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3.
Barbarói ; (58): 172-194, jan.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1150841

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo apresenta resultados de pesquisa que buscou investigar como os serviços de saúde podem (in) visibilizar atendimento ao público LGBTQIA+. O tema torna-se relevante à medida que discute a necessidade de acolhimento qualificado, bem como sua implicação na vida de lésbicas, gays, bissexuais, travestis, transexuais e transgêneros que buscam acessar serviços de saúde e que de alguma forma podem acabar sofrendo algum tipo de violência ­ nem sempre intencional - profissional ou institucional. Realizou-se pesquisa qualitativa via amostra intencional, onde foram realizadas entrevistas com onze integrantes da comunidade LGBTQIA+. Os dados foram analisados via análise conteúdo à luz do método dialético crítico. A partir dos dados coletados e reflexões geradas, fica evidente que cotidianamente ocorrem ações caracterizadas como LGBTQIAfobia. Não raro, no acolhimento perdura questões preconceituosas e de desrespeito a dignidade humana. Fica evidente, a necessidade de capacitações, diálogos e respeito à legislações que aparam o atendimento em saúde de forma ampliada.(AU)


This article presents results of research that sought to investigate how health services can (in) make the service to the LGBTQIA + public visible. The theme becomes relevant as it discusses the need for qualified reception as well as its implication in the lives of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transvestites, transsexuals and transgender people who seek access to health services and who in some way may end up suffering some type of violence - not always intentional - professional or institutional. Qualitative research was carried out via an intentional sample, where interviews were conducted with eleven members of the LGBTQIA + community. The data were analyzed via content analysis in the light of the critical dialectical method. From the data collected and reflections generated, it is evident that actions characterized as LGBTQIAphobia occur daily. Not infrequently, prejudiced questions persist and disrespect for human dignity. It is evident, the need for training, dialogues and respect for legislation that reduce health care in an expanded way.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , User Embracement , Transgender Persons , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Health Services , Violence , Public Health
4.
Barbarói ; (58): 154-171, jan.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1150837

ABSTRACT

O suicídio é considerado um problema de saúde pública pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), mas pouco se estuda qual a ligação desse fenômeno complexo junto as expressões da questão social. Este trabalho tem como objetivo compreender a influência do capitalismo no adoecimento da classe trabalhadora e de que forma as expressões da questão social influenciam no desejo de morte do trabalhador. Tendo como resultados o entendimento de que as expressões da questão social produzidas pela sociedade capitalista têm forte influência no desejo de morte dos trabalhadores, sendo necessário além de respostas individuais, respostas coletivas de enfrentamento a essa demanda.(AU)


The World Health Organization (WHO) considers suicide to be a public health issue, but very few studies have been made the connection of this complex phenomenon with the expression of social questions. The goal of this essay if to comprehend the influence of capitalism with the sickening of the working class and in what ways does the expressions of the social questions influence the desire to die of the worker. Having as results the comprehensions that the expressions of social questions produces by capitalist society has a strong influence in the desire do die by workers, being necessary more than just individual responses, but also collective responses to cope with this demand.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Stress, Psychological , Suicide , Unemployment , Work , Capitalism , Public Health
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-04-23. (OPS/EIH/IS/21-0006).
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53801

ABSTRACT

La Conferencia sobre Sistemas de Información para la Salud (IS4H), “De la evolución de los sistemas de información para la salud a la transformación digital del sector de la salud”, procuró establecer un diálogo reflexivo con los países de la Región de las Américas sobre las experiencias relativas a sus sistemas de información y salud digital durante los cuatro últimos años, especialmente durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Las deliberaciones las sesiones preparatorias se concentraron en las metas estratégicas del plan de acción sobre IS4H. Los aproximadamente 150 participantes reconocieron la importancia del trabajo conjunto para lograr un objetivo común y en el marco de los ocho principios presentados por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) para la transformación digital del sector de la salud: a) lograr la conectividad universal en el sector de la salud; b) crear conjuntamente bienes de salud pública para un mundo más equitativo; c) acelerar los progresos hacia una salud digital inclusiva, con énfasis en los grupos más vulnerables; d) implantar sistemas de salud e información digital abiertos, sostenibles, e interoperables; e) integrar los derechos humanos en todas las áreas de la transformación digital en la salud; f) participar en la cooperación mundial en materia de inteligencia artificial y toda nueva tecnología; g) establecer los mecanismos para la confidencialidad y seguridad de la información en el entorno de salud pública digital, y h) diseñar una estructura de salud pública renovada para la era de la interdependencia digital. En este informe se resumen las deliberaciones, los acuerdos y las principales conclusiones de la Conferencia, en la cual la OPS hizo un llamado a la acción para colocar al sector de la salud en la vanguardia de la transformación digital de la salud pública en la Región de las Américas.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Health Information Systems , Health Care Sector , Health Systems , Betacoronavirus , Pandemics , Americas , Public Health
6.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-04-26.
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53793

ABSTRACT

Improving access to safe, effective, and quality medicines and other health technologies is a critical public health priority and a fundamental requisite for universal health. National regulatory systems play a key part in a country’s health system by overseeing the safety, quality, and efficacy of all health technologies, including pharmaceuticals, vaccines, blood and blood products, and medical devices, among others. The aim of this document is to better understand the regulatory landscape of the Americas, with an emphasis on Latin American National Regulatory Authorities of Reference. This report presents data and analysis corresponding to essential regulatory functions and systems foundations to understand current practices, identify critical issues, and present a series of recommendations for action. The report also includes an overview of the market outlook and economic integration mechanisms in the Americas and their influence on regulatory policy and pharmaceutical trade. In addition, the report includes a supplement to describe salient regulatory emergency responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Americas. Through this report, the Pan American Health Organization aims to increase the understanding of national regulatory remits and capacity in the Americas, raise awareness and appreciation of the regional regulatory progress and challenges, identify the regulatory issues emerging markets will bring, and highlight opportunities for evidence-based regulatory system strengthening.


Subject(s)
Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Quality of Health Care , Public Health , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Emergency Responders , Emergencies , Pharmacovigilance , Betacoronavirus , Health Systems , Health Services
7.
Digital Transformation. Knowledge Capsules;1PAHO/EIH/IS/21-011.
Monography in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53732

ABSTRACT

The use of artificial intelligence in public health is growing and getting more presence. This knowledge capsule has the objective of increasing aware on this discipline necessary guiding principles, its components and sub-fields and the uses it has. Although this tool presents a linkage between the artificial intelligence and the eight principles for the digital transformation of public health and propose the main considerations to be taken for its implementation.


Subject(s)
Health Sector Stewardship and Governance , Artificial Intelligence , Information Systems , Health Information Systems , Information , Coronavirus Infections , Public Health , Ethics
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2021-04-09.
in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53571

ABSTRACT

Construindo a Saúde no Curso de Vida esclarece como a saúde se desenvolve e muda ao longo do curso de vida, e explica como o uso da abordagem do curso de vida entre os profissionais de saúde pública pode garantir que a saúde como um direito humano seja alcançada para todas as pessoas. O documento descreve a visão da saúde ao longo da vida, que se concentra não apenas na doença e suas consequências, mas em alcançar uma vida longa, saudável, ativa e produtiva. O documento consiste em três partes independentes. A primeira parte, "Conceitos", visa a iluminar a complexidade da saúde por meio da compreensão da abordagem do curso de vida. Essa parte pode ser usada para se familiarizar com a evolução e o significado do curso de vida, que serve de base para uma prática eficaz de saúde pública. A segunda parte, "Implicações", identifica as implicações para a implementação da abordagem do curso de vida na saúde pública. Essa parte traduz a linguagem técnica da literatura sobre o curso de vida para entender como a aplicação dessa abordagem requer mudanças nos sistemas de saúde, políticas, pesquisas e práticas. A terceira parte, "Aplicação em Saúde Pública", identifica as principais oportunidades para fortalecer a adoção da abordagem do curso de vida na prática de saúde pública. Essa seção descreve ações concretas e baseadas em evidências para melhorar a saúde e o bem-estar por meio da promoção e fomento de habilidades ao longo da vida. Este documento tem como objetivo ajudar os tomadores de decisão e os profissionais de saúde pública a compreender o significado e os conceitos do curso de vida, o que é essencial para entender como a saúde se desenvolve e muda ao longo do curso de vida. O livro também descreve como o modelo de curso de vida nos permite abordar disparidades em saúde, gerando mecanismos para melhorar a saúde e o bem-estar, promovendo a visão da saúde como resultado de uma série de experiências que contribuem ou prejudicam a saúde no curto e longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , Public Health , Life Change Events , Health Personnel , Healthy Lifestyle
9.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803400

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2) has accumulated multiple mutations during its global circulation. Recently, three SARS-CoV-2 lineages, B.1.1.7 (501Y.V1), B.1.351 (501Y.V2) and B.1.1.28.1 (P.1), have emerged in the United Kingdom, South Africa and Brazil, respectively. Here, we have presented global viewpoint on implications of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants based on structural-function impact of crucial mutations occurring in its spike (S), ORF8 and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. While the N501Y mutation was observed in all three lineages, the 501Y.V1 and P.1 accumulated a different set of mutations in the S protein. The missense mutational effects were predicted through a COVID-19 dedicated resource followed by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Current findings indicate that some mutations in the S protein might lead to higher affinity with host receptors and resistance against antibodies, but not all are due to different antibody binding (epitope) regions. Mutations may, however, result in diagnostic tests failures and possible interference with binding of newly identified anti-viral candidates against SARS-CoV-2, likely necessitating roll out of recurring "flu-like shots" annually for tackling COVID-19. The functional relevance of these mutations has been described in terms of modulation of host tropism, antibody resistance, diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic candidates. Besides global economic losses, post-vaccine reinfections with emerging variants can have significant clinical, therapeutic and public health impacts.


Subject(s)
/virology , /genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /therapy , /immunology , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Public Health , /immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249596, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the U.S. public's health behaviors, attitudes, and policy opinions about COVID-19 in the earliest weeks of the national health crisis (March 20-23, 2020). METHOD: We designed and fielded an original representative survey of 3,000 American adults between March 20-23, 2020 to collect data on a battery of 38 health-related behaviors, government policy preferences on COVID-19 response and worries about the pandemic. We test for partisan differences COVID-19 related policy attitudes and behaviors, measured in three different ways: party affiliation, intended 2020 Presidential vote, and self-placed ideological positioning. Our multivariate approach adjusts for a wide range of individual demographic and geographic characteristics that might confound the relationship between partisanship and health behaviors, attitudes, and preferences. RESULTS: We find that partisanship-measured as party identification, support for President Trump, or left-right ideological positioning-explains differences in Americans across a wide range of health behaviors and policy preferences. We find no consistent evidence that controlling for individual news consumption, the local policy environment, and local pandemic-related deaths erases the observed partisan differences in health behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes. In further analyses, we use a LASSO regression approach to select predictors, and find that a partisanship indicator is the most commonly selected predictor across the 38 dependent variables that we study. CONCLUSION: Our analysis of individual self-reported behavior, attitudes, and policy preferences in response to COVID-19 reveals that partisanship played a central role in shaping individual responses in the earliest months of the COVID-19 pandemic. These results indicate that partisan differences in responding to a national public health emergency were entrenched from the earliest days of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Health Behavior , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Public Health , Adult , /prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
12.
Global Health ; 17(1): 46, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853631

ABSTRACT

Health innovations are generally oriented on a techno-economic vision. In this perspective, technologies are seen as an end in themselves, and there is no arrangement between the technical and the social values of innovation. This vision prevails in sanitary crises, in which management is carried out based on the search for punctual, reactive, and technical solutions to remedy a specific problem without a systemic/holistic, sustainable, or proactive approach. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on the epistemological orientation of innovations in the field of public health. Taking the Covid-19 and Ebola crises as examples, the primary objective is to show how innovation in health is oriented towards a techno-economic paradigm. Second, we propose a repositioning of public health innovation towards a social paradigm that will put more emphasis on the interaction between social and health dimensions in the perspective of social change. We will conclude by highlighting the roles that public health could play in allowing innovations to have more social value, especially during sanitary crises.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Technology , Health Care Reform , Health Priorities , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/therapy , Public Health , Access to Information , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Diffusion of Innovation , Health Equity , Health Services Accessibility , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Social Conditions , Social Environment , Social Values , Technology , Vaccines
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 663074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815424

ABSTRACT

Routine childhood immunizations are proven to be one of the most effective public health interventions at controlling numerous deadly diseases. Therefore, the CDC recommends routine immunizations for children and adolescent populations against vaccine-preventable diseases e.g., tetanus, pertussis, diphtheria, etc. This current review sought to examine barriers to pediatric vaccine uptake behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also explored the implications for parental vaccine hesitancy/delay during an ongoing health crisis and proposed recommendations for increasing vaccine confidence and compliance. Our review determined that the receipt for vaccinations steadily improved in the last decade for both the United States and Tennessee. However, this incremental progress has been forestalled by the COVID-19 pandemic and other barriers i.e. parental vaccine hesitancy, social determinants of health (SDoH) inequalities, etc. which further exacerbate vaccination disparities. Moreover, non-compliance to routine vaccinations could cause an outbreak of diseases, thereby, worsening the ongoing health crisis and already strained health care system. Healthcare providers are uniquely positioned to offer effective recommendations with presumptive languaging to increase vaccination rates, as well as, address parental vaccine hesitancy. Best practices that incorporate healthcare providers' quality improvement coaching, vaccination reminder recall systems, adherence to standardized safety protocols (physical distancing, hand hygiene practices, etc.), as well as, offer telehealth and outdoor/drive-through/curbside vaccination services, etc. are warranted. Additionally, a concerted effort should be made to utilize public health surveillance systems to collect, analyze, and interpret data, thereby, ensuring the dissemination of timely, accurate health information for effective health policy decision-making e.g., vaccine distribution, etc.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Parents , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Tennessee , United States , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/immunology , Vaccines/immunology
15.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(5): 311-319, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835950

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: COVID-19 hit the world amidst an unprecedented suicide epidemic in this century. As the world focuses on limiting the spread of the virus and prioritizing acutely medically ill patients, containment measures are not without mental health consequences. With rising anxiety and depression, risk of suicide-acutely and in the aftermath of the pandemic-also rises. This article aims to shed light on this major public health problem and better understand what factors may create or exacerbate psychiatric symptoms and suicide. We review suicide data predating the pandemic and examine impact of previous epidemics on suicide rates. We then focus on the current pandemic's impacts and the world's response to COVID-19. We examine how these may lead to increased suicide rates, focusing on the US population. Finally, we offer suggestions on mitigating interventions to curb the impending rise in suicide and the resultant increased burden on an already stretched health care system.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Suicide/trends , Anxiety/psychology , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/psychology , Humans , Public Health , Quarantine
16.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 51(2): 6-9, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840102

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has revealed myriad social, economic, and health inequities that disproportionately burden populations that have been made medically or socially vulnerable. Inspired by state and local governments that declared racism a public health crisis or emergency, the Anti-Racism in Public Health Act of 2020 reflects a shifting paradigm in which racism is considered a social determinant of health. Indeed, health inequities fundamentally rooted in structural racism have been exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, which calls for the integration of antiracist praxis to promote ethical public health research processes. This commentary describes ways in which antiracist praxis-which emphasizes empowerment of traditionally marginalized populations-offers strategies to explicitly address power imbalance, stigmatization, and other consequences of structural racism in public health research.


Subject(s)
/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Public Health , Racism , Social Determinants of Health , Codes of Ethics , Humans , Public Health/ethics , Public Health/methods , Public Health/standards , Racism/prevention & control , Racism/trends , Social Determinants of Health/ethics , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Social Discrimination/prevention & control , Social Marginalization , United States
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2161, 2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846312

ABSTRACT

The 2014-15 Holuhraun eruption in Iceland was the largest fissure eruption in over 200 years, emitting prodigious amounts of gas and particulate matter into the troposphere. Reykjavík, the capital area of Iceland (250 km from eruption site) was exposed to air pollution events from advection of (i) a relatively young and chemically primitive volcanic plume with a high sulphur dioxide gas (SO2) to sulphate PM (SO42-) ratio, and (ii) an older and chemically mature volcanic plume with a low SO2/SO42- ratio. Whereas the advection and air pollution caused by the primitive plume were successfully forecast and forewarned in public advisories, the mature plume was not. Here, we show that exposure to the mature plume is associated with an increase in register-measured health care utilisation for respiratory disease by 23% (95% CI 19.7-27.4%) and for asthma medication dispensing by 19.3% (95% CI 9.6-29.1%). Absence of public advisories is associated with increases in visits to primary care medical doctors and to the hospital emergency department. We recommend that operational response to volcanic air pollution considers both primitive and mature types of plumes.


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Volcanic Eruptions/adverse effects , Adult , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Asthma/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Morbidity , Physicians, Primary Care , Public Health , Regression Analysis , Risk , Self Report , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800319

ABSTRACT

Understanding the potential drivers of microbial meat contamination along the entire meat supply chain is needed to identify targets for interventions to reduce the number of meatborne bacterial outbreaks. We assessed the hygienic practices in cattle slaughterhouses (28 employees) and retail shops (127 employees) through face-to-face interviews and direct personal observations. At the slaughterhouses, stunning, de-hiding and evisceration in vertical position, carcass washing and separate storage of offal were the identified good practices. Lack of hot water baths, absence of a chilling room, infrequent hand washing, insufficiently trained staff and irregular medical check-up were practices that lead to unhygienic handling of carcasses. At the retail shops, cleaning equipment using soap and hot water (81%), storing unsold meat in refrigerators (92%), concrete floors and white painted walls and ceilings were good practices. Adjacently displaying offal and meat (39%), lack of a cold chain, wrapping meat with plastic bags and newspapers, using a plastic or wooden cutting board (57%), infrequent washing of equipment and floors, and inadequately trained employees were practices that could result in unhygienic handling of beef. Our study identified unhygienic practices both at the slaughterhouses and retail shops that can predispose the public to meatborne infections, which could be improved through training and implementation of quality control systems.


Subject(s)
Abattoirs , Public Health , Animals , Cattle , Ethiopia , Food Microbiology , Hygiene , Meat
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800881

ABSTRACT

The World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) has a research mission to identify physical and mental health conditions that may be related to the 9/11 terrorist attacks as well as effective diagnostic procedures and treatments for WTC-related health conditions. The ability of the WTCHP to serve its members and realize positive impacts on all of its stakeholders depends on effective translation of research findings. As part of an ongoing assessment of the translational impact of World Trade Center (WTC)-related research, we applied the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) translational framework to two case studies: WTC-related research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cancer. We conducted a review of 9/11 health-related research in the peer-reviewed literature through October 2017, grey literature, and WTCHP program documentation. We mapped peer-reviewed studies in the literature to the NIEHS framework and used WTCHP program documentation and grey literature to find evidence of translation of research into clinical practice and policy. Using the NIEHS framework, we identified numerous translational milestones and bridges, as well as areas of opportunity, within each case study. This application demonstrates the utility of the NIEHS framework for documenting progress toward public health impact and for setting future research goals.


Subject(s)
September 11 Terrorist Attacks , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Mental Health , National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (U.S.) , New York City , Public Health , United States
20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802347

ABSTRACT

Anthropogenic climate change is adversely impacting people and contributing to suffering and increased costs from climate-related diseases and injuries. In responding to this urgent and growing public health crisis, mitigation strategies are in place to reduce future greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) while adaptation strategies exist to reduce and/or alleviate the adverse effects of climate change by increasing systems' resilience to future impacts. While these strategies have numerous positive benefits on climate change itself, they also often have other positive externalities or health co-benefits. This knowledge can be harnessed to promote and improve global public health, particularly for the most vulnerable populations. Previous conceptual models in mitigation and adaptation studies such as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) considered health in the thinking, but health outcomes were not their primary intention. Additionally, existing guidance documents such as the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidance for Climate Resilient and Environmentally Sustainable Health Care Facilities is designed primarily for public health professionals or healthcare managers in hospital settings with a primary focus on resilience. However, a detailed cross sectoral and multidisciplinary conceptual framework, which links mitigation and adaptation strategies with health outcomes as a primary end point, has not yet been developed to guide research in this area. In this paper, we briefly summarize the burden of climate change on global public health, describe important mitigation and adaptation strategies, and present key health benefits by giving context specific examples from high, middle, and low-income settings. We then provide a conceptual framework to inform future global public health research and preparedness across sectors and disciplines and outline key stakeholders recommendations in promoting climate resilient systems and advancing health equity.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Greenhouse Gases , Global Health , Humans , Public Health , World Health Organization
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