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1.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(1): 6930, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130708

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Access to healthcare services should be equitable no matter where you live. However, the podiatry needs of rural populations are poorly addressed, partly because of workforce maldistribution. Encouraging emerging podiatrists to work in rural areas is a key solution. The aims were to explore (1) recently graduated podiatrists' perceptions regarding working rurally and (2) broader industry views of the factors likely to be successful for rural recruitment and retention. METHODS: Recruitment for interviews pertaining to podiatrist recruitment and retention was conducted during 2017. Recruitment was through social media, podiatry professional association newsletters, public health podiatry emails. Graduate perceptions were explored via two focus groups of Australian podiatrists enrolled in the Podiatrists in Australia: Investigating Graduate Employment longitudinal survey. Industry views were explored through semistructured interviews with podiatry profession stakeholders. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse data about the perceptions of recently graduated podiatrists and stakeholders and the themes were triangulated between the two groups. RESULTS: Overall, 11 recent graduate podiatrists and 15 stakeholders participated. The overarching themes among the two groups were the importance of 'growing me' and 'growing the profession'. Three superordinate themes were generated through analysis of both datasets, including (i) building a career, (ii) why I stay, and (iii) it cannot be done alone. CONCLUSION: This study identified that recently graduated podiatrists are likely to be attracted to rural work and retained in rural areas if they foresee opportunities for career progression in stable jobs, have a background of training and living in rural areas, like the lifestyle, and are able to access appropriate professional and personal supports. Building employment that spans public and private sector opportunities might be attractive to new graduate podiatrists seeking a breadth of career options. It is also important to recognise rural generalist podiatrists for any extended scope of services they provide along with raising public awareness of the role of rural podiatrist as a core part of multidisciplinary rural healthcare teams. Future training and workforce planning in podiatry must promote podiatrists taking up rural training and work so that maldistribution is reduced.


Subject(s)
Podiatry , Rural Health Services , Allied Health Personnel , Australia , Humans , Qualitative Research , Rural Population
2.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 1143-1150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499469

ABSTRACT

Background: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the United States (US) was already facing an epidemic of opioid overdose deaths. Overdose deaths continued to surge during the pandemic. To limit COVID-19 spread and to avoid disruptions in access to medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD), including buprenorphine and methadone, US federal and state agencies granted unprecedented exemptions to existing MOUD guidelines for Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs), including loosening criteria for unsupervised take-home doses. We conducted a qualitative study to evaluate the impact of these policy changes on MOUD treatment experiences for providers and patients at an OTP in California. Methods: We interviewed 10 providers (including two physicians, five social worker associates, and three nurse practitioners) and 20 patients receiving MOUD. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed all interviews to identify emergent themes. Results: Patient participants were middle-aged (median age 51 years) and were predominantly men (53%). Providers discussed clinical decision-making processes and experiences providing take-homes. Implementation of expanded take-home policies was cautious. Providers reported making individualized decisions, using patient factors to decide if benefits outweighed risks of overdose and misuse. Decision-making factors included patient drug use, overdose risk, housing status, and vulnerability to COVID-19. New patient groups started receiving take-homes and providers noted few adverse events. Patients who received take-homes reported increased autonomy and treatment flexibility, which in turn increased likelihood of treatment stabilization and engagement. Patients who remained ineligible for take-homes, usually due to ongoing non-prescribed opioid or benzodiazepine use, desired greater transparency and shared decision-making. Conclusion: Federal exemptions in response to COVID-19 led to the unprecedented expansion of access to MOUD take-homes within OTPs. Providers and patients perceived benefits to expanding access to take-homes and experienced few adverse outcomes, suggesting expanded take-home policies should remain post-COVID-19. Future studies should explore whether these findings are generalizable to other OTPs and assess larger samples to quantify patient-level outcomes resulting from expanded take-home policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Female , Freedom , Humans , Male , Methadone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , United States
3.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 33(3): 259-269, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500057

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Women living with HIV have a higher burden of non-AIDS comorbidities and prevalence of chronic conditions. The Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness clarifies living with complex health challenges by delineating the technical work of health care providers as well as the adaptive work and leadership behaviors of patients and their providers. We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study of women residing in the Southern United States who were participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study in North Carolina. Twenty-two participants (mean age = 52.2 years; 90.9% self-identifying as Black or African American) completed semi-structured qualitative interviews. We identified adaptive challenges (e.g., affective and disclosure challenges) and adaptive work and leadership behaviors. Women learned skills to care for their health and support their families and to work with their providers to manage their care. Findings support the importance of identifying leadership behaviors for the purpose of developing person-centered interventions.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Leadership , African Americans/psychology , Chronic Disease , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , North Carolina/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , United States/epidemiology
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 595, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Being responsive and adaptive to local population needs is a key principle of integrated care, and traditional top-down approaches to health system governance are considered to be ineffective. There is need for more guidance on taking flexible, complexity-aware approaches to governance that foster integration and adaptability in the health system. Over the past two decades, paramedics in Ontario, Canada have been filling gaps in health and social services beyond their traditional mandate of emergency transport. Studying these grassroots, local programs can provide insight into how health systems can be more integrated, adaptive and responsive. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people involved in new, integrated models of paramedic care in Ontario. Audio recordings of interviews were transcribed and coded inductively for participants' experiences, including drivers, enablers and barriers to implementation. Thematic analysis was done to ascertain key concepts from across the dataset. RESULTS: Twenty-six participants from across Ontario's five administrative health regions participated in the study. Participants described a range of programs that included acute, urgent and preventative care driven by local relationship networks of paramedics, hospitals, primary care, social services and home care. Three themes were developed that represent participants' experiences implementing these programs in the Ontario context. The first theme, adapting and being nimble in tension with system structures, related to distributed versus central control of programs, a desire to be nimble and skepticism towards prohibitive legal and regulatory systems. The second theme, evolving and flexible professional role identity, highlighted the value and challenges of a functionally flexible workforce and interest in new roles amongst the paramedic profession. The third theme, unpredictable influences on program implementation, identified events such as the COVID-19 pandemic and changing government priorities as accelerating, redirecting or inhibiting local program development. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study add to the discourse on governing health systems towards being more integrated, adaptive and responsive to population needs. Governance strategies include: supporting networks of local organizational relationships; considering the role of a functionally flexible health workforce; promoting a shared vision and framework for collaboration; and enabling distributed, local control and experimentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Ontario , Qualitative Research
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 592, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home-care nurses are often the first care professionals to enter a dirty home. The perceived problems and support needs of home-care nurses in these situations are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the problems home-care nurses encounter in caring for patients living in dirty homes, and possible solutions for these problems. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive research. SETTING: Communities across the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three participants to investigate the problems or needs experienced, and 20 participants to investigate solutions. Participants included patients, home-care nurses and other professionals working in the community. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 participants and analysed according to the principles of deductive thematic analysis. Subsequently, in interviews with 4 (representatives of) patients and four focus-group sessions with 16 professionals, the problems found were validated and solutions to the problems discussed. RESULTS: Ten subthemes emerged that were clustered into three main themes: 'dilemmas arise in choosing the right nursing care'; 'cooperation and an integrated approach are often necessary, but lacking'; 'home-care nurses have insufficient competencies'. Seven possible solutions were found: (1) strengthening collaboration between organizations in the community; (2) involving others sooner; (3) case management; (4) person-centred care; (5) taking more time; (6) providing home-care nurses with tools and support services; and (7) strengthening the competencies of nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Care for patients with a dirty home is complex. An integrated person-centred care approach is often necessary and home-care nurses need extra support to provide such care. Interventions should not only focus on patients, but address the nurses, the organization, and the collaboration between organizations in the community.


Subject(s)
Home Care Services , Focus Groups , Humans , Netherlands , Qualitative Research
6.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(2): 7000, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513773

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pain is a common and distressing symptom in people living with cancer that requires a patient-centred approach to management. Since 2010, the Australian Government has invested heavily in developing regional cancer centres to improve cancer outcomes. This study explored patient and carer experiences of care from a regional cancer centre with specific reference to cancer pain management. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used with semi-structured telephone interviews. Participants were outpatients at a regional cancer centre in New South Wales who had reported worst pain of 2 or more on a 0-10 numerical rating scale, and their carers. Questions explored experiences of pain assessment and management, and perceptions of how these were affected by the regional setting. Researchers analysed data using a deductive approach, using Mead and Bower's (2000) framework of factors influencing patient-centred care. RESULTS: Eighteen telephone interviews were conducted with 13 patients and 5 carers. Participants perceived that living in a regional setting conferred advantages to the patient-centredness of care via influences at the levels of professional context, the doctor-patient relationship, and consultation. These influences included established and ongoing relationships with a smaller number of care providers who were members of the community, and heightened accessibility in terms of travel/parking, flexible appointments, and ample time spent with each patient. The first of these factors was also perceived to contribute to continuity of care between specialist and primary care providers. However, one negative case reported disagreement between providers and a difficulty accessing specialist pain services. Several participants also reported a preference, and unmet need, for non-pharmacological rather than pharmacological pain management. CONCLUSION: While much research has focused on lack of services and poorer outcomes for people with cancer in rural areas, the Australian regional setting may offer benefits to the patient-centredness of cancer pain management and continuity of care. More research is needed to better understand the benefits and trade-offs of cancer care in regional versus urban settings, and how each can learn from the other. An unmet need for non-pharmacological rather than pharmacological pain management is among the most consistent findings of qualitative studies of patient/carer preferences across settings.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Neoplasms , Australia , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Pain , Physician-Patient Relations , Qualitative Research
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 321, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The shared care pathway for ADHD is a program developed in Canada with two main strategies: (a) implement a shared care pathway between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists, and (b) step up or down care so that the patient is treated at the most appropriate level of care, depending on the complexity or outcome of their illness. The current study aims to identify the challenges and facilitators of implementing this program in a Chinese mental health service setting. METHODS: Two focus groups were conducted using semi-structured interviews with a total of 7 health care providers in Beijing. An adapted grounded theory methodology using open-ended, axial and selective coding was used for data analysis. RESULTS: We identified three main levels related to barriers and facilitators: (1) a sociocultural level of patients' and health care providers' perspectives; (2) a structural level related to internal and external organizational environments; (3) and the level of the intervention itself with its characteristics. The project is generally aligned with the mandates and goals of the health system, but two of the main obstacles are the varying qualifications of physicians in hospitals of different levels, implying different needs and flexible and adapted training programs, and the lack of appropriate patient referral systems between the different hospital levels. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the importance of consultation to obtain a "lay of the land" for deciding on the implementation steps of an a priori well accepted model of care.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Beijing , Canada , Focus Groups , Health Personnel , Humans , Qualitative Research
8.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 30: e3561, 2022.
Article in Portuguese, English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507958

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to understand the health needs that emerge on the path followed toward legal abortion by women who have suffered sexual violence. METHOD: an exploratory, descriptive and qualitative study, whose theoretical framework was the conceptual field of Collective Health, based on the Marxian conception of needs. The study participants were ten women who requested legal abortion at a reference service located in São Paulo. A semi-structured interview script was used for data collection. The data were submitted to content analysis with the support of the WebQDA software. The analytical categories used were health needs and gender. RESULTS: despite the fact that abortion was identified as a primary need, the data revealed other needs felt by women, related to the health-disease process and with an emphasis on mental health, work, financial situation, the exercise of motherhood, access to information, autonomy, sisterhood and welcoming in the health services. CONCLUSION: the properly human needs were in greater evidence in the study, surpassing merely biological needs. The results point to the importance of co-responsibility of the health services with women, aiming to minimize vulnerabilities and to effectively implement reproductive rights.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Legal , Sex Offenses , Brazil , Female , Health Services , Humans , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 884, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bingo is often understood as a low-harm form of gambling. This view has been challenged by a growing body of literature identifying gambling harm to bingo players in a range of countries. In this study, we aimed to identify which conditions enabled, facilitated, intensified or mitigated gambling harm for bingo players in three populations in Victoria in the context of corporate, technological and regulatory changes. METHODS: Our qualitative study investigated experiences of bingo-related gambling harm in three populations in Victoria, Australia where bingo was popular and structural disadvantage common: Indigenous people in the east, Pacific people in the state's north and older people on low or fixed incomes in the capital. Data was generated through interviews with 53 bingo players and 13 stakeholders as well as 12 participant observations of bingo sessions. RESULTS: We found that while bingo is overwhelmingly positive for many players, a minority of bingo players and their families experience notable harm. Harm was generated through traditional paper-based bingo games, new technologies such as tablet-based bingo and by the widespread tactic of placing bingo sessions in close proximity to harmful electronic gambling machines. Overall, the risk of harm to bingo players appears to be escalating due to commercial, technological and regulatory changes. CONCLUSIONS: These changes can be better managed by regulators: reforms are needed to safeguard bingo's distinct character as a lower-risk form of gambling at a time when it, and its players, are under threat. Significantly, we found that harm to bingo players is intensified by factors external to gambling such as racialised poverty and adverse life events. Strategies that recognise these factors and grapple with gambling harm to bingo players are needed.


Subject(s)
Gambling , Aged , Gambling/epidemiology , Humans , Income , Qualitative Research , Victoria/epidemiology
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 891, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social (or physical) distancing is an important transmission-prevention behaviour that has been endorsed to minimize COVID-19 transmission. This qualitative study explores the facilitators of and barriers to social distancing for young people during the COVID-19 pandemic, with recognition that young people represent a unique demographic group, with differing psychosocial needs and experiences to other age cohorts. METHODS: Qualitative data was collected as part of a larger Qualtrics survey between July 28th 2020 and August 24th 2020. Eligible participants were young people living on the Island of Ireland, aged 16-25 years. The survey design was underpinned by the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation model of behaviour change (COM-B). Semi-inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse comments collected via three free-text survey items. The COM-B model provided a thematic framework to organise subthemes extracted. RESULTS: A total of N = 477 young people completed the survey, of which N = 347 provided comments for at least one of three free-text survey items. The majority of respondents lived in Northern Ireland (96%), the average age was 21 years, and most respondents were female (73%) and were students (81%). Key barriers identified included lack of environmental support for social distancing (lack of physical Opportunity to social distance), observing other people not social distancing (lack of social Opportunities supporting social distancing), and missing physical interaction from others (relating to the dissuading influence of automatic Motivational factors i.e. the influence of loneliness). Key facilitators included presence of clear and consistent environmental cues and availability of space to support social distancing (increasing physical Opportunity to social distance), increasing awareness and perceived consequences of risk of transmission (enhancing reflective Motivational factors i.e. perceived benefits (versus costs) of social distancing), and increasing opportunities to observe others' adhering to guidelines (increasing social Opportunities supporting social distancing). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the actions and endorsement of peers and the physical design of environments have a key role in influencing social distancing behaviour among young people living in NI. The COM-B factors identified in this study can inform the development of tailored interventions using models such as the Behaviour Change Wheel. The findings of this study suggest that intervention functions based on peer modelling and physical environmental restructuring and enablement should be priortitised, however it is imperative that interventions are co-designed with young people to foster collaboration and empowerment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Young Adult
11.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 105, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus brought Intensive Care Units (ICUs) back to their past when they were closed to family members. The difficulties of family caregivers encountered after the ICU discharge might have been increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, no traces of their experience have been documented to date. The objective of this study is to explore the everyday life experience of relatives in the first three months after a non-COVID-19 ICU discharge. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted in 2020-2021. Two Italian general non-COVID-19 ICUs were approached. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted three months after the ICU discharge. The study has been conducted according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research principles. RESULTS: A total of 14 family members were interviewed. Participants were mostly females (n = 11; 78.6%), with an average age of 53.9 years. After three months of care of their beloved at home, relatives' experience is summarised in three themes: "Being shaken following the ICU discharge", as experiencing negative and positive feelings; "Returning to our life that is no longer the same", as realising that nothing can be as before; and "Feeling powerless due to the COVID-19 pandemic", given the missed care from community services and the restrictions imposed. CONCLUSIONS: Relatives seem to have experienced a bilateral restriction of opportunities - at the hospital without any engagement in care activities and their limited possibility to visit the ICU, and at home in terms of formal and informal care.


Subject(s)
Family , Intensive Care Units , Patient Discharge , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/psychology , Family/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Qualitative Research
12.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 28(2): 176-184, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521059

ABSTRACT

Background: The influence of exercise after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a topic important to both clinicians and researchers. The impact of exercise for individuals with SCI is often studied quantitively, with a large focus on the physiological adaptations to exercise intervention. Objectives: This study explores individualized experiences of exercise for people with SCI. Methods: A phenomenological approach was utilized to qualitatively study the experiences of exercise for 16 individuals with SCI. Results: Participants described multiple benefits of exercise, including increased independence, improved mental health, and increased engagement in social activity. Conclusion: This study provides novel information about attitudes toward exercise held by individuals with SCI and a more thorough understanding of concepts that are well researched.


Subject(s)
Spinal Cord Injuries , Exercise , Humans , Qualitative Research , Quality of Life , Spinal Cord Injuries/psychology
13.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 28(2): 196-204, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521060

ABSTRACT

Background: As eHealth technologies become a more prevalent means to access care and self-manage health, it is important to identify the unique facilitators and barriers to their use. Few studies have evaluated the use or potential use of eHealth technologies in spinal cord injury (SCI) populations. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to explore and identify barriers and facilitators to engagement with eHealth technologies among individuals with SCI. Methods: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Data were collected via one-on-one, semi-structured interviews with a subsample of 20 community-dwelling participants enrolled in a larger clinical trial. Analysis of the transcripts was undertaken using a four-phase process of content analysis. Results: Our analysis identified three barriers to engagement with eHealth technologies, including (1) overcoming a digital divide to comprehending and utilizing eHealth technologies, (2) navigating internet resources that provide too much information, and (3) interacting with these technologies despite having limited hand function. Our analysis also identified three facilitators to using eHealth technologies, including (1) having previous successful experiences with eHealth technologies, (2) being able to use voice activation features, and (3) being able to interact in an online community network. Conclusion: By exploring barriers and facilitators to eHealth technology use, these findings may have a short-term impact on informing researchers and clinicians on important factors affecting engagement of individuals with SCI with telemedicine, mobile, and web applications (apps) and a long-term impact on informing future development of eHealth interventions and tools among chronic disease populations.


Subject(s)
Spinal Cord Injuries , Telemedicine , Humans , Independent Living , Qualitative Research , Technology
14.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 48, 2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the increased presence of the Right-to-Die Movement, improved end-of-life options, and the political and legal status of aid-in-dying around the globe, suicide tourism has become a promising alternative for individuals who wish to end their lives. Yet, little is known about this from the perspective of those who engage in the phenomenon. METHODS: This study applied the qualitative research approach, following the grounded theory tradition. It includes 11 in-depth semi-structured interviews with Israeli members of the Swiss non-profit Dignitas who contemplated traveling to Switzerland for aid-in-dying. RESULTS: Seven themes emerged from the data analysis, including health and functioning; feelings regarding survivorship and existence; interacting with the health sector; attitudes regarding death and dying; suicide; choosing death; and choosing suicide tourism. A significant portion of the participants had experienced suicidal thoughts and had even previously attempted suicide, some more than once. Most of them referred to chronic illnesses, functional disability, and social isolation. They understand suffering within the subjective dimension, namely only by the person who is actually subjected to the disease, ailments, and disability. Participants regarded aid-in-dying in Switzerland as positive thanks to its guaranteed outcome: "beautiful death", compared to "disadvantaged dying" which places a burden on the participants' loved ones throughout the prolonged dying. Most of them do not necessarily want to have their loved ones beside them when they die, and they see no significant meaning in dying in a foreign country to which they have no emotional or civil attachment. CONCLUSION: The desirable approval or tragic refusal by Dignitas to participants' requests for suicide tourism enhances the paradox between the perception of aid-in-dying as a mechanism for fulfilling controlled death and its bureaucratic and materialistic characteristics specifically reflected in a paid, formalized approach to aid-in-dying that cultivate dependency and collaboration.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Death , Humans , Israel , Qualitative Research , Switzerland
15.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 49, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sexual boundary violations (SBV) in healthcare are harmful and exploitative sexual transgressions in the professional-client relationship. Persons with mental health issues or intellectual disabilities, especially those living in residential settings, are especially vulnerable to SBV because they often receive long-term intimate care. Promoting good sexual health and preventing SBV in these care contexts is a moral and practical challenge for healthcare organizations. METHODS: We carried out a qualitative interview study with 16 Dutch policy advisors, regulators, healthcare professionals and other relevant experts to explore their perspectives on preventing SBV in mental health and disability care organizations. We used inductive thematic analysis to interpret our data. RESULTS: We found three main themes on how healthcare organizations can prevent SBV in mental health and disability care: (1) setting rules and regulations, (2) engaging in dialogue about sexuality, and (3) addressing systemic and organizational dimensions. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that preventing SBV in mental health and disability care organizations necessitates setting suitable rules and regulations and facilitating dialogue about positive aspects of sexuality and intimacy, as well as about boundaries, and inappropriate behaviors or feelings. Combining both further requires organizational policies and practices that promote transparency and reflection, and focus on creating a safe environment. Our findings will help prevent SBV and promote sexual health in mental health and disability care organizations.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Mental Health , Humans , Organizations , Qualitative Research , Sexuality/psychology
16.
BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 80, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive skills and other non-technical skills are key for emergency medical services (EMS); however, there have been a limited number of their markers identified. This study aims to identify markers of cognitive skills-situation awareness and decision making-important for team leaders in EMS. The focus is on any markers of cognitive skills that are associated with quality and safety at EMS work. METHOD: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 EMS team leaders (10 EMS physician team leaders and 10 paramedic team leaders) and analysed by the structured approach utilising the known framework of cognitive skill elements. RESULTS: The data analysis revealed a set of 50 markers falling into elements of situation awareness (gathering information, interpreting information, anticipating states), elements of decision making (identifying options, implementing decisions, re-evaluating decisions), and an additional cognitive element (maintaining standards). These markers represented cognitive processes, acts, and communications, therefore, some of them can be observable and others rather unobservable. The identified markers were not too specific, applicable mostly in various challenging situations with patients' medical problems and in EMS team leaders working in ground ambulances in urban and rural/remote areas. CONCLUSION: The findings provide a better understanding of EMS team leaders' cognitive skills, and can aid in the development of assessment and training tools suited particularly to them.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Medical Technicians , Allied Health Personnel , Awareness , Humans , Qualitative Research
17.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 50, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524301

ABSTRACT

Research regarding the drivers of acceptance of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) by physicians is still rather limited. The literature that does exist, however, tends to focus on problems regarding the user-friendliness of CDSS. We have performed a thematic analysis of 24 interviews with physicians concerning specific clinical case vignettes, in order to explore their underlying opinions and attitudes regarding the introduction of CDSS in clinical practice, to allow a more in-depth analysis of factors underlying (non-)acceptance of CDSS. We identified three general themes from the results. First, 'the perceived role of the AI', including items referring to the tasks that may properly be assigned to the CDSS according to the respondents. Second, 'the perceived role of the physician', referring to the aspects of clinical practice that were seen as being fundamentally 'human' or non-automatable. Third, 'concerns regarding AI', including items referring to more general issues that were raised by the respondents regarding the introduction of CDSS in general and/or in clinical medicine in particular. Apart from the overall concerns expressed by the respondents regarding user-friendliness, we will explain how our results indicate that our respondents were primarily occupied by distinguishing between parts of their job that should be automated and aspects that should be kept in human hands. We refer to this distinction as 'the division of clinical labor.' This division is not based on knowledge regarding AI or medicine, but rather on which parts of a physician's job were seen by the respondents as being central to who they are as physicians and as human beings. Often the respondents' view that certain core parts of their job ought to be shielded from automation was closely linked to claims concerning the uniqueness of medicine as a domain. Finally, although almost all respondents claimed that they highly value their final responsibility, a closer investigation of this concept suggests that their view of 'final responsibility' was not that demanding after all.


Subject(s)
Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Physicians , Artificial Intelligence , Attitude , Humans , Qualitative Research , Rome
18.
Glob Health Action ; 15(1): 2062174, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Large parts of Malawi`s population lack access to health care. A high burden of disease, chronic poverty, and a growing population accelerate the need for extending and improving health care. One region that is struggling with service provision is Malawi´s rural district Phalombe. In addition to adequate resources, acceptability of service provision and productive patient-provider engagements are crucial determinants of health-seeking behaviour. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to better understand the interdependencies between acceptability, patient-provider engagement, and health-seeking behaviour in Phalombe. By targeting health care providers and community members, different perspectives were assessed and triangulated. METHODS: Following a qualitative approach, group interviews were conducted with community members of three rural villages (n = 21) in Phalombe. Semi-structured interviews (n = 2) and a group interview among management staff (n = 3) provided insight into experiences of health care providers. RESULTS: Community members perceived health care providers' behaviour as disrespectful, resulting in power gaps between patients and providers. Providers blamed community members' cultural beliefs and lack of awareness regarding health care as barriers to seek formal services. Systemic shortcomings diminished community members' trust in service provision, while increasing frustration among providers and thus impacting patient-provider engagement. Due to insufficient resources, lack of acceptability and trust in receiving adequate services, potential patients turned into non-users of health care. CONCLUSIONS: A patient-centred approach is needed that empowers communities by involving them in health care planning, in facility management, and by raising awareness towards health issues. Trainings for providers need to focus on improving communication and building trustful patient-provider interactions. Yet, without addressing systemic constraints, providers' frustration and patients' lack of trust in service provision will remain and impact their health-seeking behaviour. Thus, further budget needs to be allocated to Malawi's health care sector in order to provide resources needed.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Malawi , Qualitative Research
19.
Ir Med J ; 115(3): 573, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532972
20.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(3): 187-194, 2022 Jun.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533121

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Introduction. The evidence about the effectiveness of fathers' or partners' involvement in breastfeeding interventions to promote initiation, duration, and exclusiveness rates has increased in recent years. OBJECTIVES: To identify the perspectives and assessments of breastfeeding among partners of breastfeeding women and develop information to create adequate interventions that favor the inclusion of fathers in care spaces and in the support of breastfeeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Qualitative study with a grounded theory design. Four focus groups were held with fathers. Data were processed defining free flow analysis units, coded in 2 levels, an open code, with emerging categories, and such categories grouped into 5 main topics. RESULTS: A total of 16 fathers participated. Five main topics were identified: fathers' knowledge about breastfeeding, feelings towards breastfeeding, partner's involvement in breastfeeding, development of the concept of fatherhood, breastfeeding in society. Breastfeeding was positively assessed. Although breastfeeding support was considered a shared family responsibility, there were not enough co-participation actions identified. Participants expressed their desire to play a more involved fatherhood role; however, they stated that these transformations are not supported at workplaces. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence showed a positive assessment of breastfeeding, adequate knowledge, and concern about difficulties. Breastfeeding support was considered a shared responsibility, but not enough specific coparticipation actions were mentioned.


Introducción. En los últimos años, creció la evidencia sobre la efectividad de la inclusión de los padres o las parejas en las intervenciones que promueven la lactancia para mejorar las tasas de iniciación, duración y exclusividad. Objetivos. Identificar perspectivas y valoraciones sobre la lactancia en las parejas de las personas que amamantan, y generar información que permita la creación de intervenciones apropiadas que favorezcan la incorporación de los padres en los espacios de cuidado y en el sostén de la lactancia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio cualitativo, con diseño de teoría fundamentada. Se realizaron 4 grupos de enfoque con padres. Los datos fueron procesados definiendo unidades de análisis por flujo libre, codificadas en dos planos, una codificación abierta, en categorías que emergieron y la agrupación de las categorías en cinco temas principales. Resultados. Participaron 16 padres. Se identificaron 5 temas principales: conocimiento de los padres sobre la lactancia, sentimientos frente a la lactancia, participación de la pareja en la lactancia, construcción de la idea de paternidad, lactancia en la sociedad. La lactancia recibió una valoración positiva. Si bien se consensuó una responsabilidad familiar compartida en su sostén, no se identificaron acciones suficientes de coparticipación. Los participantes manifestaron el deseo de ejercer una paternidad más comprometida, sin embargo, relataron que los entornos laborales no acompañan estas transformaciones. Conclusión. Se evidenciaron valoraciones positivas hacia la lactancia, conocimientos adecuados y preocupación por las dificultades. Se asumió una responsabilidad compartida en su sostén, pero faltaron en los relatos la mención de acciones concretas de coparticipación.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Fathers , Eating , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research
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