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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-09-21.
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56432

ABSTRACT

El tracoma, una enfermedad prevenible, es una de las principales causas de ceguera de origen infeccioso en el mundo. Además, afecta principalmente las poblaciones que viven en zonas rurales, pobres y remotas que tienen un acceso deficiente o inexistente a servicios básicos como agua, saneamiento, salud o educación, entre otros. En la Región de las Américas, el tracoma representa un problema de salud pública en Brasil, Colombia, Guatemala y Perú, y se estima que en el 2021 cerca de 5 millones de personas vivían en zonas en las que se necesitan intervenciones para eliminarlo. Esta caja de herramientas reúne las recomendaciones actualizadas de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para la puesta en marcha de actividades locales dirigidas a acelerar las iniciativas de eliminación del tracoma en las Américas. Contiene adaptaciones a la situación epidemiológica del tracoma en la Región y se estructura en cuatro módulos que cubren los temas siguientes: 1) evaluaciones rápidas del tracoma, 2) búsqueda activa dae casos de triquiasis tracomatosa, 3) monitoreo y seguimiento de casos de triquiasis tracomatosa y 4) planificación de jornadas quirúrgicas para la corrección de la triquiasis tracomatosa. Está publicación está dirigida a los equipos de gerencia y administración de los programas nacionales y subnacionales para la eliminación del tracoma como problema de salud pública, y se espera que contribuya a facilitar la planeación, ejecución y monitoreo de medidas operativas de eliminación de esta enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Trachoma , Blindness , Remote Areas , Poverty Areas , Rural Sanitation , Public Health Surveillance , Epidemiology , Americas
2.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-08-30.
in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56329

ABSTRACT

O Plano de Ação Global de Vigilância da Poliomielite (GPSAP) 2022–2024 é o primeiro de dois planos de ação que devem cumprir a visão da Estratégia GPEI. O objetivo é traduzir a estratégia em ação por meio do foco no aumento da velocidade da detecção do poliovírus, melhorando a qualidade da vigilância em nível subnacional, promovendo a integração da vigilância da poliomielite com a vigilância de outras doenças imunopreveníveis (VPDs) propensas à epidemia e a integração da equidade de gênero nas atividades de vigilância e programação como um fator facilitador chave. O GPSAP foi desenvolvido pelo Grupo de Vigilância GPEI, em que estão representados os parceiros da GPEI, as regiões da OMS e os especialistas em vigilância de campo e laboratorial. Esse GPSAP estará em vigor a partir da primeira metade do período da Estratégia GPEI – de 2022 até meados de 2024. No início de 2024, o progresso geral na implementação será reavaliado e um novo plano de ação que capture novos desenvolvimentos e reflita as mudanças nas políticas e prioridades será desenvolvido para cobrir a parte restante da Estratégia GPEI.


Subject(s)
Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Public Health Surveillance , COVID-19
3.
Am J Public Health ; 112(10): 1436-1445, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926162

ABSTRACT

In response to rapidly changing societal conditions stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, we summarize data sources with potential to produce timely and spatially granular measures of physical, economic, and social conditions relevant to public health surveillance, and we briefly describe emerging analytic methods to improve small-area estimation. To inform this article, we reviewed published systematic review articles set in the United States from 2015 to 2020 and conducted unstructured interviews with senior content experts in public heath practice, academia, and industry. We identified a modest number of data sources with high potential for generating timely and spatially granular measures of physical, economic, and social determinants of health. We also summarized modeling and machine-learning techniques useful to support development of time-sensitive surveillance measures that may be critical for responding to future major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(10):1436-1445. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306917).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance , Social Conditions , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United States/epidemiology
4.
JAMA ; 328(7): 637-651, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972486

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of arterial thromboembolism and venous thromboembolism in persons with COVID-19 remains unclear. Objective: To measure the 90-day risk of arterial thromboembolism and venous thromboembolism in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 before or during COVID-19 vaccine availability vs patients hospitalized with influenza. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 41 443 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (April-November 2020), 44 194 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during vaccine availability (December 2020-May 2021), and 8269 patients hospitalized with influenza (October 2018-April 2019) in the US Food and Drug Administration Sentinel System (data from 2 national health insurers and 4 regional integrated health systems). Exposures: COVID-19 or influenza (identified by hospital diagnosis or nucleic acid test). Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospital diagnosis of arterial thromboembolism (acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke) and venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) within 90 days. Outcomes were ascertained through July 2019 for patients with influenza and through August 2021 for patients with COVID-19. Propensity scores with fine stratification were developed to account for differences between the influenza and COVID-19 cohorts. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for outcomes during each COVID-19 vaccine availability period vs the influenza period. Results: A total of 85 637 patients with COVID-19 (mean age, 72 [SD, 13.0] years; 50.5% were male) and 8269 with influenza (mean age, 72 [SD, 13.3] years; 45.0% were male) were included. The 90-day absolute risk of arterial thromboembolism was 14.4% (95% CI, 13.6%-15.2%) in patients with influenza vs 15.8% (95% CI, 15.5%-16.2%) in patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (risk difference, 1.4% [95% CI, 1.0%-2.3%]) and 16.3% (95% CI, 16.0%-16.6%) in patients with COVID-19 during vaccine availability (risk difference, 1.9% [95% CI, 1.1%-2.7%]). Compared with patients with influenza, the risk of arterial thromboembolism was not significantly higher among patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.97-1.11]) or during vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00-1.14]). The 90-day absolute risk of venous thromboembolism was 5.3% (95% CI, 4.9%-5.8%) in patients with influenza vs 9.5% (95% CI, 9.2%-9.7%) in patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (risk difference, 4.1% [95% CI, 3.6%-4.7%]) and 10.9% (95% CI, 10.6%-11.1%) in patients with COVID-19 during vaccine availability (risk difference, 5.5% [95% CI, 5.0%-6.1%]). Compared with patients with influenza, the risk of venous thromboembolism was significantly higher among patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.43-1.79]) and during vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.68-2.12]). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on data from a US public health surveillance system, hospitalization with COVID-19 before and during vaccine availability, vs hospitalization with influenza in 2018-2019, was significantly associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism within 90 days, but there was no significant difference in the risk of arterial thromboembolism within 90 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Infarction , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Risk Assessment , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1515, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electronic Health Record (EHR) data are increasingly being used to monitor population health on account of their timeliness, granularity, and large sample sizes. While EHR data are often sufficient to estimate disease prevalence and trends for large geographic areas, the same accuracy and precision may not carry over for smaller areas that are sparsely represented by non-random samples. METHODS: We developed small-area estimation models using a combination of EHR data drawn from MDPHnet, an EHR-based public health surveillance network in Massachusetts, the American Community Survey, and state hospitalization data. We estimated municipality-specific prevalence rates of asthma, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and smoking in each of the 351 municipalities in Massachusetts in 2016. Models were compared against Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) state and small area estimates for 2016. RESULTS: Integrating progressively more variables into prediction models generally reduced mean absolute error (MAE) relative to municipality-level BRFSS small area estimates: asthma (2.24% MAE crude, 1.02% MAE modeled), diabetes (3.13% MAE crude, 3.48% MAE modeled), hypertension (2.60% MAE crude, 1.48% MAE modeled), obesity (4.92% MAE crude, 4.07% MAE modeled), and smoking (5.33% MAE crude, 2.99% MAE modeled). Correlation between modeled estimates and BRFSS estimates for the 13 municipalities in Massachusetts covered by BRFSS's 500 Cities ranged from 81.9% (obesity) to 96.7% (diabetes). CONCLUSIONS: Small-area estimation using EHR data is feasible and generates estimates comparable to BRFSS state and small-area estimates. Integrating EHR data with survey data can provide timely and accurate disease monitoring tools for areas with sparse data coverage.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Asthma/epidemiology , Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Public Health Surveillance , United States
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 63, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949466

ABSTRACT

Introduction: event-based surveillance (EBS) is a surveillance method involving systematic and prompt data collection on incidents of public health importance, and complements the current indicator-based surveillance system and the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (IDSR). It also promotes a rapid assessment and response to public health emergencies in Nigeria, although there is a lack of information regarding the status of EBS among Public Health Stakeholders in Nigeria; hence our study aimed to assess the awareness, availability, and utility of EBS among Nigerian public health stakeholders. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the awareness, availability, functionality, and utilization of EBS in the 36 States in Nigeria, plus the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). We interviewed 53 stakeholders in disease surveillance and response using a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire to obtain responses on the awareness of the event-based surveillance system, availability, and functionality. We also assessed the common structures used to report health-related events and the availability of minimum requirements for an event-based surveillance system. We performed descriptive statistics for the data obtained. Results: the majority of respondents were males and 37.7% were disease surveillance and notification officers (DSNOs). Awareness of EBS was poor with about half, 49% of the respondents reported hearing of EBS, but only 17% described it correctly. The overall level of availability of the EBS reporting structure was inadequate, 28.2% and poorly utilised in the States. Conclusion: the awareness, availability, and utilization of event-based surveillance systems are low in Nigeria. The government should improve the feasibility and utility of EBS in the States to enhance early disease detection and response.


Subject(s)
Population Surveillance , Public Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Notification , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(8): 87006, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV), a global arbovirus, is the most prevalent mosquito-transmitted infection in the United States. Forecasts of WNV risk during the upcoming transmission season could provide the basis for targeted mosquito control and disease prevention efforts. We developed the Arbovirus Mapping and Prediction (ArboMAP) WNV forecasting system and used it in South Dakota from 2016 to 2019. This study reports a post hoc forecast validation and model comparison. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to validate historical predictions of WNV cases with independent data that were not used for model calibration. We tested the hypothesis that predictive models based on mosquito surveillance data combined with meteorological variables were more accurate than models based on mosquito or meteorological data alone. METHODS: The ArboMAP system incorporated models that predicted the weekly probability of observing one or more human WNV cases in each county. We compared alternative models with different predictors including a) a baseline model based only on historical WNV cases, b) mosquito models based on seasonal patterns of infection rates, c) environmental models based on lagged meteorological variables, including temperature and vapor pressure deficit, d) combined models with mosquito infection rates and lagged meteorological variables, and e) ensembles of two or more combined models. During the WNV season, models were calibrated using data from previous years and weekly predictions were made using data from the current year. Forecasts were compared with observed cases to calculate the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and other metrics of spatial and temporal prediction error. RESULTS: Mosquito and environmental models outperformed the baseline model that included county-level averages and seasonal trends of WNV cases. Combined models were more accurate than models based only on meteorological or mosquito infection variables. The most accurate model was a simple ensemble mean of the two best combined models. Forecast accuracy increased rapidly from early June through early July and was stable thereafter, with a maximum AUC of 0.85. The model predictions captured the seasonal pattern of WNV as well as year-to-year variation in case numbers and the geographic pattern of cases. DISCUSSION: The predictions reached maximum accuracy early enough in the WNV season to allow public health responses before the peak of human cases in August. This early warning is necessary because other indicators of WNV risk, including early reports of human cases and mosquito abundance, are poor predictors of case numbers later in the season. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10287.


Subject(s)
Meteorological Concepts , West Nile Fever , Forecasting , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , West Nile virus
8.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 29(3): 198-204, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) were ineligible to donate blood in most countries since the 1980's. In Canada the deferral period has been incrementally decreased from lifetime to male-to-male sex in the last 3 months. Now a few countries have removed the deferral altogether. Risk models have been utilised to estimate the probability of an HIV positive donation being released into the blood supply and to inform incremental changes to the length of the deferral period. Here we use public health data to estimate the risk of HIV if the gbMSM deferral criteria were removed in Canada. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We calculate the risk reduction among heterosexuals based on responses to standard risk questions routinely asked of donors. We assume gbMSM will donate at the same rate as heterosexual males. We apply the same risk reduction principle to HIV incidence and prevalence among gbMSM in the general population to evaluate the HIV risk without gbMSM time deferral. We model three scenarios where risk reduction is varied by assumptions about incidence and compliance with deferral criteria. RESULTS: The estimates for all scenarios were not significantly different to the currently observed scenario which predicts a residual risk of 0.02 HIV positive per million donations (95% CI: 0.000006-0.09). CONCLUSION: The models predict that removing the gbMSM deferral criteria would result in HIV residual risk similar to currently observed.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Blood Donors , Canada/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Public Health Surveillance
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(790): 1412-1415, 2022 Jul 13.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822753

ABSTRACT

Public health surveillance is the ongoing collection and analysis of health-related data, followed by the timely dissemination of information useful for decisions. Surveillance bias occurs when differences in the frequency of a condition are due to variations in the modalities of detection rather than to changes in the actual risk of the condition. As a result, the true burden of diseases cannot be properly assessed. This is of growing concern because surveillance activity is more and more often based on data not designed primarily for surveillance, notably data from healthcare providers. Many diseases (such as COVID-19, prostate cancer, or hypertension) are prone to surveillance bias. It also hinders quality of care monitoring.


La surveillance en santé publique consiste à recueillir et à analyser en continu des données relatives à la santé, puis à les transformer en informations utiles pour la décision. On parle de biais de surveillance lorsque les différences de fréquence d'une maladie sont dues à des variations dans les modalités de détection plutôt qu'à des changements du risque réel de cette maladie dans la population. Ce biais est fréquent car l'activité de surveillance repose de plus en plus souvent sur des données qui ne sont pas collectées primairement pour la surveillance, notamment celles provenant des prestataires de soins de santé. De nombreuses maladies (comme le Covid-19, le cancer de la prostate ou l'hypertension) sont sujettes à un biais de surveillance. Ce biais nuit également à la surveillance de la qualité des soins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Public Health Surveillance
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(28): 889-893, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834417

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Although disease tends to be mild (e.g., self-limiting influenza-like symptoms) or asymptomatic in immunocompetent persons, toxoplasmosis is more severe in immunocompromised persons, who can develop potentially fatal encephalopathy (1). In addition, primary infections acquired during pregnancy might result in a range of adverse outcomes, including fetal ocular infection, cranial and neurologic deformities, stillbirth, and miscarriage (1,2). An estimated 11% of the U.S. population aged ≥6 years are seropositive for toxoplasmosis, based on analysis of sera collected through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2011-2014 (3). Toxoplasmosis is not a nationally notifiable disease in the United States, and currently no national public health surveillance data are available; however, it is reportable in eight states. To better understand how surveillance data are collected and used, reviews of state-level toxoplasmosis surveillance were conducted during June-July 2021 using semistructured interviews with health officials in six states (Arkansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin) where toxoplasmosis is currently reportable. Why or when toxoplasmosis became reportable could not be determined, and many of the states had limited capacity to respond to reported cases. Case definitions varied considerably in terms of clinical description, laboratory criteria, and case classification (i.e., confirmed, probable, or suspect), limiting disease estimates and comparisons among states. Implementation of a standardized case definition would help ensure that cases are counted consistently, enabling better use of surveillance data to characterize disease. Identifying newly acquired cases is challenging because most acute cases among immunocompetent persons (including pregnant women) are asymptomatic, disease among immunocompromised persons is likely reactivation of latent disease, and congenital infections might not manifest until later in life.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Toxoplasmosis , Arkansas , Female , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Population Surveillance , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Public Health Surveillance , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
12.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 129-135, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859439

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Polio, measles, rubella, influenza and rotavirus surveillance programmes are of great public health importance globally. Virus isolation using cell culture is an integral part of such programmes. Possibility of unintended isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from clinical specimens processed in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories during the above-mentioned surveillance programmes, cannot be ruled out. The present study was conducted to assess the susceptibility of different cell lines to SARS-CoV-2 used in these programmes. Methods: Replication of SARS-CoV-2 was studied in RD and L20B, Vero/hSLAM, MA-104 and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell lines, used for the isolation of polio, measles, rubella, rotavirus and influenza viruses, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 at 0.01 multiplicity of infection was inoculated and the viral growth was assessed by observation of cytopathic effects followed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Vero CCL-81 cell line was used as a positive control. Results: SARS-CoV-2 replicated in Vero/hSLAM, and MA-104 cells, whereas it did not replicate in L20B, RD and MDCK cells. Vero/hSLAM, and Vero CCL-81 showed rounding, degeneration and detachment of cells; MA-104 cells also showed syncytia formation. In qRT-PCR, Vero/hSLAM and MA-104 showed 106 and Vero CCL-81 showed 107 viral RNA copies per µl. The 50 per cent tissue culture infectious dose titres of Vero/hSLAM, MA-104 and Vero CCL-81 were 105.54, 105.29 and 106.45/ml, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero/hSLAM and MA-104 underscores the possibility of its unintended isolation during surveillance procedures aiming to isolate measles, rubella and rotavirus. This could result in accidental exposure to high titres of SARS-CoV-2, which can result in laboratory acquired infections and community risk, highlighting the need for revisiting biosafety measures in public health laboratories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Poliomyelitis , Rubella , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Containment of Biohazards , Dogs , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
14.
Ann Afr Med ; 21(2): 146-152, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848647

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the continuous increase in the spread of epidemic-prone diseases and the associated morbidity and mortality, integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) was introduced as the main strategy in resource-poor settings for the detection and notification of these diseases. Integrated disease surveillance is a combination of active and passive systems using a single infrastructure that gathers information about multiple diseases or behaviors of interest. Methods: : A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted between March and July 2018 among selected public and private health facilities in Jos North Local Government Area (LGA), Plateau State. Quantitative data were collected with the aid of a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and facility-based checklist. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Statistical significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05 at a 95% confidence level. Results: A.total of 126 health workers were studied. IDSR-trained health personnel was found in 52.7% of the public health facilities compared with only 16.7% of the private health facilities studied (P < 0.001). Awareness of IDSR was higher in the public health facilities than in the private ones (P < 0.001). IDSR implementation was poorer in the private health facilities 40.7% compared with 76.4% in public health facilities (P < 0.001). Evidence of previous disease notification and reporting was seen only in 33.3% and 16.7% of public and private health facilities, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study revealed that awareness and attitude of health workers in public health facilities in Jos North were higher than that of those in private health facilities and there is the sub-optimal implementation of IDSR among the health workers in Jos North LGA, especially among the private health facilities.


Résumé Contexte: En raison de l'augmentation continue de la propagation des maladies à potentiel épidémique et de la morbidité et de la mortalité associées, la surveillance intégrée des maladies et la riposte (IDSR) ont été introduites comme principale stratégie dans les milieux pauvres en ressources pour la détection et la notification de ces maladies. La surveillance intégrée des maladies est une combinaison de systèmes actifs et passifs utilisant une infrastructure unique qui recueille des informations sur plusieurs maladies ou comportements d'intérêt. Méthodes: Une étude transversale comparative a été menée entre mars et juillet 2018 auprès d'établissements de santé publics et privés sélectionnés dans la zone de gouvernement local (LGA) de Jos North, dans l'État du Plateau. Les données quantitatives ont été recueillies à l'aide d'un questionnaire semi-structuré administré par un enquêteur et d'une liste de contrôle basée sur l'établissement. Les données ont été analysées à l'aide de la version 23 de SPSS. Le niveau de signification statistique a été fixé à P ≤ 0,05 à un niveau de confiance de 95 %. Résultats: Au total, 126 agents de santé ont été étudiés. Le personnel de santé formé par l'IDSR a été trouvé dans 52,7 % des établissements de santé publics, contre seulement 16,7 % des établissements de santé privés étudiés (P < 0,001). La sensibilisation à la SIMR était plus élevée dans les établissements de santé publics que dans les établissements privés (P < 0,001). La mise en oeuvre de la SIMR était plus faible dans les établissements de santé privés, 40,7 % contre 76,4 % dans les établissements de santé publics (P < 0,001). Des preuves de notification et de notification antérieures de la maladie n'ont été observées que dans 33,3 % et 16,7 % des établissements de santé publics et privés, respectivement (P < 0,001). Conclusion: Cette étude a révélé que la sensibilisation et l'attitude des agents de santé dans les établissements de santé publics de Jos North étaient plus élevées que celles des établissements de santé privés et qu'il existe une mise en oeuvre sous-optimale de la SIMR parmi les agents de santé de Jos North LGA, en particulier parmi les les formations sanitaires privées. Mots-clés : surveillance intégrée des maladies et mise en oeuvre de la riposte, zone de gouvernement local de Jos North, établissements de santé publics et privés.


Subject(s)
Health Facilities , Local Government , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance
15.
Gac Sanit ; 36 Suppl 1: S68-S75, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781152

ABSTRACT

In this article we provide the most important epidemiological aspects in the first phases of the pandemic and some preliminary reflections from the Coordinating Centre for Health Alerts and Emergencies, the unit that has coordinated surveillance at the national level. COVID-19 has brought to light the weaknesses in the surveillance system and how difficult it is to manage a health crisis in the absence of a robust public health structure. The commitment of public health professionals during this epidemic has made up for the lack of resources in many occasions, and has evidenced the need to incorporate new professional profiles to surveillance teams. The need to rapidly adapt has achieved an improvement in existing systems and the development of new tools and new systems. These need to turn into structural changes that improve the quality of surveillance, decreasing territorial gaps and ensuring a better and coordinated response to future health crises. It is urgent to incorporate tools for process automation and to grant timely availability of data. To that end, public health and epidemiological surveillance must participate in the process of digital development within the National Health System. Profound changes are needed in public health surveillance, which has to be integrated in all healthcare levels. It is also important to strengthen the capacity for analysis by promoting alliances and joint actions. During this alert, the importance of coordination in public health in a decentralized country has been evident. At international level, it is necessary to review the tools to share data to coordinate an alert from the early stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health Surveillance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health
16.
Editora Rede Unida; Editora Rede Unida; 20220618. 79 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377870

ABSTRACT

O trabalho de produção deste Rádio-Livro foi desenvolvido pela leitura e cuidadosa adaptação cultural nas linguagens das diferentes expressões da arte popular sobre a 1ª Conferência Nacional de Vigilância em Saúde, uma importante ação do SUS que relaciona as práticas de atenção, promoção de saúde e prevenção de doenças essenciais para o pensar e fazer saúde nos territórios e que tornou-se ainda mais visível durante a pandemia de COVID-19. O Rádio-Livro é acessado com o pensamento, com o coração e com a vontade de fazer o mundo melhor para todas as pessoas viverem e para que a saúde das pessoas e coletividades se expressem de forma mais plena. Esse material destina-se às Rádios Comunitárias e à população em geral e tem fins exclusivamente educacionais, sendo proibida a compra e a venda em qualquer circunstância.


Subject(s)
Community Participation , Health Conferences , Health Councils , Radio , Unified Health System , Congresses as Topic , Public Health Surveillance
18.
Indian Pediatr ; 59(8): 636-642, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35762024

ABSTRACT

The biggest-ever outbreak of monkeypox disease in non-endemic countries started in May, 2022. Though no monkeypox case has been reported from India, till mid-June, 2022, yet, considering the rate of spread to the non-endemic countries, there is an urgent need of better understanding of the monkeypox virus and disease epidemiology to help clinicians, public health specialists, and policymakers to be prepared for any eventuality. This review summarises the monkeypox disease epidemiology, clinical features, therapies, vaccines and outlines the measures for preparedness and response for a possible outbreak. The disease is known to cause severe outcome in children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised hosts and this group need to be given special attention. The monkeypox disease outbreak (2022) in non-endemic countries should be used as an opportunity by India and other low and middle income countries to strengthen public health surveillance and health system capacity for outbreak and epidemic preparedness and response.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/therapy , Monkeypox virus , Pregnancy , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(6): 791-797, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725331

ABSTRACT

Rapidly upgraded digital technology has impacted all walks of life, and public health field is also undergoing a digital transformation. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the wide use of digital technology in the prevention and control of infectious diseases, greatly enhancing the capacity of public health system in emergency response and routine disease prevention and control. This article summarizes the definition of digital public health, applications of digital technology in the prevention and control of infectious diseases and chronic non-communicable diseases, as well as in public health surveillance, discusses the challenges in the development of digital public health and introduces the eight principles for digital transformation of public health proposed by the Pan American Health Organization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance
20.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 39-46, jun, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381293

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo se propone analizar el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en los registros de creación de nuevas empresas en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia) principalmente entre el 2019 y 2020, de la misma manera se desarrolla un análisis de las medidas de control epidemiológico a nivel nacional y a nivel departamental para comprender de mejor manera las iniciativas de contención de la COVID-19. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo, se tomaron como referencia los datos de creación de empresas de los últimos cinco años (2016 ­ 2020) en el Magdalena; así como se analizaron medidas para el control epidemiológico a nivel nacional (prevenir, mitigar, y suprimir), así como las adoptadas específicamente para el Magdalena. Entre los principales hallazgos, se encontró que, al contrastar los años 2019 y 2020, hubo una disminución del 2,6% en la creación de nuevas empresas en el departamento del Magdalena, porcentaje que representa 202 unidades productivas menos que en 2019; esta tendencia decreciente en materia de creación de empresas, venía desde 2019, año en el que hubo una caída del 0,8% en los nacimientos de nuevas empresas con respecto al 2018 -62 empresas menos-; la contundente caída en el año 2020 es un reflejo del nefasto efecto de la aparición de la COVID-19 en las dinámicas empresariales en el Magdalena; de otra parte, resaltan medidas de gestión intergremial al igual que las estrategias de apoyo financiero para dinamizar la economía en el Magdalena, así como una cronología prudente en materia de controles epidemiológicos en el Territorio(AU)


This study aims to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the records of the creation of new companies in the department of Magdalena (Colombia), mainly between 2019 and 2020. In the same way, an analysis of epidemiology control measures is developed at the national and departmental levels to better understand COVID-19 containment initiatives. For the development of this study, the data on business creation of the last five years (2016 - 2020) in Magdalena was taken as a reference; as well as measures for epidemiological control at the national level (prevent, mitigate, and suppress), along with those adopted specifically for Magdalena were analyzed. Among the main findings, it was found that, when comparing the years 2019 and 2020, there was a 2.6% decrease in the creation of new companies in Magdalena, a percentage that represents 202 production units less than in 2019; This downward trend in the creation of companies came from 2019, the year in which there was a 0.8% drop in the establishment of new companies compared to 2018 -62 fewer companies-; the overwhelming drop in 2020 is a reflection of the disastrous effect of the appearance of COVID-19 on business dynamics in Magdalena; On the other hand, the business associations management measures were a key important factor. Additionally, the financial support to boost the economy in Magdalena, as well as a prudent chronology - in terms of epidemiological controls in the Territory(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health Surveillance , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology
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