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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e253009, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339373

ABSTRACT

Abstract Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Resumo Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Subject(s)
Cucurbitaceae , Ethanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Water , Biotransformation , Prospective Studies , Fermentation
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 291: 115145, 2022 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219821

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shenling Baizhu San (SBS) is commonly employed to improve gastrointestinal dysfunction in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in China. SBS combined with mesalamine has been demonstrated to result in improve its curative effects without increasing any adverse reactions, but the underlying mechanism remains unclarified. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study aimed to illuminate the potential therapeutic effects and mechanisms of SBS, which is a medicine complementary to mesalamine, in the treatment of UC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of SBS as a complementary medicine to mesalamine for patients with UC (n = 48). The patients in the control group (n = 24) were given mesalamine alone, whereas those in the experimental group were administered mesalamine combined with SBS. The therapeutic outcome was assessed at 8 weeks. The structures of the gut microbiota (GMB) were characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing, and the microbial tryptophan metabolites were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS to investigate the mechanism through which SBS achieves its effects. RESULTS: Our results showed that the combination of SBS and mesalamine could significantly improve the clinical signs of UC by achieving mucosal healing and relieving colon damage. Interestingly, the combination of SBS and mesalamine could alter the GMB structures and increase the microbial levels of tryptophan metabolites, including indole-3-propionic acid and indole-3-acetic acid. CONCLUSION: SBS combined with mesalamine is effective in improving the clinical and endoscopic outcomes of patients with UC. SBS, as a complementary therapy to conventional treatment, alleviates UC via the GMB-tryptophan metabolite axis.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Complementary Therapies , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Chromatography, Liquid , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tryptophan
3.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(2): e15229, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820974

ABSTRACT

Carboxytherapy has been used in the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases such as psoriasis and morphea. Carboxytherapy has antioxidant effects, and leads to better tissue oxygenation, and release of growth factors. In this article, we decided to evaluate efficacy of combined carboxytherapy and narrowband-ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) compared to NB-UVB alone in the treatment of vitiligo. This is a prospective, split-body double-blind comparative study performed in patients with generalized stable vitiligo in acral areas and extremities referred to dermatology clinic of Afzalipour hospital in Kerman University of Medical Sciences. NB-UVB was performed three times a week in non-consecutive days for 4 months. In each patient, one lesion was randomly treated with carboxytherapy (weekly sessions for total of 16 sessions). Efficacy of treatment was evaluated by percentage of repigmentation of the lesions. Chi-square test and analysis of variance test (ANOVA) were used to compare efficacy of treatment based on demographic features of the patients and clinical features of the lesions, respectively. Twenty-eight patients with mean age of 32.35 ± 7.37 years old completed the study. At the end of the treatment, 37% of the patients in combination therapy group demonstrated more than 75% improvement compared to 0% in the monotherapy group (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference between either demographic features of the patients (age, sex, and skin phototypes) or duration of disease with efficacy of the treatment in both groups. Combination of carboxytherapy with NB-UVB leads to higher percentage of repigmentation and patients' satisfaction compared to monotherapy with NB-UVB.


Subject(s)
Ultraviolet Therapy , Vitiligo , Adult , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Skin/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Ultraviolet Therapy/adverse effects , Vitiligo/diagnosis , Vitiligo/drug therapy , Vitiligo/radiotherapy , Young Adult
4.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 257-263, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212665

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality in patients with schizophrenia in this study. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 1620 patients with schizophrenia. Of the 1620 patients, 52 (3.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-19. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 40 patients were hospitalized, and 17 patients required intensive care unit admission due to COVID-19 (76.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Severe COVID-19 disease was noted in 17 patients (32.7%) requiring intubation. In the logistic regression analysis, antipsychotic dose, and comorbidity score were independently associated with a greater risk of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with schizophrenia. Our study suggests that factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, and a daily antipsychotic dose may have effects on the poor outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in schizophrenia patients. In addition, the current findings propose that mortality may be associated with an older age, comorbidity score, and a longer duration of psychiatric disease among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings of our study should be verified in prospective and larger sample studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Demography , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/epidemiology
5.
Artif Organs ; 46(4): 597-605, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: M101 is an extracellular hemoglobin isolated from a marine lugworm and is present in the medical device HEMO2 life®. The clinical investigation OXYOP was a paired kidney analysis (n = 60) designed to evaluate the safety and performance of HEMO2 life® used as an additive to preservation solution in renal transplantation. The secondary efficacy endpoints showed less delayed graft function (DGF) and better renal function in the HEMO2 life® group but due to the study design cold ischemia time (CIT) was longer in the contralateral kidneys. METHODS: An additional analysis was conducted including OXYOP patients and patients from the ASTRE database (n = 6584) to verify that the decrease in DGF rates observed in the HEMO2 life® group may not be due solely to the shorter CIT but also to HEMO2 life® performance. Kaplan-Meier estimate curves of cumulative probability of achieving a creatinine level below 250 µmol/L were generated and compared in both groups. A Cox model was used to test the effect of the explanatory variables (use of HEMO2 life® and CIT). Finally, a bootstrap strategy was used to randomly select smaller samples of patients and test them for statistical comparison in the ASTRE database. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier estimate curves confirmed the existence of a relation between DGF and CIT and Cox analysis showed a benefit in the HEMO2 life® group regardless of the associated CIT. Boostrap analysis confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that the better recovery of renal function observed among kidneys preserved with HEMO2 life® in the OXYOP study is a therapeutic benefit of this breakthrough innovative medical device.


Subject(s)
Cold Ischemia , Kidney Transplantation , Cold Ischemia/adverse effects , Cold Ischemia/methods , Delayed Graft Function , Graft Survival , Hemoglobins , Humans , Kidney/physiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 94-103, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130570

ABSTRACT

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability is emerging as an indicator of long-term glycemic control, which may play a significant role during vascular complications. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between the scope of HbA1c variability and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies that evaluated the association of HbA1c variability with vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers independently completed data extraction. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted with stratification according to the type of vascular complications. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion in our systematic review and meta-analysis. Six studies evaluated the impact of the standard deviation of HbA1c (HbA1c-SD) on cardiovascular events and showed an association of HbA1c-SD with cardiovascular events (HR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.18-1.32, 5 studies). Six studies evaluated renal disease associated with HbA1c-SD and showed that HbA1c-SD was correlated with an increased risk of renal disease (HR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.13-1.24). Two studies evaluated HbA1c-SD and the risk of retinopathy and showed that no significant association was found between retinopathy and HbA1c-SD (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.92-125). For HbA1c-SD ranging from 0.6 to 0.8%, HbA1c-SD was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.35) and renal disease (HR: 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.22). For individuals with index HbA1c variability greater than or equal to 0.6%, HbA1c variability was significantly associated with vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Prospective Studies
7.
Psychooncology ; 31(1): 54-61, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of breast reconstruction on women's perceptions of body image over time and to assess the influence of sociodemographic variables on body image. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study, using validated breast cancer-specific questionnaires, to compare patient-reported outcomes in women choosing immediate (n = 61), delayed (n = 16) or no (n = 23) breast reconstruction. RESULTS: One hundred women completed baseline questionnaires that included items on body image; 30 women completed all four annual follow-up sets, while 20 women completed baseline only. The three groups were well matched at baseline and similar trajectories in body image measures were identified over 48 months in all groups. At 12 months post-mastectomy, significant changes were seen in eight of the 10 subscales; this reduced to seven subscales at 24 months and four at 36 months. By 48 months, only three subscales remained significantly different to baseline scores: women remained less vulnerable and had fewer limitations (improved outcomes); the one worse outcome was persistently higher levels of arm concern. Three of the sociodemographic variables (health insurance, age and employment status) showed significant inter-group differences at some time points. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest women recover from the negative impact of mastectomy on body image within four years of surgery, whether they have immediate, delayed or no reconstruction. Our results provide some indirect evidence that having a choice of BR options is important, regardless of the choice made. Four years appears to be a suitable follow-up period for future studies in this area.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Mammaplasty , Body Image , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mammaplasty/methods , Mastectomy , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): 167-173, junio 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368141

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Describir el uso de la guía ecográfica en el cateterismo venoso central, comparando el número de intentos (1 versus 2 o más intentos), en relación con los catéteres insertados en vena yugular interna (VYI) versus vena femoral (VF). Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo de catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) colocados mediante punción ecoguiada en pacientes de 1 mes a 18 años. Se realizó un modelo de regresión multivariado considerando el punto final primario, éxito a la primera punción en relación con el sitio de inserción (VYI versus VF) y variables predictoras de éxito. Resultados. Se colocaron 257 CVC, VYI 118 (45,9 %), VF 139 (54,1 %); 161 (62,7 %) insertados en la primera punción y 96 (37,3 %) requirieron más de una punción. Las inserciones en VYI fueron exitosas en la primera punción en 86 pacientes (53,5 %) y en VF fueron 75 (46,5 %) (p 0,0018; OR: 0,43 [IC95%: 0,24-0,76]). Hubo 21 (8,1 %) complicaciones inmediatas, 3 (1,86 %) se relacionaron con la primera punción, 18 (18,75 %) lo hicieron con más de una punción (p 0,0001 [IC95%: 3,36-45,68]). Las complicaciones graves, como neumotórax, fueron 4. Conclusiones. El cateterismo venoso guiado por ultrasonido demostró ser significativamente exitoso en el primer intento cuando el vaso de elección fue la VYI comparado con VF, especialmente en menores de 6 meses. Las complicaciones inmediatas fueron más frecuentes en los pacientes que requirieron más de una punción


Objectives. Describe ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization use comparing the number of attempts (1 versus 2 or more attempts) in relation to catheters placed in the internal jugular vein (IJV) versus the femoral vein (FV). Material and methods. Descriptive, prospective study of central venous catheters (CVCs) inserted via ultrasound-guided puncture in patients aged 1 month to 18 years. A multivariate regression model was done considering the primary endpoint, first puncture success in relation to the insertion site (IJV versus FV), and predictors of success. Results. A total of 257 CVCs were inserted: IJV 118 (45.9%), FV 139 (54.1%); 161 (62.7%) were inserted in the first attempt and 96 (37.3%) required more than 1 attempt. IJV insertions were successful with the first puncture in 86 patients (53.5%) and FV insertions, in 75 (46.5%) (p 0.0018; OR: 0.43 [95% CI: 0.24-0.76]). There were 21 (8.1%) immediate complications: 3 (1.86%) were related to the first puncture, 18 (18.75%), to more than 1 puncture (p 0.0001 [95% CI: 3.36-45.68]). There were 4 cases of severe complications, including pneumothorax. Conclusions. Ultrasound-guided venous catheterization demonstrated to be significantly successful in the first attempt when using the IJV versus FV, especially in infants younger than 6 months. Immediate complications occurred more frequently in patients requiring more than 1 puncture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Intensive Care Units , Jugular Veins/diagnostic imaging
9.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 384-389, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377397

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of stroke. Inflammation is the primary factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Use of immature granulocytes (IGs) has been recommended as a new indicator of systemic inflammation. However, data on the association between echocardiographic epicardial fat tissue thickness (EFT) and IGs in patients with AIS are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the presences of IGs, epicardial fat tissue and AIS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in a tertiary-care university hospital in Antalya, Turkey. METHODS: Our study included 53 AIS patients and 41 healthy controls with age and gender compatibility. Blood samples and transthoracic echocardiography of all participants were compared. RESULTS: IG levels were significantly higher in patients with AIS than in controls (0.62 ± 0.36 versus 0.28 ± 0.02, P < 0.001). The mean EFT was 3.74 ± 0.61 mm in the control group and 6.33 ± 1.47 mm in the AIS patient group. EFT was significantly greater in AIS patients than in controls (P < 0.001). For the optimum cut-off value for IG (0.95), the area under the curve (AUC) was determined to be 0.840; sensitivity was determined to be 81.1% and specificity, 92.5%. For the optimum cut-off value for EFT (4.95 mm), the AUC was determined to be 0.953; sensitivity was determined to be 90.6% and specificity, 90%. CONCLUSIONS: IG and echocardiographic EFT are clinical markers that can be used to predict AIS risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Echocardiography , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Granulocytes , Inflammation
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 390-397, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377390

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Reduced antioxidant defenses may reflect a poor protective response against oxidative stress and this may be implicated in progression of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia plays a major role in micro and macrovascular complications, which imply endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this study was to investigate the association between GDM and oxidative stress markers measured in plasma, with regard to revealing changes to total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) among mothers showing impairments in oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at a university hospital in Turkey. METHODS: The study group consisted of 50 mothers with GDM, and 59 healthy mothers served as controls. Umbilical cord blood samples were taken from all mothers during delivery and breast milk samples on the fifth day after delivery. TAC, TOS, thiol and disulfide levels were measured. RESULTS: No statistically significant relationship between the blood and milk samples could be found. An analysis on correlations between TAC, TOS and certain parameters revealed that there were negative correlations between TOS and total thiol (r = -0.386; P < 0.001) and between TOS and disulfide (r = -0.388; P < 0.001) in milk in the control group. However, these findings were not observed in the study group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that a compensatory mechanism of oxidative stress was expected to be present in gestational diabetes mellitus and that this might be ameliorated through good glycemic regulation and antioxidant supplementation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Prospective Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Milk/metabolism , Milk/chemistry , Disulfides/analysis , Fetal Blood/metabolism , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis
11.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 454-462, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377387

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of head and neck cancers is highly challenging owing to the complexity of regional anatomy and wide range of lesions. The diagnostic evaluation includes detailed physical examination, biopsy and imaging modalities for disease extent and staging. Appropriate imaging is done to enable determination of precise tumor extent and involvement of lymph nodes, and detection of distant metastases and second primary tumors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial staging discrepancy between conventional contrasted computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on management plans for head and neck malignancies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study in two tertiary-level hospitals. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with primary head and neck malignant tumors who underwent contrasted computed tomography and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT assessments. The staging and treatment plans were compared with the incremental information obtained after 18F-FDG PET/CT. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET/CT was found to raise the stage in 33.3% of the cases and the treatment intent was altered in 43.3% of them, while there was no management change in the remaining 56.7%. 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity (96% versus 89.2%) and accuracy (93% versus 86.7%) than conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity and accuracy for detecting head and neck malignancy, in comparison with conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. 18F-FDG PET/CT improved the initial staging and substantially impacted the management strategy for head and neck malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 447-453, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377385

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, access to healthcare services may have become difficult, which may have led to an increase in chronic diseases and multimorbidity. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of multimorbidity and its associated factors among adults living in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study conducted in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: We included data from the two waves of the Prospective Study About Mental and Physical Health (PAMPA). Data were collected via online questionnaires between June and July 2020 (wave 1) and between December 2020 and January 2021 (wave 2). Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more diagnosed medical conditions. RESULTS: In total, 516 individuals were included, among whom 27.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 23.5-31.1) developed multimorbidity from wave 1 to 2. In adjusted regression models, female sex (hazard ratio, HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.19-3.24), middle-aged adults (31-59 years) (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.18-2.70) and older adults (60 or over) (HR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.25-4.61) showed higher risk of multimorbidity. Back pain (19.4%), high cholesterol (13.3%) and depression (12.2%) were the medical conditions with the highest proportions reported by the participants during wave 2. CONCLUSION: The incidence of multimorbidity during a six-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic was 27.1% in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Multimorbidity , Middle Aged
13.
Redox Biol ; 53: 102352, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649312

ABSTRACT

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), a technique through which 100% oxygen is provided at a pressure higher than 1 atm absolute (ATA), has become a well-established treatment modality for multiple conditions. The noninvasive nature, favorable safety profile, and common clinical application of HBOT make it a competitive candidate for several new indications, one of them being aging and age-related diseases. In fact, despite the conventional wisdom that excessive oxygen accelerates aging, appropriate HBOT protocols without exceeding the toxicity threshold have shown great promise in therapies against aging. For one thing, an extensive body of basic research has expanded our mechanistic understanding of HBOT. Interestingly, the therapeutic targets of HBOT overlap considerably with those of aging and age-related diseases. For another, pre-clinical and small-scale clinical investigations have provided validated information on the efficacy of HBOT against aging from various aspects. However, a generally applicable protocol for HBOT to be utilized in therapies against aging needs to be defined as a subsequent step. It is high time to look back and summarize the recent advances concerning biological mechanisms and therapeutic implications of HBOT in promoting healthy aging and shed light on prospective directions. Here we provide the first comprehensive overview of HBOT in the field of aging and geriatric research, which allows the scientific community to be aware of the emerging tendency and move beyond conventional wisdom to scientific findings of translational value.


Subject(s)
Healthy Aging , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Oxygen , Prospective Studies
14.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; 56(1): 121-126, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652506

ABSTRACT

Objectives. Quality of life (QoL) is possibly the most important variable for the patient when subjective results of heart procedures are evaluated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the change in the quality of life 1 year after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Design. A Finnish single-center prospective cohort intervention study was performed from 2013 to 2018. QoL was assessed with the EQ-5D-3L VAS questionnaire before surgery and 6 and 12 months after surgery. We used univariate analysis to assess the change in the number of people experiencing problems and logistic regression analysis to assess the patients' characteristics on the change in QoL. Results. At one year follow-up, patients' quality of life improved in all EQ-5D dimensions. The greatest decreases in patients experiencing problems 12 months after surgery occurred in the dimension "mobility" (-24.1% change in reporting problems, p < .01), "self-care" (-32.9%, p < .01), and "pain or discomfort" (-25.7%, p < .01). Before surgery mean of EQ visual analogue scale (VAS, from 0 to 100) was 63.0 (SD 17.7, n = 604), and 12 months after surgery 81.2 (SD 13.8, n = 367, p < .001). In multivariable analysis, preoperative obesity was associated with better quality of life (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.007-11.439) in "daily activities" and patients' higher operative risk was associated with better "self-care" after surgery. Conclusions. SAVR can improve the 1-year quality of life in all dimensions of EQ-5D and self-rated overall health (VAS).


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve , Quality of Life , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve/surgery , Humans , Pain Measurement/methods , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; 56(1): 148-156, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652526

ABSTRACT

Objectives. Urinary albumin excretion is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies suggest that urinary orosomucoid may be a more sensitive marker of general endothelial dysfunction than albuminuria. The aim of this population-based cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between urinary orosomucoid to creatinine ratio (UOCR), urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) and subclinical CVD. Design. From the Tromsø Study (2007/2008), we included all men and women who had measurements of urinary orosomucoid (n = 7181). Among these, 6963 were examined with ultrasound of the right carotid artery and 2245 with echocardiography. We assessed the associations between urinary markers and subclinical CVD measured as intima media thickness of the carotid artery, presence and area of carotid plaque and diastolic dysfunction (DD). UOCR and UACR were dichotomized as upper quartile versus the three lowest. Results. High UOCR, adjusted for UACR, age, cardiovascular risk factors and kidney function, was associated with presence of DD in men (OR: 3.18, 95% CI [1.27, 7.95], p = .013), and presence of plaque (OR: 1.20, 95% CI [1.01, 1.44], p = .038) and intima media thickness in women (OR: 1.34, 95% CI [1.09, 1.65], p = .005). Analyses showed no significant interaction between sex and UOCR for any endpoints. UACR was not significantly associated with DD, but the associations with intima media thickness and plaque were of magnitudes comparable to those observed for UOCR. Conclusions. UOCR was positively associated with subclinical CVD. We need prospective studies to confirm whether UOCR is a clinically useful biomarker and to study possible sex differences.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery Diseases , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Albumins , Biomarkers , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Orosomucoid , Prospective Studies
16.
J Wound Care ; 31(Sup6): S12-S21, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The treatment of patients with hard-to-heal wounds represents a major multidisciplinary challenge. Therefore, the development and clinical validation of new technologies remains extremely important. The novel application of concurrent optical and magnetic stimulation (COMS) offers a promising noninvasive approach to support physiological wound healing processes, especially in hard-to-heal wounds. METHOD: In a multicentre, prospective, comparative, clinical trial, patients with hard-to-heal wounds on lower extremities of different aetiologies were treated with COMS as an adjunct to standard of care (SOC). The primary endpoint was safety; secondary endpoints were wound healing, pain and wound-specific quality of life (Wound-QoL). RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were enrolled in this study (intention to treat population (ITTP), n=40). Of these patients, 37 were included in the analysis of the primary endpoint (primary endpoint population, (PEP), n=37). A further subgroup of 30 patients was included in the analysis of the secondary endpoint (secondary endpoint population (SEP), n=30). Finally, the SEP was stratified regarding patients' responsiveness to SOC in an SOC non-responder subgroup (NRSG), n=21, and in an SOC responder subgroup (RSG), n=9. A total of 102 adverse events (AEs) were recorded, of which 96% were 'mild' or 'moderate', and 91% were either a singular or transient event. Only 11 AEs were serious and associated with inpatient treatments unrelated to the studied intervention. In the NRSG, reductions in wound size were found to be statistically significant within the different study periods. Additionally, an acceleration of the healing rate was detected between the baseline and the first four weeks of COMS treatment (p=0.041). The rate of near-complete and complete wound closure in the SEP after 12 weeks were 60% and 43%, respectively. Pain reduction across the treatment group was statistically significant (p≤0.002 for both the SEP and NRSG). The Wound-QoL score improved by 24% during the study (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: In this study, COMS treatment for patients with hard-to-heal wounds on lower extremities was a safe and effective novel treatment option, especially for patients who did not respond to SOC.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Field Therapy , Quality of Life , Humans , Lower Extremity , Pain , Prospective Studies , Wound Healing
17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) compared with no treatment in healthcare workers with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Prospective, non-randomized study. All health professionals with confirmed COVID-19 between April 7 and May 6, 2020, non-requiring initial hospitalization were asked to participate. Patients who accepted treatment were given HCQ for five days (loading dose of 400mg q12h the first day followed by200mg q12h). Control group included patients with contraindications for HCQ or who rejected treatment. Study outcomes were negative conversion and viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2, symptoms duration and disease progression. RESULT: Overall, 142 patients were enrolled: 87 in treatment group and 55 in control group. The median age was 37 years and 75% were female, with few comorbidities. There were no significant differences in time to negative conversion of PCR between both groups. The only significant difference in the probability of negative conversion of PCR was observed at day 21 (18.7%, 95%CI 2.0-35.4). The decrease of SARS-CoV-2 viral load during follow-up was similar in both groups. A non significant reduction in duration of some symptoms in HCQ group was observed. Two patients with HCQ and 4 without treatment developed pneumonia. No patients required admission to the Intensive Care Unit or died. About 50% of patients presented mild side effects of HCQ, mainly diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: Our study failed to show a substantial benefit of HCQ in viral dynamics and in resolution of clinical symptoms in health care workers with mild COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 221, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic pneumothorax is common after thoracic procedures. For patients with pneumothorax larger than 15%, simple aspiration is suggested. Although vacuum bottle plus non-tunneled catheter drainage has been performed in many institutions, its safety and efficacy remain to be assessed. METHODS: Through this prospective cohort study (NCT03724721), we evaluated the safety and efficacy of vacuum bottle plus non-tunneled catheter drainage. Patients older than 20 years old who developed post-procedural pneumothorax were enrolled. A non-tunneled catheter was placed at the intersection of the midclavicular line and the second intercostal space. A 3-way stopcock, a drainage set, and a digital pressure gauge were connected. The stopcock was manipulated to connect the pleural space to the pressure gauge for measurement of end-expiration intrapleural pressure or to the vacuum bottle for air drainage. The rate of successful drainage, the end-expiration intrapleural pressure before, during, and after the procedure and the duration of hospitalization were recorded. RESULTS: From August 2018 to February 2020, 21 patients underwent vacuum bottle plus catheter drainage (intervention group) and 31 patients received conservative treatment (control group). The end-expiration intrapleural pressure of all patients remained less than - 20 cmH2O during drainage. No procedure related complication was observed. Large pneumothorax (≥ 15%) was associated with higher risk of persistent air leak (Odds ratio 12, 95% CI 1.2-569.7). Vacuum bottle assisted air drainage yielded shorter event-free duration than that of conservative treatment (2 days vs 5 days [interquartile range 1-4 days vs 3-7 days], p < .05). Vacuum bottle assisted air drainage also help identifying patients with persistent pneumothorax and necessitate the subsequent management. The event-free duration of persistent air leak in the intervention group was also comparable with that of conservative treatment (5 days vs 5 days [interquartile range 5-8 days vs 3-7 days], p = .45). CONCLUSIONS: Vacuum bottle plus catheter drainage of iatrogenic pneumothorax is a safe and efficient procedure. It may be considered as an alternative management of stable post-procedural pneumothorax with size larger than 15%. Trial registration The study protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of National Taiwan University Hospital (No. 201805105DINA) on 6th August, 2018. The first participant was enrolled on 23rd August, 2018 after Research Ethics Committee approval. This clinical trial complete registration at U.S. National Library of Medicine clinicaltrials.gov with identifier NCT03724721 and URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03724721 on 30th October, 2018.


Subject(s)
Drainage , Pneumothorax , Adult , Catheters , Drainage/adverse effects , Drainage/methods , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease , Pneumothorax/therapy , Prospective Studies , Vacuum , Young Adult
19.
Br J Nurs ; 31(11): 564-570, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678814

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Airway management, including endotracheal intubation, is one of the cornerstones of care of critically ill patients. Internationally, health professionals from varying backgrounds deliver endotracheal intubation as part of their critical care role. This article considers the development of airway management skills within a single advanced critical care practitioner (ACCP) team and uses case series data to analyse the safety profile in performing this aspect of critical care. Skills were acquired during and after the ACCP training pathway. A combination of theoretical teaching, theatre experience, simulation and work-based practice was used. Case series data of all critical care intubations by ACCPs were collected. Audit results: Data collection identified 675 intubations carried out by ACCPs, 589 of those being supervised, non-cardiac arrest intubations requiring drugs. First pass success was achieved in 89.6% of cases. A second intubator was required in 4.3% of cases. Some form of complication was experienced by 42.3% of patients; however, the threshold for complications was set at a low level. CONCLUSIONS: This ACCP service developed a process to acquire advanced airway management skills including endotracheal intubation. Under medical supervision, ACCPs delivered advanced airway management achieving a first pass success rate of 89.6%, which compares favourably with both international and national success rates. Although complications were experienced in 48.3% of patients, when similar complication cut-offs are compared with published data, ACCPs also matched favourably.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Airway Management , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Prospective Studies
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2215787, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679048

ABSTRACT

Importance: Epidemiologic studies suggest maternal immune activation during pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental effects in offspring. Objective: To evaluate whether in utero exposure to SARS-CoV-2 is associated with risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in the first 12 months after birth. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study examined live offspring of all mothers who delivered between March and September 2020 at any of 6 Massachusetts hospitals across 2 health systems. Statistical analysis was performed from October to December 2021. Exposures: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction test during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Neurodevelopmental disorders determined from International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic codes over the first 12 months of life; sociodemographic and clinical features of mothers and offspring; all drawn from the electronic health record. Results: The cohort included 7772 live births (7466 pregnancies, 96% singleton, 222 births to SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers), with mean (SD) maternal age of 32.9 (5.0) years; offspring were 9.9% Asian (772), 8.4% Black (656), and 69.0% White (5363); 15.1% (1134) were of Hispanic ethnicity. Preterm delivery was more likely among exposed mothers: 14.4% (32) vs 8.7% (654) (P = .003). Maternal SARS-CoV-2 positivity during pregnancy was associated with greater rate of neurodevelopmental diagnoses in unadjusted models (odds ratio [OR], 2.17 [95% CI, 1.24-3.79]; P = .006) as well as those adjusted for race, ethnicity, insurance status, offspring sex, maternal age, and preterm status (adjusted OR, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.03-3.36]; P = .04). Third-trimester infection was associated with effects of larger magnitude (adjusted OR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.23-4.44]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in utero found preliminary evidence that maternal SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with neurodevelopmental sequelae in some offspring. Prospective studies with longer follow-up duration will be required to exclude confounding and confirm these associations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
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