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1.
J Theor Biol ; 557: 111329, 2023 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309117

ABSTRACT

Susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) models were applied to assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and to study the dynamic behavior of the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, SEIR models have evolved to address the change of human mobility by some NPIs for predicting the new confirmed cases. However, the models have serious limitations when applied to Seoul. Seoul has two representative quarantine policies, i.e. social distancing and the ban on gatherings. Effects of the two policies need to be reflected in different functional forms in the model because changes in human mobility do not fully reflect the ban on gatherings. Thus we propose a modified SEIR model to assess the effectiveness of social distancing, ban on gatherings and vaccination strategies. The application of the modified SEIR model was illustrated by comparing the model output with real data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seoul , Quarantine , Physical Distancing , Disease Susceptibility
2.
J Theor Biol ; 557: 111335, 2023 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334850

ABSTRACT

Repeat asymptomatic testing in order to identify and quarantine infectious individuals has become a widely-used intervention to control SARS-CoV-2 transmission. In some workplaces, and in particular health and social care settings with vulnerable patients, regular asymptomatic testing has been deployed to staff to reduce the likelihood of workplace outbreaks. We have developed a model based on data available in the literature to predict the potential impact of repeat asymptomatic testing on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The results highlight features that are important to consider when modelling testing interventions, including population heterogeneity of infectiousness and correlation with test-positive probability, as well as adherence behaviours in response to policy. Furthermore, the model based on the reduction in transmission potential presented here can be used to parameterise existing epidemiological models without them having to explicitly simulate the testing process. Overall, we find that even with different model paramterisations, in theory, regular asymptomatic testing is likely to be a highly effective measure to reduce transmission in workplaces, subject to adherence. This manuscript was submitted as part of a theme issue on "Modelling COVID-19 and Preparedness for Future Pandemics".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Policy , Disease Outbreaks , Quarantine
3.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(3): 529-540, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic majorly disrupted conventional schooling and many countries maintained educational services through distance education. The duration of school closures in Turkey was longer than most OECD countries, thus Turkey prioritized school reopenings in the 2021-2022 academic year to mitigate possible negative outcomes of closures. Here we study the compatibility of implications for school reopenings in Turkey with these practices and assess the first semester of face-to-face schooling. METHODS: We have used document analysis to present and compare the practices in Turkey with international practices. We also used a comparative approach to assess the coherence between policies in Turkey and international suggestions. RESULTS: We find that vaccination rates of teachers and education staff are quite high in Turkey. Other practices, mandatory face masks, class-based closures and quarantine policies, are also in agreement with international practices. These steps are supported with frequent cleaning and ventilation of school environments, as well as with social distancing measures in schools. DISCUSSION: Consequently, the rate of daily closed classrooms has been kept below 1%, and the patterns of closures and openings are in general agreement with the changes of positive cases in the Turkish society. The net rate of closed classrooms decreased with the decline of quarantine days in Turkey. We hope that these insights will inform about school openings and contribute to best practices for face-to-face schooling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Schools , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , Schools/organization & administration , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2374-2382, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322955

ABSTRACT

We investigated a cluster of SARS-CoV-2 infections in a quarantine hotel in Taiwan in December 2021. The cluster involved 3 case patients who lived in nonadjacent rooms on different floors. They had no direct contact during their stay. By direct exploration of the space above the room ceilings, we found residual tunnels, wall defects, and truncated pipes between their rooms. We conducted a simplified tracer-gas experiment to assess the interconnection between rooms. Aerosol transmission through structural defects in floors and walls in this poorly ventilated hotel was the most likely route of virus transmission. This event demonstrates the high transmissibility of Omicron variants, even across rooms and floors, through structural defects. Our findings emphasize the importance of ventilation and integrity of building structure in quarantine facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Quarantine , Taiwan/epidemiology , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1041695, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408026

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions on travel and quarantine measures made people turn to self-medication (SM) to control the symptoms of their diseases. Different studies were conducted worldwide on different populations, and their results were different. Therefore, this global systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled prevalence of self-medication. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, databases of Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched without a time limit. All eligible observational articles that reported self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed. Heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q test and I2 statistics. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of self-medication. The methodological quality of the articles was evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: Fifty-six eligible studies were reviewed. The pooled prevalence of self-medication was 48.6% (95% CI: 42.8-54.3). The highest and lowest prevalence of self-medication was in Asia (53%; 95% CI: 45-61) and Europe (40.8%; 95% CI: 35-46.8). Also, the highest and lowest prevalence of self-medication was related to students (54.5; 95% CI: 40.8-68.3) and healthcare workers (32.5%; 16-49). The prevalence of self-medication in the general population (48.8%; 40.6-57) and in patients with COVID-19 (41.7%; 25.5-58). The prevalence of self-medication was higher in studies that collected data in 2021 than in 2020 (51.2 vs. 48%). Publication bias was not significant (p = 0.320). Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, self-medication was highly prevalent, so nearly half of the people self-medicated. Therefore, it seems necessary to provide public education to control the consequences of self-medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine , Students
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 999795, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408032

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study explores the inter-relationship between emotional distress in adults and gender, quarantine experiences, pandemic duration, and employment. Methods: An online cross-sectional online survey comprised 943 Israelis. The link to the survey was distributed via different personal and academic social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter). The survey was administered using the online survey portal Google Forms. Participants addressed questions about their socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, family status, employment, and quarantine experiences) and ranked their levels of stress, anxiety, and depression using the Hebrew version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-DASS-21. Results: The majority of the respondents (72%) were women, 39% experienced quarantine, and 55% were unemployed. About 42% experienced a short-term pandemic (one lockdown), and the rest experienced a continuous pandemic (two lockdowns). The MANCOVA results, controlling for family status, indicated that women and unemployed participants reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression levels than men and employed participants. Participants who experienced individual quarantine reported higher anxiety and depression. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between gender, employment, and pandemic duration. The experience of individual quarantine intensified the stress, anxiety, and depression for both employed and unemployed women. Conversely, the quarantine intensified stress, anxiety, and depression only for unemployed men, whereas the quarantine did not affect stress, anxiety, and depression among employed men. Conclusions: Employment is a critical factor regarding men's emotional state during such stressful situations as the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, individual quarantine and long-term pandemics are associated with opposite outcomes regarding individual mental health. The individual quarantine is associated with increased anxiety and depression, while a long-term, continuous pandemic is associated with decreased stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Adult , Female , Male , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Employment
7.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385083

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that the coronavirus pandemic has almost disappeared, its consequences will be a problem for national health systems, medical institutions and individual citizens for a long time to come. During the period of quarantine measures, which were the main form of social distancing and a measure to counteract the spread of the disease, many people practicing a healthy lifestyle, sports and just moderate physical activity were forced to significantly reduce their physical education practice. As a result, many of them faced the problem of weight gain.The article examines the quantitative and qualitative aspects of this problem through the prism of sociological research by international analytical agencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Weight Gain , Pandemics/prevention & control , Exercise
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 770, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to identify the nature and extent of the available published research on the impact of social isolation, on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, who had to quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Design. Scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: The PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews), guideline, was used to structure this study. A search strategy was carried out across six bibliographic databases. PubMed, Embase, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Web of Science. The following search terms were used, "medical student*" AND "impact" AND "quarantine" AND "COVID-19". Searches were initially confined to articles published (excluding conference abstracts) between 1 January 2019- 21 August 2021 but updated in September 2022 with the original search terms expanded to include "isolation" or "lockdown" as well as "quarantine" and the period of search extended to 21 August 2022. A search of secondary references was conducted. Data from the selected studies were extracted, and the following variables recorded; first author and year of publication, country of study, study design, sample size, participants, mode of analysing impact of quarantine from COVID-19 on mental health and results of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 223 articles were identified in the original search in 2021 and 387 articles, in the updated search in 2022. Following the exclusion of duplicates and application of the agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 31 full-text articles were identified for the final review, most of which were cross sectional studies. Sample sizes ranged from 13 to 4193 students and most studies used a variety of self-administered questionnaires to measure psychological wellbeing. Overall, 26 of the 31 articles showed that quarantine had a negative impact on the psychological well-being of medical students. However, two studies showed no impact, and three studies showed an improvement. CONCLUSION: The evidence is growing. Quarantine because of the COVID-19 pandemic may have had a negative impact on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, but this is not certain. There is therefore a need for more studies to further evaluate this research question.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology
10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361242

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic severely disrupted European universities' educational process. With the vaccination rollout, in-class instruction broadly resumed beginning in September 2021. In order to mitigate the risks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, European universities apply COVID-19 containment protocols. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the COVID-19 containment protocol that Greek universities implemented in order to fully reopen in the fall of 2021 and for the entire academic year 2021-2022. A case study was conducted at the Department of Industrial Management and Technology, University of Piraeus (Athens' port), Greece. Data were collected from November 2021 to July 2022 and a quantitative statistical analysis (descriptive and inferential) was performed. A total of 330 unique (and 43 reinfections) COVID-19 cases were confirmed, including 241 undergraduate students, 73 postgraduate, and 2 doctoral students, 10 faculty, and 4 administrative personnel. Contact tracing reported four confirmed and eight potential cases of in-classroom transmission. The person in charge of implementing the COVID-19 containment protocol in the department ordered more than 6000 rapid tests during this period. The Department of Industrial Management and Technology at the University of Piraeus used a rigorously monitored and coordinated strategy of vaccine promotion, screening/testing, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine in order to control COVID-19 transmission. The results show, on one hand, that the protocol's implementation is effective and leads to in-classroom transmission minimization and, on the other hand, verify the hypothesis that the department's confirmed COVID-19 cases are less (with a mean percentage difference of 50%) than the community's respective 18-39 age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Greece/epidemiology , Universities , Quarantine/methods
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2239661, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322090

ABSTRACT

Importance: Contact tracing is a core strategy for preventing the spread of many infectious diseases of public health concern. Better understanding of the outcomes of contact tracing for COVID-19 as well as the operational opportunities and challenges in establishing a program for a jurisdiction as large as New York City (NYC) is important for the evaluation of this strategy. Objective: To describe the establishment, scaling, and maintenance of Trace, NYC's contact tracing program, and share data on outcomes during its first 17 months. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included people with laboratory test-confirmed and probable COVID-19 and their contacts in NYC between June 1, 2020, and October 31, 2021. Trace launched on June 1, 2020, and had a workforce of 4147 contact tracers, with the majority of the workforce performing their jobs completely remotely. Data were analyzed in March 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Number and proportion of persons with COVID-19 and contacts on whom investigations were attempted and completed; timeliness of interviews relative to symptom onset or exposure for symptomatic cases and contacts, respectively. Results: Case investigations were attempted for 941 035 persons. Of those, 840 922 (89.4%) were reached and 711 353 (75.6%) completed an intake interview (women and girls, 358 775 [50.4%]; 60 178 [8.5%] Asian, 110 636 [15.6%] Black, 210 489 [28.3%] Hispanic or Latino, 157 349 [22.1%] White). Interviews were attempted for 1 218 650 contacts. Of those, 904 927 (74.3%) were reached, and 590 333 (48.4%) completed intake (women and girls, 219 261 [37.2%]; 47 403 [8.0%] Asian, 98 916 [16.8%] Black, 177 600 [30.1%] Hispanic or Latino, 116 559 [19.7%] White). Completion rates were consistent over time and resistant to changes related to vaccination as well as isolation and quarantine guidance. Among symptomatic cases, median time from symptom onset to intake completion was 4.7 days; a median 1.4 contacts were identified per case. Median time from contacts' last date of exposure to intake completion was 2.3 days. Among contacts, 30.1% were tested within 14 days of notification. Among cases, 27.8% were known to Trace as contacts. The overall expense for Trace from May 6, 2020, through October 31, 2021, was approximately $600 million. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite the complexity of developing a contact tracing program in a diverse city with a population of over 8 million people, in this case study we were able to identify 1.4 contacts per case and offer resources to safely isolate and quarantine to over 1 million cases and contacts in this study period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , New York City/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Quarantine
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 903, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434545

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to control the corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries have adopted social quarantine policies, with older adults in Wuhan suffering the longest and most severe conditions. But few studies have explored the impact of this on the mental health of older adults in Wuhan. The purpose of this paper is to examine changes in the residential status and mental health of this group when 1 year after the social isolation policies in Wuhan. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted to assess the questionnaire of older adults in a total of 21 streets in 5 central and 2 distant urban districts of Wuhan. Using a self-compiled living status questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the General Anxiety Disorder-7, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale, our survey evaluated the living status, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, loneliness and social support of all the participants. RESULTS: A total of 400 valid samples were obtained. One year after experiencing social isolation, older adults had not changed much from their pre-epidemic living status and mostly lived with their partners. They had satisfactory social support (33.86 ± 6.92) and low levels of depression (3.12 ± 4.30), anxiety (1.52 ± 3.19) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (21.41 ± 7.39), but there were moderate levels of loneliness (38.27 ± 9.31). Among them, depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms were significantly higher (ps < 0.05) in older adults who were COVID-19 close contacts while experiencing social isolation. CONCLUSION: One year after experiencing Wuhan's harsh social isolation, older adults in the Wuhan community did not experience significant symptoms of depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress, but loneliness has increased and the mental health of older adults who were COVID-19 close contacts needs attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Aged , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Loneliness/psychology
13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429563

ABSTRACT

The possibility of facing an epidemic or pandemic resulting in mandatory isolation or quarantine has become a relevant construct for comparing and evaluating coping strategies under such conditions. The objective of this research was to develop and analyze the psychometric properties of a scale to assess quarantine coping strategies (Q-COPE). This was an instrumental study and 1110 Peruvian adults (M = 26.9 years; SD = 9.77) participated in the context of social isolation. For the construction of the scale, qualitative and quantitative procedures were followed. The internal structure was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The content analysis by expert judges supports the representativeness of the items related to the construct. EFA and CFA allowed the establishment of five factors: Emotional regulation, Information, Accommodation, Social support, and Altruism. The first-order model presents adequate goodness-of-fit indices: χ2 = 489.048, df = 220, χ2/df = 2.223, SRMR = 0.025, CFI = 0.969, TLI = 0.965, RMSEA = 0.047. Likewise, the second order model presented similar values: χ2 = 499.674, df = 225, χ2/df = 2.221, SRMR = 0.026, CFI = 0.969, TLI = 0.965, RMSEA = 0.047. The 23-item version was consistent with the proposed theory, obtained adequate fit indices and acceptable factor loadings (>0.70), and presented good internal consistency indexes evaluated by Cronbach's α, ordinal α, omega (ω), and H coefficient. It is concluded that the Q-COPE scale presents good psychometric properties that justify its use in an adult population and allows the assessment of the coping strategies that people use in the face of a quarantine situation.


Subject(s)
Language , Quarantine , Adult , Humans , Psychometrics/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Adaptation, Psychological
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 880, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424534

ABSTRACT

The Omicron transmission has infected nearly 600,000 people in Shanghai from March 26 to May 31, 2022. Combined with different control measures taken by the government in different periods, a dynamic model was constructed to investigate the impact of medical resources, shelter hospitals and aerosol transmission generated by clustered nucleic acid testing on the spread of Omicron. The parameters of the model were estimated by least square method and MCMC method, and the accuracy of the model was verified by the cumulative number of asymptomatic infected persons and confirmed cases in Shanghai from March 26 to May 31, 2022. The result of numerical simulation demonstrated that the aerosol transmission figured prominently in the transmission of Omicron in Shanghai from March 28 to April 30. Without aerosol transmission, the number of asymptomatic subjects and symptomatic cases would be reduced to 130,000 and 11,730 by May 31, respectively. Without the expansion of shelter hospitals in the second phase, the final size of asymptomatic subjects and symptomatic cases might reach 23.2 million and 4.88 million by May 31, respectively. Our results also revealed that expanded vaccination played a vital role in controlling the spread of Omicron. However, even if the vaccination rate were 100%, the transmission of Omicron should not be completely blocked. Therefore, other control measures should be taken to curb the spread of Omicron, such as widespread antiviral therapies, enhanced testing and strict tracking quarantine measures. This perspective could be utilized as a reference for the transmission and prevention of Omicron in other large cities with a population of 10 million like Shanghai.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Quarantine , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets
15.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 203-207, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426725

ABSTRACT

In February 2020, during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, 232 evacuees from Wuhan, China, were placed under federal 14-day quarantine upon arrival at a US military base in San Diego, California. We describe the monitoring of evacuees and responders for symptoms of COVID-19, case and contact investigations, infection control procedures, and lessons learned to inform future quarantine protocols for evacuated people from a hot spot resulting from a novel pathogen. Thirteen (5.6%) evacuees had COVID-19-compatible symptoms and 2 (0.9%) had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Two case investigations identified 43 contacts; 3 (7.0%) contacts had symptoms but tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Daily symptom and temperature screening of evacuees and enacted infection control procedures resulted in rapid case identification and isolation and no detected secondary transmission among evacuees or responders. Lessons learned highlight the challenges associated with public health response to a novel pathogen and the evolution of mitigation strategies as knowledge of the pathogen evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Military Facilities , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology
16.
Anal Methods ; 14(45): 4690-4702, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353817

ABSTRACT

As economic globalization intensifies, the recent increase in agricultural products and travelers from abroad has led to an increase in the probability of invasive alien species. A major pathway for invasive alien species is agricultural quarantine materials (AQMs) in travelers' baggage. Thus, it is meaningful to develop efficient methods for early detection and prompt action against AQMs. In this study, a method based on the combination of odor detection of AQMs using ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) and convolutional neural network (CNN) analysis for the identification of AQM species in luggage was developed. Two different ways were investigated to feed the IMS data of AQMs into the CNN, either as one-dimensional data (1D) (as a spectrum) or as two-dimensional data (2D) (as an IMS topographic map). The performances of CNN models were also compared to those of the commonly used classification algorithms: partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). By doing gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM), the essential IMS feature regions from the CNN models to predict different AQM species were also identified. The results of this research demonstrated that the application of the CNN to the IMS data of AQMs yielded superior classification performance compared to PLS-DA and SIMCA. Especially, the CNN-2D model which utilized the IMS topographic map as input achieved the best classification accuracy both on the calibration and validation sets. In addition, the Grad-CAM method had an ability to detect critical discriminating spectral regions for different types of AQM samples, and could provide explanation for the CNNs' decision-making. Despite the inherent limitations of the present analytical protocol, the results showed that the method of IMS in combination with a CNN has great potential to be a complement for sniffer dogs and X-ray imaging techniques to detect AQMs.


Subject(s)
Neural Networks, Computer , Quarantine , Animals , Dogs , Least-Squares Analysis , Discriminant Analysis , Spectrum Analysis
17.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 41: 306-311, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36428065

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the mediating effect of fear of COVID-19 on the relationship between the impact of an event and indirect trauma during the pandemic. The study was conducted online from February 8 to 18, 2021, with 215 participants who had never been diagnosed with COVID-19. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and PROCESS macro software. It was confirmed that fear of COVID-19 partially mediates the relationship between the impact of an event and indirect trauma. This means that the greater the degree of impact of COVID-19, the higher the level of indirect trauma. Additionally, the greater the fear of COVID-19, the higher the level of indirect trauma. These results indicate that the prolonged spread of COVID-19 may vary depending on the country's quarantine systems. Overall, the findings of this study can assist in understanding the psychological problems of people who have experienced COVID-19 and in preparing relevant countermeasures for emotional problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Fear/psychology , Quarantine
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063358, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the awareness, implementation and difficulty of behavioural recommendations and their correlates in officially ordered domestic isolation and quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Online retrospective cohort survey conducted from 12 December 2020 to 6 January 2021 as part of the Cologne-Corona Counselling and Support for Index and Contact Persons During the Quarantine Period study. SETTING: Administrative area of the city of Cologne, Germany. PARTICIPANTS: 3011 infected persons (IPs) and 5822 contacts over 16 years of age who were in officially ordered domestic isolation or quarantine between 28 February 2020 and 9 December 2020. Of these, 60.4% were women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-developed scores were calculated based on responses about awareness and implementation of 19 behavioural recommendations to determine community-based and household-based adherence. Linear regression analyses were conducted to determine factors influencing adherence. RESULTS: The average adherence to all recommendations, including staying in a single room, keeping distance and wearing a mask, was 13.8±2.4 out of 15 points for community-based recommendations (CBRs) and 17.2±6.8 out of 25 points for household-based recommendations (HBRs). IPs were significantly more adherent to CBRs (14.3±2.0 points vs 13.7±2.6 points, p<0.001) and HBRs (18.2±6.7 points vs 16.5±6.8 points, p<0.001) than were contact persons. Among other factors, both status as an IP and being informed about the measures positively influenced participants' adherence. The linear regression analysis explained 6.6% and 14.4% (corr. R²) of the adherence to CBRs and HBRs. CONCLUSIONS: Not all persons under official quarantine were aware of the relevant behavioural recommendations. This was especially true in cases where instructions were given for measures to be taken in one's own household. Due to the high transmission rates within households, HBRs should be communicated with particular emphasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19773, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396799

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 epidemic, Egypt established a unique care model based on quarantine hospitals where only externally-referred confirmed COVID-19 patients were admitted, and healthcare workers resided continuously over 1- to 2-week working shifts. Using a mathematical model accounting for the false-negative rates of RT-PCR tests, we computed the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs, while unveiling the proportion of infections remaining undiagnosed despite routine testing. We relied on longitudinal data, including results of routine RT-PCR tests, collected within three Egyptian quarantine hospitals. We estimated an incidence rate (per 100 person-day, PD) of 1.05 (95% CrI 0.58-1.65) at Hospital 1, 1.92 (95% CrI 0.93-3.28) at Hospital 2 and 7.62 (95% CrI 3.47-13.70) at Hospital 3. We found that the risk for an HCW to be infected during a working shift lay within the range of risk levels previously documented in standard healthcare settings for Hospitals 1-2, whereas it was > threefold higher for Hospital 3. This large variation suggests that HCWs from quarantine hospitals may face a high occupational risk of infection, but that, with sufficient infection control measures, this risk can be brought down to levels similar to those observed in standard healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Quarantine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Hospitals , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Assessment
20.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 131(8): 881-894, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326629

ABSTRACT

This 17-month longitudinal study on a representative sample of 4,361 Norwegian adults employs an observational ABAB design across 6 repeated assessments and 3 pandemic waves to systematically investigate the evolution of depressive symptomatology across all modifications of social distancing protocols (SDPs) from their onset to termination. Using Latent Change Score Models to analyze 26,166 observations, the study empirically corroborates that critical fluctuations in depressive symptomatology within and across individuals occur during the first 3 months of the pandemic, after which symptom profiles are predominantly consolidated throughout the pandemic period. Contrary to established belief, female sex, young age, lower education and preexisting psychiatric diagnosis only served as adequate predictors of the initial shocks to symptomatology observed during the onset of the pandemic and did not adequately predict subsequent change observed in symptoms within and across individuals. Population-level analyses demonstrated that symptom levels strongly covaried with the presence and strictness of SDPs and were unrelated to COVID-19 incidence rates. Upon predominant termination of SDPs, population-level symptoms began declining, while large heterogeneity was present across the adult population. Detrimental long-term adversities were revealed by 10% of the adults. These individuals displayed chaotic adaptation to the pandemic and its SDPs, exhibiting substantial increases in clinical levels of symptomatology ensuing partial reopening of society and through the remainder of the pandemic, with these deleterious symptoms projected to remain heightened ahead. Frequency of quarantine exposure was incrementally tied with increases in contemporaneously experienced and long-term depressive adversities, with information obtainment through unmonitored sources further associated with contemporaneous and long-term states of heightened symptomatology. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Quarantine , Educational Status
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