses an explicit or implicit threat to his/her safety, well-being, or health. However, the magnitude and understanding of the problem and its associated factors have received little attention in low and middle-income countries, including Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to ascertain the magnitude, perceptions, and associated factors of workplace sexual violence among waitresses in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. METHODS: Parallel sampling was used in a facility-based convergent mixed-methods study. A multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. Four hundred six waitresses provided quantitative information. To collect data, a pretested structured interview administered questionnaire was used. Qualitative data from ten in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions were also collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were cleaned before being entered into Epidata version 7 and exported to STATA version 15 for analysis. Using odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval and a P value of less than 0.05, binary logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors. Thematic analysis was performed using ATLAS ti version 8.4.25 after the recorded audios were transcribed. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of workplace sexual violence was 45.9% (95% CI 41, 50.8). Waitresses who had heard about sexual violence and workplace sexual violence, had witnessed family violence as a child, had a family who valued their honor over their children's safety and health, and lacked employment opportunities were more likely to experience workplace sexual violence. Waitresses who worked in emotionally supportive work environments and were educated were less likely to experience workplace sexual violence. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the waitresses in this study had experienced workplace sexual violence. Its awareness, witnessing family violence as a child, growing up in a family that prioritized their honor over their children's safety and health, and lack of employment opportunities exacerbated it. In contrast, emotionally supportive work environments and education have protected them. This implies that organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, civic organizations, and other responsible bodies must pay attention to the identified factors. Additionally, Ethiopian hospitality workplaces should develop policies to protect women.


Subject(s)
Sex Offenses , Workplace , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence
15.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 210, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women is a significant problem of public health importance. Nevertheless, there are relatively few studies which have examined the phenomenon in sub-Saharan settings. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the prevalence, perpetrators, and associated factors of IPV during pregnancy in Kenya. METHODS: We were making use of the 2014 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data and included women and girls of reproductive age (15-49 years) who have ever been pregnant ([Formula: see text]). A weighted sample of respondents who have experienced violence during pregnancy ([Formula: see text]) were selected for further bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses in order to examine the association between IPV and socio-demographic factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of violence among pregnant women in Kenya was 9.2%, perpetrated mostly by the current husband or partner (47.6%), followed by the former husband or partner (31.5%). Physical violence was the most common (78.6%), followed by emotional (67.8%) and sexual (34.8%). Having one or two children ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), having secondary or higher education ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and being 18 years and above at first cohabitation ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and at sexual debut ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) were significantly associated with fewer reports of violence during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were divorced, separated or widowed ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), who were employed ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), who had witnessed their fathers beat their mothers ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and who had primary education ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) were significantly more likely to experience violence. CONCLUSIONS: To prevent violence among pregnant women in Kenya, training health care providers should go hand in hand with interventions sensitising and mobilising community members, both addressing the socio-demographic drivers of IPV during pregnancy and directing a particular attention to the most vulnerable ones.


Subject(s)
Intimate Partner Violence , Pregnant Women , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sexual Partners/psychology , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682459

ABSTRACT

The association between skin cancer and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is well established, and sun protection behavior represents an important preventative measure. In children, caregivers play a key role in this regard. The subject of this study was threefold: whether caregivers of 1 to 11 year-old children are more likely to use sun protection measures compared to non-caregivers, whether considering oneself a role model is associated with sun protection behaviors, and whether their sun protection and risk behaviors are related to children's behaviors. We used data from the 2020 wave of the National Cancer Aid Monitoring (NCAM) comprised of 4000 individuals (including 554 caregivers of at least one child aged 1-10 years) aged 16 to 65 years and living in Germany. Data were collected through telephone interviews between October and December 2020. No significant differences between caregivers and non-caregivers regarding sun protection and risk behaviors were identified (except tanning on vacation). In both groups, sun protection behaviors were deficient. Caregivers who considered themselves role models concerning sun safety were more likely to use sun protection measures (e.g., using sunscreen on the face: OR = 5.08, p < 0.001). In addition, caregivers' sun protection behaviors were positively associated with children's behaviors. Caregivers being highly protected against UVR were more likely to report the use of different measures by/in the child (mean = 4.03), compared to caregivers with medium (3.41) and low (2.97, p < 0.001) protection levels. However, we also found that caregivers' risk behavior was associated with children's reported risk behavior. For future prevention, it might be worth focusing on the aspect of caregivers serving as role models. A comprehensive public-health strategy is needed, including key figures such as pediatricians to prevent today's children from developing skin cancer in later life.


Subject(s)
Skin Neoplasms , Sunburn , Caregivers , Child , Child, Preschool , Health Behavior , Humans , Infant , Prevalence , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunburn/prevention & control , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects
17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682476

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its profound global effects may be changing the way we think about illness. In summer 2020, 120 American adults were asked to diagnose symptoms of COVID-19, a cold, and cancer, and to answer questions related to the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, time-course, and transmission of each disease. Results showed that participants were more likely to correctly diagnose COVID-19 (91% accuracy) compared to a cold (58% accuracy) or cancer (52% accuracy). We also found that 7% of participants misdiagnosed cold symptoms as COVID-19, and, interestingly, over twice as many participants (16%) misdiagnosed symptoms of cancer as COVID-19. Our findings suggest a distinct mental model for COVID-19 compared to other illnesses. Further, the prevalence of COVID-19 in everyday discourse-especially early in the pandemic-may lead to biased responding, similar to errors in medical diagnosis that result from physicians' expertise. We also discuss how the focus of public-health messaging on prevention of COVID-19 might contribute to participants' mental models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Psychological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682484

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental pollution and the living conditions of indigenous Ecuadorians on the transmission of enteroparasites in an Andean agricultural area located at high altitude. Environmental pollution was recorded after observation in each community. The parasites were identified by microscopic sediment analysis using physiological saline solution from macerated arthropods, washed vegetables, and human stools, utilizing four coproparasitological techniques (direct examination, Kato-Katz, ether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen). The results show that the inadequate disposal of human and animal excreta that contaminate soil and water, incorrect food hygiene, inadequate sanitary infrastructure in houses, a lack of animal veterinary care, and rodent proliferation are important reservoirs of zoonotic parasites. The use of excrement as fertilizer increases the number of flies, which act as mechanical vectors, and vegetables grown in areas with disperse infective parasitic forms act as vehicles that are marketed at the local, regional, and international levels. These analyses verify contamination levels of 52.7% in mechanical vectors, 70.6% in vegetables, and 98.2% in human stools. The agricultural communities analyzed maintained poor hygienic-sanitary and environmental conditions, which had a significant influence on the transmission of enteroparasites that affect human health.


Subject(s)
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Parasites , Animals , Ecuador , Environmental Pollution , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Prevalence , Social Conditions , Vegetables
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with workplace bullying, sexual harassment and racial harassment among Italian health workers. METHODS: We recruited 3129 participants using an online Italian translation of the 'Workplace Violence in the Health Sector Country Case Studies Research Instruments Survey' (WVHS) questionnaire. Data were analyzed with univariate (chi-square) and multivariate (multiple logistic regression) analysis. RESULTS: Univariate analysis shows that females are significantly more affected by bullying (16.4% vs. 12.3%) and sexual harassment (2.4% vs. 1.3%). On the other hand, males are significantly more affected by racial harassment (3.1% vs. 2.0%). Multivariate analysis shows higher odds of being affected by bullying (OR = 1.30; 95% CI (1.03, 1.64)) and sexual harassment (OR = 2.08; 95% CI (1.04, 4.00)) for females, and higher odds of undergoing racial harassment (OR = 1.55; 95% CI (0.95, 2.53)) for males. CONCLUSION: This analysis of work situations looks to identify those risk factors, existing or potential, that increase the probability of episodes of violence. A group of work or other subjects identified by direction will have to evaluate the vulnerability of workplaces and establish more effective preventive actions to be adopted.


Subject(s)
Bullying , Sexual Harassment , Workplace Violence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 226, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if characteristics of reports of violence against women at different levels of severity are similar and to test if their prevalence is correlated at the municipal level. METHODS: I use data from women ages 15-49 who were killed by homicide in Brazil's national death registry (N = 14,373), were hospitalized for aggression (N = 14,701), or were included in the medical mandatory reports of incidents of violence against women (N = 42,134) between 2011 and 2016 in select municipalities. I provide national level descriptive statistics from 2016 contrasting distributions of victims (age, education, and race) and distributions of the characteristics of the incidents (location and time of day). Then, for 63 municipalities with a high number of violent incidents, I calculate the correlation coefficients between measures of violence against women using quarterly data from 2011 to 2016. I use multiple regression of municipal characteristics at baseline to examine which factors (poverty, spending, health, and civic engagement) predict the correlation. RESULTS: Victim characteristics and incident characteristics are similar across the measures of violence at the national level. Despite these aggregate similarities, correlations at the municipal level are quite varied, ranging from - 0.69 to 0.83. I find no municipal characteristics that consistently predict these correlation coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some similarities at an aggregate level, these measures of violence against women do not have consistent patterns of correlation at the municipality level. Measures of severe levels of violence against women are not good proxies for incidence of violence at less severe physical levels. Lack of correlations could be due to differences in reporting, but may also be due to differences in underlying processes that share similar victims and event characteristics.


Subject(s)
Homicide , Violence , Adolescent , Adult , Aggression , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...