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1.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(5): 730-741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193461

ABSTRACT

Background: Rates of cannabis use appear to be highest among emerging adults (EA). Evidence suggests that cannabis smoking, as well as alternate methods of cannabis use (e.g., vaping, edibles) have become a prevalent mode of consumption among this population. Substance use or misuse peaks during emerging adulthood and may be influenced by extreme economic, social and community developments, such as policy changes, public health concerns, and significant global events such as pandemics. For instance, it is highly likely that cannabis consumption trends among at-risk populations were influenced by the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada, the declaration of the "e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury" or "EVALI" outbreak, and the "COVID-19" pandemic. ObjectivesWe aimed to examine self-reported changes in frequency of cannabis use among EA in Canada (N = 312): pre-legalization, post-legalization; pre-EVALI, post-EVALI; pre-COVID-19, since-COVID-19. ResultsThere was a gradual increase in average frequency of smoking and vaping cannabis across the six different time intervals from the pre-legalization period (2018) to the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020). Males reported higher frequencies of cannabis smoking and vaping compared to females. ConclusionsDespite health concerns and expectations that EVALI and COVID-19 events would lead to decreased consumption, our results suggest an average increase in smoking and vaping cannabis, although the most notable increase was after legalization. There are important sex differences in behavioral factors of cannabis use in EA, though it appears that the "gender-gap" in cannabis consumption is closing. These findings may facilitate the development of intervention programs for policy measures to address cannabis-attributable outcomes in the face of contextual factors that promote use, such as public emergencies or changes in policy landscapes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Policy , Public Health
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366907

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: estabelecer diagnóstico diferencial das demências em ambulatório de geriatria no Distrito Federal, calculando-se sua prevalência por meio de exame clínico e avaliação multifuncional. Método: estudo longitudinal, retrospectivo, com amostra de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais residentes no Distrito Federal-Brasil, com déficit cognitivo caracterizado por Transtorno Neurocognitivo (TNC) Maior (demência), cadastradas durante os anos de 2010 a 2018. A coleta de dados foi realizada em prontuários para selecionar e avaliar o perfil do idoso com diagnóstico de TNC seguida de avaliação geriátrica ampla e avaliação multifuncional. A análise de dados foi realizada com o cálculo da prevalência, estatística descritiva e índice V de Cramer. Resultados: 158 indivíduos conseguiram concluir todas as avalições. 52,5% possuem de 80 a 89 anos, 62,5% são mulheres e 62,7% caucasianos, 50,6% viúvos e 47,5% analfabetos. A prevalência inicial de Doença de Alzheimer (DA) foi de 45,6%, reduzindo-se para 35,4% após um período de acompanhamento e a demência vascular (DV) foi de 34,2%, inicialmente, e 45,6% ao final. Utilizou-se o Coeficiente V de Cramer, em que se encontrou uma relação fraca de fatores de risco com os diagnósticos das demências apresentados. Conclusão: DV foi a mais prevalente na área estudada. Entende-se ser a maior frequência de DA esteja relacionada à avaliação superficial uma vez que esse tipo de demência é mundialmente mais frequente


Objetivos: estabelecer diagnóstico diferencial das demências em ambulatório de geriatria no Distrito Federal, calculando-se sua prevalência por meio de exame clínico e avaliação multifuncional. Método: estudo longitudinal, retrospectivo, com amostra de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais residentes no Distrito Federal-Brasil, com déficit cognitivo caracterizado por Transtorno Neurocognitivo (TNC) Maior (demência), cadastradas durante os anos de 2010 a 2018. A coleta de dados foi realizada em prontuários para selecionar e avaliar o perfil do idoso com diagnóstico de TNC seguida de avaliação geriátrica ampla e avaliação multifuncional. A análise de dados foi realizada com o cálculo da prevalência, estatística descritiva e índice V de Cramer. Resultados: 158 indivíduos conseguiram concluir todas as avalições. 52,5% possuem de 80 a 89 anos, 62,5% são mulheres e 62,7% caucasianos, 50,6% viúvos e 47,5% analfabetos. A prevalência inicial de Doença de Alzheimer (DA) foi de 45,6%, reduzindo-se para 35,4% após um período de acompanhamento e a demência vascular (DV) foi de 34,2%, inicialmente, e 45,6% ao final. Utilizou-se o Coeficiente V de Cramer, em que se encontrou uma relação fraca de fatores de risco com os diagnósticos das demências apresentados. Conclusão: DV foi a mais prevalente na área estudada. Entende-se ser a maior frequência de DA esteja relacionada à avaliação superficial uma vez que esse tipo de demência é mundialmente mais frequente


Subject(s)
Dementia , Alzheimer Disease , Women , Dementia, Vascular , Geriatric Assessment , Public Health , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Neurocognitive Disorders , Geriatrics , Persons
4.
Cancer Discov ; 12(5): OF1, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491636

ABSTRACT

The Public Health Emergency (PHE) declared by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in 2020 allowed coverage of telehealth-the use of electronic communication to deliver care remotely-by federal payers during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the PHE could end in the coming months, so legislators have introduced bills in Congress to continue coverage for certain types of virtual visits under federal programs. Telehealth measures may be attached to the bill funding the federal government for fiscal year 2022, which could be enacted in mid-March.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 862497, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493354

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Viral hepatitis is a major public health concern on a global scale. It predominantly affects the world's least developed countries. The most endemic regions are resource constrained, with a low human development index. Chronic hepatitis can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, cancer and eventually death. Early diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis infection can help to reduce disease burden and transmission to those at risk of infection or reinfection. Screening is critical for meeting the WHO's 2030 targets. Consequently, automated systems for the reliable prediction of hepatitis illness. When applied to the prediction of hepatitis using imbalanced datasets from testing, machine learning (ML) classifiers and known methodologies for encoding categorical data have demonstrated a wide range of unexpected results. Early research also made use of an artificial neural network to identify features without first gaining a thorough understanding of the sequence data. Methods: To help in accurate binary classification of diagnosis (survivability or mortality) in patients with severe hepatitis, this paper suggests a deep learning-based decision support system (DSS) that makes use of bidirectional long/short-term memory (BiLSTM). Balanced data was utilized to predict hepatitis using the BiLSTM model. Results: In contrast to previous investigations, the trial results of this suggested model were encouraging: 95.08% accuracy, 94% precision, 93% recall, and a 93% F1-score. Conclusions: In the field of hepatitis detection, the use of a BiLSTM model for classification is better than current methods by a significant margin in terms of improved accuracy.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Hepatitis , Humans , Machine Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Public Health
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35494411

ABSTRACT

In response to the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan, a national COVID-19 cluster taskforce (comprising governmental and nongovernmental experts) was established to support the country's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in conducting daily risk assessment. The assessment was carried out using established infectious disease surveillance systems; however, in the initial stages of the pandemic these were not sufficient for real-time risk assessment owing to limited accessibility, delay in data entry and inadequate case information. Also, local governments were publishing anonymized data on confirmed COVID-19 cases on their official web sites as daily press releases. We developed a unique database for nationwide real-time risk assessment that included these case lists from local government web sites and integrated all case data into a standardized format. The database was updated daily and checked systematically to ensure comprehensiveness and quality. Between 15 January 2020 and 15 June 2021, 776 459 cases were logged in the database, allowing for analysis of real-time risk from the pandemic. This semi-automated database was used in daily risk assessments, and to evaluate and update control measures to prevent community transmission of COVID-19 in Japan. The data were reported almost every week to the Japanese Government Advisory Panel on COVID-19 for public health responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Risk Assessment
7.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 03 03.
Article in Dutch | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499551

ABSTRACT

The new Dutch government has the ambition to implement several health-related food taxes. We provide an evidence-based agenda for improving population health with these policy ambitions. First, we argue that a sugary drinks tax should be at least 10, preferably 20%, comparable to the UK sugar industry levy. The new government omits alcohol, whereas Minimum Unit Pricing provides a proportionate measure for decreasing alcohol abuse. A broader tax on unhealthy foods, such as a tax on foods high in added sugar, and a zero rate on value-added taxes for fruits and vegetables, are effective in improving overall diet. However, these policies will encounter more legal and technical hurdles, although there are proofs of success in other countries. The listed policy ambitions will have a higher chance of success if implementation issues are seriously considered, and if public health goals are coupled to goals of public finance and environmental sustainability.


Subject(s)
Government , Taxes , Food , Humans , Public Health , Sugars
8.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 33(3): 270-282, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500058

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Responding quickly to HIV outbreaks is one of four pillars of the U.S. Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) initiative. Inclusion of cluster detection and response in the fourth pillar of EHE has led to public discussion concerning bioethical implications of cluster detection and response and molecular HIV surveillance (MHS) among public health authorities, researchers, and community members. This study reports on findings from a qualitative analysis of interviews with community members and providers regarding their knowledge and perspectives of MHS. We identified five key themes: (a) context matters, (b) making sense of MHS, (c) messaging, equity, and resource prioritization, (d) operationalizing confidentiality, and (e) stigma, vulnerability, and power. Inclusion of community perspectives in generating innovative approaches that address bioethical concerns related to the use of MHS data is integral to ensure that widely accessible information about the use of these data is available to a diversity of community members and providers.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Confidentiality , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Public Health , Social Stigma , Washington
9.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20210424, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe adolescents' everyday activities and emotional consequences related to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Qualitative study grounded in Alfred Schütz's social phenomenology, involving 22 students at two public schools in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Interviews were conducted, had their audio recorded, and were analyzed according to a thematic categorization. RESULTS: Five categories emerged from the accounts: i) adolescents' reaction before the COVID-19 pandemic; ii) emotional consequences; iii) concern about the family; iv) adolescents' adaptation; and v) fragmentation of social support networks. Feelings such as uncertainty, fear, anguish, anxiety, and lack of motivation, depressive symptoms, and extreme suicidal ideation were reported. CONCLUSION: Paying attention to adolescents' psychosocial needs is essential, especially in face of the possibility of post-traumatic stress as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Health professionals' technical competence combined with sensibility, strengthening of social support networks, and engagement of different community sectors are fundamental for promoting adolescent mental health in the current transition and resignification period following the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , Emotions , Humans , Pandemics
10.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(5): 622-627, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500173

ABSTRACT

As the proportion of older adults in the nation's prisons grows, policy makers struggle to meet their health and social needs.


Subject(s)
Prisoners , Public Health , Administrative Personnel , Aged , Aging , Humans , Prisons
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(5): 647-650, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500175

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine remains a valuable tool for obtaining health care services more than two years into the COVID-19 pandemic. As the US enters a new phase of pandemic recovery with virtual care firmly established as a care modality, telehealth regulations, models, and payments must transform for long-term sustainability. A thoughtful approach is essential to ensuring that the future of telemedicine removes disparities in health care access and outcomes instead of exacerbating them. Public health practice can shed light on how to address health inequities at the neighborhood level by using a data-driven approach, collaborating with communities, and designing policies with equity in mind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(18): 638-640, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511732

ABSTRACT

During October-November 2021, clinicians at a children's hospital in Alabama identified five pediatric patients with severe hepatitis and adenovirus viremia upon admission. In November 2021, hospital clinicians, the Alabama Department of Public Health, the Jefferson County Department of Health, and CDC began an investigation. This activity was reviewed by CDC and conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Alabama/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Public Health
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 895, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Canadian public health agencies, both municipal/regional and provincial/territorial, are responsible for promoting population health during pregnancy and the early postnatal period. This study examines how these agencies use web-based and Facebook channels to communicate perinatal health promotion during the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Perinatal health promotion content of websites and Facebook posts from a multijurisdictional and geographically diverse sample of government and non-governmental organizations (NGO) were evaluated using thematic content analysis in 2020. RESULTS: Major Facebook perinatal health promotion themes included breastfeeding, infant care, labor/delivery, parenting support and healthy pregnancy. Facebook COVID-19-themed perinatal health promotion peaked in the second quarter of 2020. Websites emphasized COVID-19 transmission routes, disease severity and need for infection control during pregnancy/infant care, whereas Facebook posts focussed on changes to local health services including visitor restrictions. NGO perinatal health promotion reflected organizations' individual mandates. CONCLUSIONS: Canadian government use of Facebook to disseminate perinatal health promotion during the COVID-19 pandemic varied in terms of breadth of topics and frequency of posts. There were missed opportunities to nuance transmission/severity risks during pregnancy, thereby proactively countering the spread of misinformation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Health Promotion , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Public Health
14.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(5): 296-297, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521032
16.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267205, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507576

ABSTRACT

Dementia is a global public health priority and risk reduction is an important pillar of the public health response. While 40% of cases are estimated to be attributable to modifiable health and lifestyle risk factors, public awareness of the evidence is low, limiting peoples' opportunity to adopt risk-reducing behaviours. To address this gap, we designed, implemented, and evaluated an educational intervention, the Preventing Dementia Massive Open Online Course (PDMOOC). This mixed-methods study examined the reach and impact of the free and globally available PDMOOC, to assess its potential to provide effective dementia risk reduction education to a broad international audience. Over 100,000 individuals participated in the PDMOOC across seven iterations from 2016 to 2020, with 55,739 of these consenting to participate in research. Their mean age was 49 years (SD = 15), they came from 167 different countries, and the majority were female (86%), had completed post-secondary education (77%), lived in high-income countries (93%) and worked in health care and social assistance (63%). This demographic profile changed across time, with more men, people with higher education and people from low- and middle-income countries participating in recent course iterations. Two-thirds of participants completed the PDMOOC; completion was associated with being aged 50 to 70 years, residing in a high-income country, having tertiary education, and working in the health sector. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the PDMOOC, improved dementia risk reduction understanding and self-efficacy, increased motivation to maintain healthy lifestyles, and, importantly, application of their learning to health behaviour change with the potential to reduce their dementia risk. The PDMOOC educated a large global audience about dementia risk reduction, which contributed to participants making risk-reducing behaviour changes. This suggests MOOCs can be a successful public health strategy to improve dementia risk reduction understanding.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Education, Distance , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/prevention & control , Female , Health Priorities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health
17.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267232, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507588

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the outbreak of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred on a global scale, governments from different countries adopted different policies and achieved different anti-epidemic effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether and how the government response affected the transmission scale of COVID-19 on the dynamic perspective. METHODOLOGY: This paper uses a dynamic generalized moment method to research the relationship between the government response and COVID-19 case fatality rate by using panel data from eight countries: China, United States, Canada, Australia, Italy, France, Japan, and South Korea. FINDINGS: We have the following findings: 1. Government responses have a significant impact on the scale of COVID-19 transmission. 2. The rate of increase of government responses on the growth rate of COVID-19 case fatality rate has the characteristics of cyclicity and repeatability, that is, with the increase in the growth rate of government responses, the COVID-19 case fatality rate shows the following cyclical motion law: increasing first, reaching the maximum point, and then declining, and finally reaching the minimum point and then rising; ultimately, its convergence becomes 0. The cyclical fluctuations of COVID-19 in the long term may be caused by the decline in the level of government response, the mutation of the virus, and the violation of restrictive policies by some citizens. 3. The government response has a lag in controlling the spread of COVID-19. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Since there is a lack of literature on the impact of government responses on the development of COVID-19 from a long-term and dynamic perspective. This paper fills this gap in empirical research. We provide and expand new empirical evidence based on the current literature. This paper provides the basis for government decision-making and will help to formulate the response to other major public health events that may occur in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Article in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55964

ABSTRACT

[RESUMO]. A doença cardiovascular (DCV) é a principal causa de morte nas Américas, e a pressão arterial elevada é responsável por mais de 50% dos casos de DCV. Nas Américas, mais de um quarto das mulheres adultas e quatro de cada dez homens adultos têm hipertensão arterial, sendo que diagnóstico, tratamento e controle estão abaixo do ideal. Em 2021, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) divulgou uma atualização das diretrizes para o tratamento medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial em adultos. Esta publicação ressalta o papel facilitador da iniciativa Global HEARTS da OMS e da iniciativa HEARTS nas Américas para catalisar a implementação dessas diretrizes, oferece recomendações específicas de políticas para sua implementação e enfatiza a necessidade de uma abordagem estratégica abrangente para o controle da hipertensão arterial. Os autores clamam para que tanto as pessoas que advogam pela Saúde, quanto as autoridades responsáveis, priorizem a prevenção e o controle da hipertensão arterial como forma de melhorar a saúde e o bem-estar das populações e reduzir as disparidades de saúde cardiovascular dentro das populações das Américas e entre elas.


[ABSTRACT]. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Americas and raised blood pressure accounts for over 50% of CVD. In the Americas over a quarter of adult women and four in ten adult men have hypertension and the diagnosis, treatment and control are suboptimal. In 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated guideline for the pharmacological treatment of hypertension in adults. This policy paper highlights the facilitating role of the WHO Global HEARTS initiative and the HEARTS in the Americas initiative to catalyze the implementation of this guideline, provides specific policy advice for implementation, and emphasizes that an overarching strategic approach for hypertension control is needed. The authors urge health advocates and policymakers to prioritize the prevention and control of hypertension to improve the health and wellbeing of their populations and to reduce CVD health disparities within and between populations of the Americas.


[RESUMEN]. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en la Región de las Américas y la hipertensión es la causa de más del 50% de ellas. En la Región, más de una cuarta parte de las mujeres adultas y cuatro de cada diez hombres adultos tienen hipertensión y su diagnóstico, tratamiento y control son deficientes. En el 2021, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) publicó directrices actualizadas sobre el tratamiento farmacológico de la hipertensión en personas adultas. En este artículo se destaca el papel facilitador de la iniciativa mundial HEARTS de la OMS y la iniciativa HEARTS en las Américas para catalizar la implementación de estas directrices, a la vez que se proporciona asesoramiento específico sobre políticas para dicha implementación y se destaca la necesidad de adoptar un enfoque estratégico general para el control de la hipertensión. Los autores instan a quienes abogan por la salud y a los responsables de las políticas a priorizar la prevención y el control de la hipertensión para mejorar la salud y el bienestar de la población, y a reducir las disparidades de salud en relación con las enfermedades cardiovasculares dentro de la población y entre las poblaciones de la Región de las Américas.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas
19.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55963

ABSTRACT

[RESUMEN ]. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en la Región de las Américas y la hipertensión es la causa de más del 50% de ellas. En la Región, más de una cuarta parte de las mujeres adultas y cuatro de cada diez hombres adultos tienen hipertensión y su diagnóstico, tratamiento y control son deficientes. En el 2021, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) publicó directrices actualizadas sobre el tratamiento farmacológico de la hipertensión en personas adultas. En este artículo se destaca el papel facilitador de la iniciativa mundial HEARTS de la OMS y la iniciativa HEARTS en las Américas para catalizar la implementación de estas directrices, a la vez que se proporciona asesoramiento específico sobre políticas para dicha implementación y se destaca la necesidad de adoptar un enfoque estratégico general para el control de la hipertensión. Los autores instan a quienes abogan por la salud y a los responsables de las políticas a priorizar la prevención y el control de la hipertensión para mejorar la salud y el bienestar de la población, y a reducir las disparidades de salud en relación con las enfermedades cardiovasculares dentro de la población y entre las poblaciones de la Región de las Américas.


[ABSTRACT]. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Americas and raised blood pressure accounts for over 50% of CVD. In the Americas over a quarter of adult women and four in ten adult men have hypertension and the diagnosis, treatment and control are suboptimal. In 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated guideline for the pharmacological treatment of hypertension in adults. This policy paper highlights the facilitating role of the WHO Global HEARTS initiative and the HEARTS in the Americas initiative to catalyze the implementation of this guideline, provides specific policy advice for implementation, and emphasizes that an over-arching strategic approach for hypertension control is needed. The authors urge health advocates and policymakers to prioritize the prevention and control of hypertension to improve the health and wellbeing of their populations and to reduce CVD health disparities within and between populations of the Americas.


[RESUMO]. A doença cardiovascular (DCV) é a principal causa de morte nas Américas, e a pressão arterial elevada é responsável por mais de 50% dos casos de DCV. Nas Américas, mais de um quarto das mulheres adultas e quatro de cada dez homens adultos têm hipertensão arterial, sendo que diagnóstico, tratamento e controle estão abaixo do ideal. Em 2021, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) divulgou uma atualização das diretrizes para o tratamento medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial em adultos. Essa publicação ressalta o papel facilitador da iniciativa Global HEARTS da OMS e da iniciativa HEARTS nas Américas para catalisar a implementação dessas diretrizes, oferece recomendações específicas de políticas para sua implementação e enfatiza a necessidade de uma abordagem estratégica abrangente para o controle da hipertensão arterial. Os autores clamam para que tanto as pessoas que advogam pela Saúde, quanto as autoridades responsáveis, priorizem a prevenção e o controle da hipertensão arterial como forma de melhorar a saúde e o bem-estar das populações e reduzir as disparidades de saúde cardiovascular dentro das populações das Américas e entre elas.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Health Services , Cardiovascular Diseases
20.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-05.
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55955

ABSTRACT

Het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen heeft diverse sociale en gezondheidsgevolgen, die vanuit het perspectief van volksgezondheid en maatschappelijk welzijn kunnen worden aangepakt door middel van beleid dat door overheidsinstanties wordt geformuleerd overeenkomstig hun specifieke mandaten. Met een expliciet beleid ten aanzien van de gezondheid en het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen kunnen de benodigde oplossingen worden ontwikkeld ter bescherming en bevordering van het recht op gezondheid van de bevolking in verband met dit complexe probleem. Deze handleiding is een instrument dat is gebaseerd op technieken en methoden voor beleidsanalyse en ontwikkeld met het doel de toepassing van de beginselen van de volksgezondheid te faciliteren bij het vinden van antwoorden op problemen in verband met het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen. Daarom bevat de handleiding voorbeelden en oefeningen die de verschillende fases van het planningsproces illustreren en die kunnen worden gebruikt in workshops en andere opleidingsactiviteiten. Het is bedoeld voor degenen die verantwoordelijk zijn voor het formuleren, uitvoeren en evalueren van beleid, plannen en programma's gericht op het verminderen van de effecten van middelengebruik op de collectieve gezondheid, van volksgezondheidsinstanties en andere relevante sectoren tot de burgermaatschappij.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Substance-Related Disorders , Public Health , Public Policy , Health Policy
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