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2.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 189-198, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232714

ABSTRACT

El suicidio se ha convertido en un problema social y de salud pública a nivel mundial. En este sentido, la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT) podría ser eficaz en su abordaje, existiendo evidencia sobre la relación entre algunos de sus componentes y la conducta suicida. Así, el presente estudio tuvo por objetivo realizar una revisión sistemática sobre la eficacia de ACT en conducta suicida. Para ello se siguió el protocolo PRISMA, empleando las siguientes bases de datos: PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus y PsicoDoc. Inicialmente se obtuvieron 108 publicaciones potencialmente relevantes, de las cuales, finalmente, 13 fueron incluidas en la revisión. La calidad de los estudios se analizó a través de un instrumento de evaluación de riesgo de sesgos. Como resultados, a nivel general se observaron disminuciones estadísticamente significativas en ideación suicida (IS) y factores de riesgo de suicidio. Además, algunos estudios señalaron relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre un aumento de flexibilidad psicológica y la disminución de IS. Si bien los datos apuntaron a una posible eficacia de ACT en la reducción de IS, es necesario llevar a cabo mayor número de estudios experimentales que contemplen la complejidad de la conducta suicida y exploren los procesos de cambio implicados.(AU)


Suicide has emerged as a pressing global issue affecting both so-ciety and public health.In this context, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) could prove effective in its approach, supported by evi-dence of the relationship between certain components of ACT and suicidal behavior. Thus, the present study aims to conduct a systematic review on the efficacy of ACT in suicidal behavior. For this, the PRISMA protocol was followed, using thefollowing databases: PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus and PsicoDoc. Initially, 108 potentially relevant publicationswereobtained,13ofwhichwerefinallyincludedinthereview.Weanalyzedstudy qualityus-ingariskofbiasassessmentinstrument.Asaresult,statisticallysignificantdecreases in suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide risk factors were observed. In addition, some studies indicated statistically significant relationships be-tween increased psychological flexibility and decreasedSI.WhilethedatasuggestedthepotentialeffectivenessofACTinreducingsuicidal ideation (SI), more experimental studies are needed to consider the complexity of suicidal behavior and explore the processes of changeinvolved.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Suicidal Ideation , Mental Health , Psychology, Clinical , Suicide , Public Health , Risk Factors
5.
J Law Med Ethics ; 52(S1): 57-61, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995245

ABSTRACT

Public health laws and policies are uniquely able to mitigate the adverse and inequitable health impacts of climate change. This article summarizes some key considerations in developing such laws and policies and a variety of approaches local public health departments are using to increase climate resilience and health equity.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Health Equity , Health Policy , Local Government , Public Health , Health Equity/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , United States , Public Health Administration/legislation & jurisprudence
6.
J Law Med Ethics ; 52(S1): 53-56, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995253

ABSTRACT

Reliance upon fossil fuels and limited greenspace contribute to poor indoor and outdoor air quality and adverse health outcomes, particularly in communities of color. This article describes justice-informed public health and legal interventions to increase access to greenspace and accelerate the transitions to renewable energy and away from gas appliances.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Climate Change , Fossil Fuels , Public Health , Humans , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Air Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Air Pollution/prevention & control , United States , Renewable Energy
7.
J Law Med Ethics ; 52(S1): 70-74, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995251

ABSTRACT

Here, we analyze the public health implications of recent legal developments - including privacy legislation, intergovernmental data exchange, and artificial intelligence governance - with a view toward the future of public health informatics and the potential of diverse data to inform public health actions and drive population health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Artificial Intelligence/legislation & jurisprudence , United States , Confidentiality/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health Informatics/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Privacy/legislation & jurisprudence
8.
J Law Med Ethics ; 52(S1): 39-42, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995255

ABSTRACT

Public health authorities (PHAs), including Tribal nations, have the right and responsibility to protect and promote the health of their citizens. Although Tribal nations have the same need and legal authority to access public health data as any other PHA, significant legal challenges continue to impede Tribal data access.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Humans , United States , Access to Information/legislation & jurisprudence , Indians, North American , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence
9.
J Law Med Ethics ; 52(S1): 6-8, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995257

ABSTRACT

The National Public Health Law Conference: People. Policy. Progress., held October 2023, brought together more than 400 stakeholders in public health to explore how law and policy can be leveraged to advance health equity, improve data sharing for community health, protect access to reproductive health and facilitate system change.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Humans , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , United States , Health Equity
10.
J Law Med Ethics ; 52(S1): 9-12, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995258

ABSTRACT

This paper summarizes key shifts in judicial decisions relating to public health powers during the pandemic and the implications of those decisions for public health practice. Then, it gives a preview and call for partnership in developing a legal framework for authority that guides public health to better activities, processes, and accountability in service of the public's health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , United States , Pandemics/legislation & jurisprudence , Judicial Role
11.
J Law Med Ethics ; 52(S1): 43-48, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995262

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic spurred legal and policy attacks against foundational public health authorities. Act for Public Health - a partnership of public health law organizations - has tracked legislative activity since January 2021. This article describes that activity, highlighting 2023 bills primarily related to vaccine requirements and policy innovations undertaken in the wake of the pandemic. Finally, we preview a legal framework for more equitable and effective public health authority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Public Health , State Government , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , United States , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Law Med Ethics ; 52(S1): 49-52, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995260

ABSTRACT

Firearm violence has soared in American cities, but most states statutorily preempt municipal firearm regulation. This article describes a unique collaboration in Philadelphia among elected officials, public health researchers, and attorneys that has led to litigation based on original quantitative analyses and grounded in innovative constitutional theories and statutory interpretation.


Subject(s)
Firearms , Public Health , Philadelphia , Firearms/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Gun Violence/legislation & jurisprudence , Gun Violence/prevention & control , Wounds, Gunshot/prevention & control , Government Regulation
13.
J Law Med Ethics ; 52(S1): 35-38, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995263

ABSTRACT

Law is a critical determinant of health that public health practitioners encounter in everyday practice. Yet most do not receive any formal public health law training. This article discusses tangible opportunities for strengthening the capacity of current and future practitioners to leverage law to advance health equity priorities.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Humans , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , United States , Health Equity/legislation & jurisprudence
14.
Euro Surveill ; 29(28)2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38994605

ABSTRACT

BackgroundWastewater surveillance is an effective approach to monitor population health, as exemplified by its role throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.AimThis study explores the possibility of extending wastewater surveillance to the Paris 2024 Olympic and Paralympic Games, focusing on identifying priority pathogen targets that are relevant and feasible to monitor in wastewater for these events.MethodsA list of 60 pathogens of interest for general public health surveillance for the Games was compiled. Each pathogen was evaluated against three inclusion criteria: (A) analytical feasibility; (B) relevance, i.e. with regards to the specificities of the event and the characteristics of the pathogen; and (C) added value to inform public health decision-making. Analytical feasibility was assessed through evidence from peer-reviewed publications demonstrating the detectability of pathogens in sewage, refining the initial list to 25 pathogens. Criteria B and C were evaluated via expert opinion using the Delphi method. The panel consisting of some 30 experts proposed five additional pathogens meeting criterion A, totalling 30 pathogens assessed throughout the three-round iterative questionnaire. Pathogens failing to reach 70% group consensus threshold underwent further deliberation by a subgroup of experts.ResultsSix priority targets suitable for wastewater surveillance during the Games were successfully identified: poliovirus, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, mpox virus, SARS-CoV-2 and measles virus.ConclusionThis study introduced a model framework for identifying context-specific wastewater surveillance targets for a mass gathering. Successful implementation of a wastewater surveillance plan for Paris 2024 could incentivise similar monitoring efforts for other mass gatherings globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Wastewater , Humans , Wastewater/virology , Wastewater/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , France/epidemiology , Sports , Public Health , Pandemics , Sewage/virology , Paris/epidemiology , Anniversaries and Special Events , Public Health Surveillance/methods
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e53927, 2024 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39018096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid progression and integration of digital technologies into public health have reshaped the global landscape of health care delivery and disease prevention. In pursuit of better population health and health care accessibility, many countries have integrated digital interventions into their health care systems, such as web-based consultations, electronic health records, and telemedicine. Despite the increasing prevalence and relevance of digital technologies in public health and their varying definitions, there has been a shortage of studies examining whether these technologies align with the established definition and core characteristics of digital public health (DiPH) interventions. Hence, the imperative need for a scoping review emerges to explore the breadth of literature dedicated to this subject. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aims to outline DiPH interventions from different implementation stages for health promotion, primary to tertiary prevention, including health care and disease surveillance and monitoring. In addition, we aim to map the reported intervention characteristics, including their technical features and nontechnical elements. METHODS: Original studies or reports of DiPH intervention focused on population health were eligible for this review. PubMed, Web of Science, CENTRAL, IEEE Xplore, and the ACM Full-Text Collection were searched for relevant literature (last updated on October 5, 2022). Intervention characteristics of each identified DiPH intervention, such as target groups, level of prevention or health care, digital health functions, intervention types, and public health functions, were extracted and used to map DiPH interventions. MAXQDA 2022.7 (VERBI GmbH) was used for qualitative data analysis of such interventions' technical functions and nontechnical characteristics. RESULTS: In total, we identified and screened 15,701 records, of which 1562 (9.94%) full texts were considered relevant and were assessed for eligibility. Finally, we included 185 (11.84%) publications, which reported 179 different DiPH interventions. Our analysis revealed a diverse landscape of interventions, with telemedical services, health apps, and electronic health records as dominant types. These interventions targeted a wide range of populations and settings, demonstrating their adaptability. The analysis highlighted the multifaceted nature of digital interventions, necessitating precise definitions and standardized terminologies for effective collaboration and evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Although this scoping review was able to map characteristics and technical functions among 13 intervention types in DiPH, emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence might have been underrepresented in our study. This review underscores the diversity of DiPH interventions among and within intervention groups. Moreover, it highlights the importance of precise terminology for effective planning and evaluation. This review promotes cross-disciplinary collaboration by emphasizing the need for clear definitions, distinct technological functions, and well-defined use cases. It lays the foundation for international benchmarks and comparability within DiPH systems. Further research is needed to map intervention characteristics in this still-evolving field continuously. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021265562; https://tinyurl.com/43jksb3k. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/33404.


Subject(s)
Digital Technology , Public Health , Telemedicine , Humans , Public Health/methods , Population Health , Internet-Based Intervention , Health Promotion/methods
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39021122

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted Australia to implement large-scale domestic lockdowns and halted international travel. However, the impact of these measures on national notifiable diseases is yet to been fully examined. In this paper, we expand on a preliminary analysis conducted in 2020, and conducted a retrospective, observational study using nationally notifiable disease surveillance system (NNDSS) data to examine if the changes identified in the first half of 2020 continued in Australia through wide-scale public health measures. We found that there was an overall reduction in most of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases over the two pandemic years during which wide-scale public health measures remained in operation, particularly for 23 social and imported diseases. We observed an increase in notifications for psittacosis, leptospirosis and legionellosis during these years. The public health measures implemented in 2020 and 2021 (including lockdowns, mask mandates, and increased hand and respiratory hygiene) may have contributed to the observed notification reductions. The outcomes of these measures' implementation provide insights into broader communicable disease control for mass outbreaks and pandemic responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39021125

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Surveillance case definitions are utilised to understand the epidemiology of communicable diseases and to inform public health actions. We report a case of hepatitis B infection that meets the case definition for newly acquired infection. However, further investigation revealed that this was most likely past resolved hepatitis B infection with subsequent reactivation secondary to immunosuppression, rather than a newly acquired infection. This case highlights the importance of thorough case and clinician interviews, in combination with detailed assessment of pathology results in collaboration with treating clinicians, to determine the most appropriate public health actions.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Public Health , Humans , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Male , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Middle Aged , Female , Population Surveillance
20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39021126

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Disease surveillance data was critical in supporting public health decisions throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. At the same time, the unprecedented circumstances of the pandemic revealed many shortcomings of surveillance systems for viral respiratory pathogens. Strengthening of surveillance systems was identified as a priority for the recently established Australian Centre for Disease Control, which represents a critical opportunity to review pre-pandemic and pandemic surveillance practices, and to decide on future priorities, during both pandemic and inter-pandemic periods. On 20 October 2022, we ran a workshop with experts from the academic and government sectors who had contributed to the COVID-19 response in Australia on 'The role of surveillance in epidemic response', at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Following the workshop, we developed five recommendations to strengthen respiratory virus surveillance systems in Australia, which we present here. Our recommendations are not intended to be exhaustive. We instead chose to focus on data types that are highly valuable yet typically overlooked by surveillance planners. Three of the recommendations focus on data collection activities that support the monitoring and prediction of disease impact and the effectiveness of interventions (what to measure) and two focus on surveillance methods and capabilities (how to measure). Implementation of our recommendations would enable more robust, timely, and impactful epidemic analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Epidemiological Monitoring , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance
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