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1.
N Engl J Med ; 390(11): 1009-1021, 2024 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) during pregnancy may protect infants from RSV disease. Efficacy and safety data on a candidate RSV prefusion F protein-based maternal vaccine (RSVPreF3-Mat) are needed. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3 trial involving pregnant women 18 to 49 years of age to assess the efficacy and safety of RSVPreF3-Mat. The women were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive RSVPreF3-Mat or placebo between 24 weeks 0 days and 34 weeks 0 days of gestation. The primary outcomes were any or severe medically assessed RSV-associated lower respiratory tract disease in infants from birth to 6 months of age and safety in infants from birth to 12 months of age. After the observation of a higher risk of preterm birth in the vaccine group than in the placebo group, enrollment and vaccination were stopped early, and exploratory analyses of the safety signal of preterm birth were performed. RESULTS: The analyses included 5328 pregnant women and 5233 infants; the target enrollment of approximately 10,000 pregnant women and their infants was not reached because enrollment was stopped early. A total of 3426 infants in the vaccine group and 1711 infants in the placebo group were followed from birth to 6 months of age; 16 and 24 infants, respectively, had any medically assessed RSV-associated lower respiratory tract disease (vaccine efficacy, 65.5%; 95% credible interval, 37.5 to 82.0), and 8 and 14, respectively, had severe medically assessed RSV-associated lower respiratory tract disease (vaccine efficacy, 69.0%; 95% credible interval, 33.0 to 87.6). Preterm birth occurred in 6.8% of the infants (237 of 3494) in the vaccine group and in 4.9% of those (86 of 1739) in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.74; P = 0.01); neonatal death occurred in 0.4% (13 of 3494) and 0.2% (3 of 1739), respectively (relative risk, 2.16; 95% CI, 0.62 to 7.56; P = 0.23), an imbalance probably attributable to the greater percentage of preterm births in the vaccine group. No other safety signal was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this trial, in which enrollment was stopped early because of safety concerns, suggest that the risks of any and severe medically assessed RSV-associated lower respiratory tract disease among infants were lower with the candidate maternal RSV vaccine than with placebo but that the risk of preterm birth was higher with the candidate vaccine. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04605159.).


Subject(s)
Premature Birth , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/chemically induced , Premature Birth/etiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Vaccine Efficacy , Treatment Outcome , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Risk
2.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 98: e202402002, Feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-231345

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: Durante la pandemia de la COVID-19 se implementaron medidas de prevención con el propósito de reducir su transmisión comunitaria. El grado de cumplimiento con estas medidas estuvo influenciado por diversos factores sociodemográficos y ambientales. Sin embargo, existe escasa literatura científica que aborde el cumplimiento de las medidas preventivas en la población general. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre factores sociodemográficos y ambientales, así como la adhesión al uso de mascarillas en contactos estrechos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal con 1.778 individuos, identificados mediante el rastreo de contactos estrechos de personas con SARS-CoV-2 por la Central de Coordinación de la COVID-19 de Mallorca, entre febrero y junio de 2021. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística para determinar los factores asociados al incumplimiento del uso de mascarillas.Resultados: La edad media de los participantes fue de 42,8±17,4 años (53,6% de mujeres). El 60,8% (IC 95%: 57,8-62,3) de los contactos estrechos no utilizó mascarilla durante su contacto. No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del sexo o grupo etario (p=0,497 y p=0,536, respectivamente). Las situaciones de mayor incumplimiento con el uso de mascarillas se dieron en el entorno domiciliario, espacios cerrados sin ventilación y al mantener distancias cortas (p<0,001). Conclusiones: Nuestros hallazgos indican una menor adhesión al uso de mascarillas en escenarios de mayor riesgo. Frente a futuras situaciones de crisis sanitaria, se deberían diseñar intervenciones que realcen la conciencia sobre los riesgos y que promuevan una mayor adhesión a medidas de prevención y control.(AU)


Background: During COVID-19 pandemic, prevention measures were implemented to mitigate the community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Compliance with these measures was influenced by several sociodemographic and environmental factors. However, literature addressing compliance with these prevention measures among the general population remains limited. The study aimed to assess the association of sociodemographic and environmental factors and mask usage during close contact situations. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1,778 individuals identified through close contact tracing of indivi-duals diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 by the COVID-19 Coordination Center of Mallorca, from February to June 2021. A descriptive analysis was conducted, and a logistic regression model was utilized to evaluate factors associated with mask non-compliance. Results: The mean age of the participants was 42.8±17.4 years, with 53.6% being female. Among close contacts, 60.8% (95% CI: 57.8-62.3) did not use masks during their contact. No significant differences were observed between genders or across age groups (p=0.497 and p=0.536, respectively). Factors linked to mask non-compliance included the home setting, indoor spaces without venti-lation, and closer physical distances (p<0.001). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that mask adherence was notably lower among close contacts exposed to higher risk. In future public health crises, interventions should be developed to raise awareness about risks and promote adherence to preventive and control measures.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Masks , Personal Protection , /prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Disease Prevention , Public Health , /epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Spain , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Ene ; 18(1): 1-17, 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232144

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir los factores predisponentes a Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas preescolares de una comunidad desde la mirada de las madres. Métodos: Investigación cualitativa, descriptiva, en una muestra de 12 madres de preescolares una comunidad de Lambayeque-Perú. Los datos se recolectaron mediante entrevista semiestructurada, la cual fue validada por juicio de expertos y por una prueba piloto en 2 madres que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. Los datos fueron procesados mediante análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: a) Identificación de factores individuales como factor predisponente, b) Reconocimiento de factores en la vivienda como factor predisponente, c) Los factores familiares como factor predisponente y d) Reconocimiento de factores ambientales como factor predisponente. Conclusión: Las madres reconocen los factores predisponentes de las infecciones respiratorias agudas, sin embargo, estos factores, aún siguen presentes como causantes de estas enfermedades. Por tanto, urge realizar investigaciones que profundicen en porqué persisten, estudios que indaguen porqué el incumplimiento de las madres con el calendario de vacunación, de medidas preventivas que están en sus manos practicarlas. Por otro lado, existen factores que no están en sus manos, y que corresponde a los gobiernos, mejorar las políticas públicas para solventar este problema de salud pública. (AU)


Objective: To describe the predisposing factors to preschool Acute Respiratory Infections in a community from the mothers' point of view. Methods: Qualitative, descriptive research in a sample of 12 mothers of preschoolers in a community of Lambayeque, Peru. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, which were validated by expert judgement and by a pilot test in 2 mothers who met the inclusion criteria. Data were processed using thematic content analysis. Results: a) identification of individual factors as a predisposing factor, b) recognition of housing factors as a predisposing factor, c) family factors as a predisposing factor and d) recognition of environmental factors as a predisposing factor. Conclusion: Mothers recognize the predisposing factors of acute respiratory infections, however, these factors are still present as the cause of these diseases. Therefore, it is urgent to carry out research that delves into why they persist, studies that investigate why mothers do not comply with the vaccination schedule, with preventive measures that are in their hands to practice. On the other hand, there are factors that are not in their hands, and that it is up to governments to improve public policies to solve this public health problem. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Mother-Child Relations , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Peru
5.
N Engl J Med ; 389(24): 2233-2244, 2023 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38091530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause substantial morbidity and mortality among older adults. An mRNA-based RSV vaccine, mRNA-1345, encoding the stabilized RSV prefusion F glycoprotein, is under clinical investigation. METHODS: In this ongoing, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2-3 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, adults 60 years of age or older to receive one dose of mRNA-1345 (50 µg) or placebo. The two primary efficacy end points were the prevention of RSV-associated lower respiratory tract disease with at least two signs or symptoms and with at least three signs or symptoms. A key secondary efficacy end point was the prevention of RSV-associated acute respiratory disease. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 35,541 participants were assigned to receive the mRNA-1345 vaccine (17,793 participants) or placebo (17,748). The median follow-up was 112 days (range, 1 to 379). The primary analyses were conducted when at least 50% of the anticipated cases of RSV-associated lower respiratory tract disease had occurred. Vaccine efficacy was 83.7% (95.88% confidence interval [CI], 66.0 to 92.2) against RSV-associated lower respiratory tract disease with at least two signs or symptoms and 82.4% (96.36% CI, 34.8 to 95.3) against the disease with at least three signs or symptoms. Vaccine efficacy was 68.4% (95% CI, 50.9 to 79.7) against RSV-associated acute respiratory disease. Protection was observed against both RSV subtypes (A and B) and was generally consistent across subgroups defined according to age and coexisting conditions. Participants in the mRNA-1345 group had a higher incidence than those in the placebo group of solicited local adverse reactions (58.7% vs. 16.2%) and of systemic adverse reactions (47.7% vs. 32.9%); most reactions were mild to moderate in severity and were transient. Serious adverse events occurred in 2.8% of the participants in each trial group. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of the mRNA-1345 vaccine resulted in no evident safety concerns and led to a lower incidence of RSV-associated lower respiratory tract disease and of RSV-associated acute respiratory disease than placebo among adults 60 years of age or older. (Funded by Moderna; ConquerRSV ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05127434.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , mRNA Vaccines , Aged , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Double-Blind Method , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
6.
J Virol ; 97(11): e0132223, 2023 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37882519

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Chickens immunized with the infectious laryngotracheitis chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine (Medivac, PT Medion Farma Jaya) experience adverse reactions, hindering its safety and effective use in poultry flocks. To improve the effect of the vaccine, we sought to find a strategy to alleviate the respiratory reactions associated with the vaccine. Here, we confirmed that co-administering the CEO vaccine with chIL-2 by oral delivery led to significant alleviation of the vaccine reactions in chickens after immunization. Furthermore, we found that the co-administration of chIL-2 with the CEO vaccine reduced the clinical signs of the CEO vaccine while enhancing natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to decrease viral loads in their tissues, particularly in the trachea and conjunctiva. Importantly, we demonstrated that the chIL-2 treatment can ameliorate the replication of the CEO vaccine without compromising its effectiveness. This study provides new insights into further applications of chIL-2 and a promising strategy for alleviating the adverse reaction of vaccines.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Herpesviridae Infections , Herpesvirus 1, Gallid , Interleukin-2 , Killer Cells, Natural , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Administration, Oral , Chickens/immunology , Chickens/virology , Conjunctiva/virology , Herpesviridae Infections/immunology , Herpesviridae Infections/prevention & control , Herpesviridae Infections/veterinary , Herpesviridae Infections/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Gallid/immunology , Interleukin-2/administration & dosage , Interleukin-2/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Trachea/virology , Viral Load , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Viral Vaccines/immunology
8.
Anim Sci J ; 94(1): e13865, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37571989

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effects of vaccination for Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Histophilus somni in young Japanese Black calves at an ordinal farm, where respiratory diseases frequently occur at a young age. In total, 105 calves were divided into the vaccination group (n = 52), which received inactivated combined vaccine at 0 and 2 weeks of age, and the control group (n = 53), which received no vaccine. From both groups, eight calves each were randomly selected to determine the antibody titers. And, the incidence of respiratory disease and medical costs (treatment plus vaccination costs) were recorded for each group from birth to 16 weeks of age. In the vaccination group, the antibody titers against P. multocida, M. haemolytica, and H. somni were significantly higher than those in the control group after 8, 12, and 4 weeks of age, respectively (p < 0.05). The incidence of respiratory disease was significantly lower in the vaccination group compared to the control group (p < 0.01), and the medical costs per calf in the vaccination group were 46.4% lower than in the control group. These results might contribute to establishing an effective vaccination program against respiratory diseases in calves at each farm.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Mannheimia haemolytica , Pasteurella multocida , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Cattle , Animals , Vaccines, Inactivated , Bacteria , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control
9.
Buenos Aires; s.n; jun. 2023. 30 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1531543

ABSTRACT

Informe sobre el objetivo del abordaje de estas patologías, desde el Ministerio de Salud de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires: Medidas de prevención; Priorización de diagnóstico; Estrategia integrada de vigilancia de la Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas de posible origen viral; Vigilancia Universal; Vigilancia epidemiológica de coqueluche (tos convulsa); y Recomendaciones sobre el uso de antivirales para influenza; (AU)


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
10.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 58(5): 1355-1366, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36815617

ABSTRACT

Ground level ozone is a potent respiratory toxicant with decades of accumulated data demonstrating respiratory harms to children. Despite the ubiquity of ozone in the United States, impacting both urban and rural communities, the associated harms of exposure to this important air pollutant are often infrequently or inadequately covered during medical training including pulmonary specialization. Thus, many providers caring for children's respiratory health may have limited knowledge of the harms which may result in reduced discussion of ozone pollution during clinical encounters. Further, the current US air quality standard for ozone does not adequately protect children. In this nonsystematic review, we present basic background information for healthcare providers caring for children's respiratory health, review the US process for setting air quality standards, discuss the respiratory harms of ozone for healthy children and those with underlying respiratory disease, highlight the urgent need for a more protective ozone standard to adequately protect children's respiratory health, review impacts of climate change on ozone levels, and provide information for discussion in clinical encounters.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Ozone , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Child , Humans , United States , Ozone/adverse effects , Ozone/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Lung , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control
11.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 77(4): 427-435, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982216

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An imbalance of zinc, an essential trace element, is associated with a variety of lung diseases. We reviewed and summarized recent research (human subjects, animal studies, in vitro studies) on zinc in respiratory diseases to explore the protective mechanism of zinc from the perspective of regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and apoptosis. In the lungs, zinc has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral effects; can inhibit cancer cell migration; can regulate lipid metabolism and immune cells; and exerts other protective effects. Our comprehensive evaluation highlights the clinical and experimental effects of zinc in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Our analysis also provides insight into the clinical application of zinc-targeted therapy for respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Diseases , Trace Elements , Animals , Humans , Zinc/pharmacology , Zinc/therapeutic use , Zinc/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 76(7): 1304-1310, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination can potentially reduce the rate of respiratory infections in vulnerable populations. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of VPM1002 (a genetically modified BCG) as prophylaxis against severe respiratory tract infections including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an elderly population. METHODS: In this phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial, healthy elderly volunteers (N = 2064) were enrolled, randomized (1:1) to receive either VPM1002 or placebo, and followed up remotely for 240 days. The primary outcome was the mean number of days with severe respiratory infections at hospital and/or at home. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of self-reported fever, number of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and number of adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 31 participants in the VPM1002 group reported at least 1 day with severe respiratory disease and a mean number of days with severe respiratory disease of 9.39 ± 9.28 while in the placebo group; 38 participants reported a mean of 14.29 ± 16.25 days with severe respiratory disease. The incidence of self-reported fever was lower in the VPM1002 group (odds ratio, 0.46 [95% confidence interval, .28-.74]; P = .001), and consistent trends to fewer hospitalization and ICU admissions due to COVID-19 were observed after VPM1002 vaccination. Local reactions typical for BCG were observed in the VPM1002-vaccinated group, which were mostly of mild intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with VPM1002 is well tolerated and seems to have a prophylactic effect against severe respiratory disease in the elderly. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04435379.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , BCG Vaccine/immunology , BCG Vaccine/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Female , Time Factors , Patient Acuity
13.
Lisboa; s.n; 2023.
Thesis in Portuguese | BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1444711

ABSTRACT

O primeiro ano de vida envolve uma transformação progressiva e célere de todos os sistemas corporais, particularmente, do sistema respiratório, predispondo o lactente a alterações da função respiratória e, consequentemente, ao desenvolvimento de doenças respiratórias agudas e crónicas, pelo que a sua prevenção e tratamento precoces são fundamentais. O presente relatório de estágio apresenta a descrição e reflexão sobre o percurso concretizado para adquirir as competências específicas e comuns do Enfermeiro Especialista em Enfermagem de Reabilitação e as competências preconizadas nos descritores de Dublin, para a obtenção do grau de Mestre. Tendo em conta que os cuidados de Enfermagem de Reabilitação integram a pessoa com necessidades especiais ao longo de todo o ciclo vital e que as intervenções autónomas do Enfermeiro Especialista em Enfermagem de Reabilitação na função respiratória carecem de investigação premente, pretendemos evidenciar o seu contributo no cuidado à criança com alteração da função respiratória, no primeiro ano de vida, sustentando-nos no Modelo de Sistemas de Betty Neuman. Compreendemos, através da pesquisa e ao longo deste percurso formativo, que no âmbito da prevenção primária, o Enfermeiro Especialista em Enfermagem de Reabilitação intervém na educação e capacitação da família para promover a saúde respiratória da criança e prevenir doenças respiratórias agudas. Através da reeducação funcional respiratória contribui para a prevenção secundária dos compromissos de ventilação e oxigenação da criança, prevenindo complicações. No que concerne à prevenção terciária, sustenta a reconstituição da estabilidade do sistema cliente, criança e família, colaborando na transição segura para a comunidade, mitigando o impacto das limitações e promovendo a continuidade dos cuidados.


The first year of life involves a gradual and rapid transformation of all body systems, particularly the respiratory one, predisposing the infant to respiratory function impairments and, consequently, to the development of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, which makes its prevention and early treatment essential. This internship report presents the description and reflection on the path taken to acquire the specific and common skills of the Specialist Nurse in Rehabilitation Nursing and the Dublin descriptors for the Master level. Taking into consideration that Rehabilitation Nursing care integrates the person with special needs throughout the life cycle and that the autonomous interventions of these Specialist Nurses in person's respiratory function require urgent research, we intend to highlight their contribution to the care of infants with respiratory function impairment, sustained on the Neuman Systems Model. We understood, through research and along this formative path, that, in the context of primary prevention, the Specialist Nurse in Rehabilitation Nursing intervenes in the anticipatory guidance of the family to promote infant's respiratory health and prevent acute respiratory diseases. Through functional respiratory re-education promotes secondary prevention of infant's ventilation and oxygenation impairments, preventing complications. Regarding tertiary prevention, supports the reconstitution of the child and family/client system stability, collaborating in the safe transition to the community, mitigating the impact of limitations and promoting the continuity of care.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Infant , Respiratory Insufficiency/nursing , Rehabilitation Nursing , Respiratory Therapy/nursing , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Infant, Newborn , Infant
14.
Indoor Air ; 32(8): e13101, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040274

ABSTRACT

To assess whether retrofitting home insulation can reduce the risk of respiratory disease incidence and exacerbation, a retrospective cohort study was undertaken using linked data from a national intervention program. The study population was made up of 1 004 795 residents from 205 001 New Zealand houses that received an insulation subsidy though a national Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority program. A difference-in-difference model compared changes in the number of prescriptions dispensed for respiratory illness post- insulation to a control population over the same timeframe. New prescribing of chronic respiratory disease medication at follow-up was used to compare incidence risk ratios between intervention and control groups. Chronic respiratory disease incidence was significantly lower in the intervention group at follow-up: odds ratio 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86-0.94). There was also a 4% reduction in medication dispensed for treating exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease symptoms in the intervention group compared with the control group: relative rate ratio (RRR) 0.96 (95% CI: 0.96-0.97). There was no change in medication dispensed to prevent symptoms of chronic respiratory disease RRR: 1,00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00). These findings support home insulation interventions as a means of improving respiratory health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Housing , Humans , Incidence , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011748

ABSTRACT

Migrant interior construction workers are increasing in China. Construction workers are at an increased risk of work-related illness (WRI) due to prolonged exposure to and inhalation of dust. Dust concentrations in the air can be reduced significantly with effective respiratory protection measures. We assessed the dust exposure and factors associated with respiratory protection of migrant interior construction workers. The total dust concentration in the workplace ranged from 0.07 to 335.27 mg/m3, with a total dust exceedance rate of 50.00%. The respiratory dust loading ranged from 0.03 to 220.27 mg/m3, with a respiratory dust exceedance rate of 71.42 %. The highest total dust concentration occurred when masons were polishing cement walls. We performed a questionnaire survey of 296 persons in two cities in China, in which 87.84% had no respiratory protection or only one protection measure. Gender, workplace, respiratory disease, and protective attitude all had an effect on the level of respiratory protection. The dust exposure in most jobs exceeds hygiene standards. The respiratory protection of migrant interior construction workers in China is inadequate.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational , Construction Industry , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Cities , Construction Materials/adverse effects , Dust/analysis , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/analysis , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control
16.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; 25 jul. 2022. 57 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, PIE | ID: biblio-1390967

ABSTRACT

Contexto: A respiração é regulada por um complexo processo fisiológico que pode ser afetado em algumas patologias. No Brasil, a mortalidade por doenças respiratórias em relação ao total de mortes foi de 6%, no ano de 2016. Dados do período de 1995 a 2005 indicam que as doenças do aparelho respiratório estiveram entre as principais causas de internação do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em todas as regiões brasileiras. A atividade física (AF) pode beneficiar a saúde de indivíduos com diagnóstico de problemas respiratórios, já que a prática regular permite a manutenção dos volumes e das capacidades respiratórias, diminuindo a restrição do movimento pela rigidez da caixa torácica e da coluna vertebral, além de manter a capacidade funcional e promover o bem-estar geral. Pergunta de pesquisa: A prática de atividade física é efetiva para a melhoria da capacidade respiratória e do desempenho das atividades de vida diária de usuários de serviços de saúde com diagnóstico de patologias respiratórias? Método: As buscas foram realizadas em quatro bases de literatura científica para identificar revisões sistemáticas (RS) sobre os efeitos da prática de AF na saúde de pessoas com doenças respiratórias. A qualidade metodológica das RS foi avaliada com a ferramenta AMSTAR 2. Resultados: De 1.045 registros recuperados nas bases, 21 revisões sistemáticas foram selecionadas para esta revisão rápida. Com relação à qualidade metodológica, três RS foram classificadas como de confiança alta, uma de confiança moderada, cinco de confiança baixa e doze de confiança criticamente baixa. Os dados extraídos das RS são apresentados conforme a condição da doença respiratória avaliada. Efeito de AF em pessoas com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC): Onze RS analisaram AF em pessoas com DPOC ou obstrução crônica das vias aéreas. Oito indicaram que a maioria dos desfechos avaliados não apresentaram diferenças significativas ou foram incertos entre os grupos com AF combinando exercícios aeróbicos e anaeróbicos e o comparador. Três RS analisando apenas exercícios aeróbicos apontaram maioria de efeitos positivos dessa modalidade de AF em alguns desfechos de saúde dessas pessoas. Efeito de AF em pessoas com hipertensão pulmonar: Três RS utilizando exercícios combinados indicaram efeitos benéficos. Uma RS apresentou resultados incertos em relação à qualidade de vida. Efeito de AF em pessoas com fibrose pulmonar: Duas RS combinaram exercícios aeróbicos e anaeróbicos indicaram efeito positivo ou incerto para qualidade de vida. Houve efeitos positivos nos desfechos de distância de caminhada (DTC6), capacidade de exercício e dispneia, e efeitos incertos no pico de volume de oxigênio (pico de VO2) e no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo e nenhuma diferença na participação em AF. Efeito de AF em pessoas com bronquiectasia: Uma RS apontou efeitos positivos de exercícios combinados para DTC6, qualidade de vida, distância incremental da caminhada, exacerbação de bronquiectasia, dispneia e fadiga. Indicou que não houve diferença de efeito entre os grupos para tosse. Efeito de AF em pessoas com câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas: Três RS apontaram que os efeitos foram em sua maioria positivos para pico de VO2 e DTC6. Houve efeitos inconclusivos para a melhora na qualidade de vida. Efeito de AF em pessoas com sarcoidose pulmonar: Uma RS indicou efeitos positivos para fadiga, força muscular e DTC6 de programas de tratamentos de reabilitação para pessoas com sarcoidose pulmonar. Segurança de AF para pessoas com doenças respiratórias: Cinco RS apresentaram resultados de eventos adversos. De modo geral, elas indicaram que as intervenções de AF foram seguras para pessoas com patologias respiratórias. Considerações finais: A atividade física mostrou relação com a melhoria da capacidade respiratória e física de pessoas com doenças respiratórias. Deve-se considerar, no entanto, as limitações metodológicas da maioria das RS incluídas, a heterogeneidade de intervenções e comparadores, além da escassez de estudos para algumas das condições de saúde.


Context: Breathing is regulated by a complex physiological process that can be affected in some pathologies. In Brazil, mortality from respiratory diseases in relation to total deaths was 6% in 2016. Data from 1995 to 2005 indicate that respiratory diseases were among the main causes of hospitalization in the Unified Health System (SUS) in all Brazilian regions. Physical activity (PA) can benefit the health of individuals diagnosed with respiratory problems, since regular practice allows for the maintenance of respiratory volumes and capacities, reducing movement restriction due to the rigidity of the rib cage and spine, in addition to maintain functional capacity and promote general well-being. Research question: Is the practice of physical activity effective for improving respiratory capacity and the performance of activities of daily living of users of health services diagnosed with respiratory pathologies? Method: Searches were carried out in four scientific literature databases to identify systematic reviews (SR) on the effects of PA practice on the health of people with respiratory diseases. The methodological quality of the SRs was evaluated using the AMSTAR 2 tool. Results: Of 1045 records retrieved from the databases, 21 systematic reviews were selected for this rapid review. Regarding methodological quality, three RS were classified as high confidence, one as moderate confidence, five as low confidence and twelve as critically low confidence. The data extracted from the RS are presented according to the condition of the respiratory disease evaluated. Effect of PA in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Eleven RS analyzed PA in people with COPD or chronic airway obstruction. Eight indicated that most of the outcomes evaluated did not show significant differences or were uncertain between the groups with PA combining aerobic and anaerobic exercises and the comparator. Three SRs analyzing only aerobic exercises showed the majority of positive effects of this PA modality on some health outcomes of these people. Effect of PA in people with pulmonary hypertension: Three RS using combined exercises indicated beneficial effects. One SR presented uncertain results in relation to quality of life. Effect of PA in people with pulmonary fibrosis: Two RS combined aerobic and anaerobic exercise indicated a positive or uncertain effect for quality of life. There were positive effects on outcomes of walking distance (6MWD), exercise capacity and dyspnea, and uncertain effects on peak oxygen volume (peak VO2) and forced expiratory volume in one second and no difference in PA participation. Effect of PA in people with bronchiectasis: An RS showed positive effects of combined exercise for 6MWD, quality of life, incremental walking distance, exacerbation of bronchiectasis, dyspnea and fatigue. It indicated that there was no difference in effect between the cough groups. Effect of AF in people with non-small cell lung cancer: Three RS showed that the effects were mostly positive for peak VO2 and 6MWD. There were inconclusive effects for improvement in quality of life. Effect of AF in people with pulmonary sarcoidosis: An RS indicated positive effects for fatigue, muscle strength and 6MWD of rehabilitation treatment programs for people with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Safety of PA for people with respiratory diseases: Five RS showed adverse event results. Overall, they indicated that PA interventions were safe for people with respiratory conditions. Final considerations: Physical activity showed a relationship with the improvement of respiratory and physical capacity of people with respiratory diseases. However, one should consider the methodological limitations of most of the SRs included, the heterogeneity of interventions and comparators, in addition to the scarcity of studies for some of the health conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy
17.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(6): 856-863, 2021 Jun.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In southern Chile cities, the emission of air pollutants, especially the use of firewood for heating is restricted during critical air pollution periods. AIM: To analyze how restrictions applied during the management of air pollution critical episodes have contributed to reduce emergency room admissions for respiratory diseases in two Chilean cities between 2013 and 2019. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Poisson regression models were estimated with daily data including explanatory variables, such as the daily and lag concentration of respirable particulate material (PM10), temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed, seasonal factors, and implementation of different types of critical episodes. RESULTS: The implementation of restrictions during the management of critical pollution episodes decreased emergency room admissions for upper respiratory infections and bronchial obstructive crises, especially when an environmental emergency was decreed during the critical episode. However, the effect on each group of respiratory diseases was heterogeneous between cities, which could be related to avoidance behavior, indoor air pollution, the composition of PM10, or the presence of other pollutants, and not just a reduction in the daily concentration of PM10. CONCLUSIONS: The management of critical pollution episodes with restrictions to pollutant emissions is a useful measure to improve population health in cities that have implemented environmental decontamination plans.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Chile , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is recommended due to its beneficial effects on human health. However, the effect of breastfeeding on health differs, resulting in various childhood diseases. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the association between breastfeeding at least in the first 4 months and the subsequent development of 15 certainly defined childhood diseases until 10 years of age, the all-cause hospitalization rate and growth at 6-7 years of age. METHODS: Participants included propensity-score matched 188,052 children born between January 2008 and December 2009, who were followed up till 10 years of age. Data were taken from the National Investigation of birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 database. Risk ratios were obtained using a modified Poisson regression and weighted risk differences using binomial regression. RESULTS: Compared to formula feeding, breastfeeding was associated with decreased risks of febrile convulsion, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder, pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, asthma, all-cause hospitalization, overweight/obesity and short stature. Exclusive breastfeeding at 4 to 6 months of age had similar results to exclusive breastfeeding over 6 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding in early infancy reduces the risk for various childhood diseases, all-cause hospitalization rate, obesity, and short stature during childhood.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Child Health , Milk, Human , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/prevention & control , Autism Spectrum Disorder/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Growth Disorders/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Obesity/prevention & control , Odds Ratio , Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Risk Factors
20.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(8): e566-e578, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smoke-free policies in outdoor areas and semi-private and private places (eg, cars) might reduce the health harms caused by tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). We aimed to investigate the effect of smoke-free policies covering outdoor areas or semi-private and private places on TSE and respiratory health in children, to inform policy. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched 13 electronic databases from date of inception to Jan 29, 2021, for published studies that assessed the effects of smoke-free policies in outdoor areas or semi-private or private places on TSE, respiratory health outcomes, or both, in children. Non-randomised and randomised trials, interrupted time series, and controlled before-after studies, without restrictions to the observational period, publication date, or language, were eligible for the main analysis. Two reviewers independently extracted data, including adjusted test statistics from each study using a prespecified form, and assessed risk of bias for effect estimates from each study using the Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions tool. Primary outcomes were TSE in places covered by the policy, unplanned hospital attendance for wheezing or asthma, and unplanned hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections, in children younger than 17 years. Random-effects meta-analyses were done when at least two studies evaluated policies that regulated smoking in similar places and reported on the same outcome. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020190563. FINDINGS: We identified 5745 records and assessed 204 full-text articles for eligibility, of which 11 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Of these studies, seven fit prespecified robustness criteria as recommended by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care group, assessing smoke-free cars (n=5), schools (n=1), and a comprehensive policy covering multiple areas (n=1). Risk of bias was low in three studies, moderate in three, and critical in one. In the meta-analysis of ten effect estimates from four studies, smoke-free car policies were associated with an immediate TSE reduction in cars (risk ratio 0·69, 95% CI 0·55-0·87; 161 466 participants); heterogeneity was substantial (I2 80·7%; p<0·0001). One additional study reported a gradual TSE decrease in cars annually. Individual studies found TSE reductions on school grounds, following a smoke-free school policy, and in hospital attendances for respiratory tract infection, following a comprehensive smoke-free policy. INTERPRETATION: Smoke-free car policies are associated with reductions in reported child TSE in cars, which could translate into respiratory health benefits. Few additional studies assessed the effect of policies regulating smoking in outdoor areas and semi-private and private places on children's TSE or health outcomes. On the basis of these findings, governments should consider including private cars in comprehensive smoke-free policies to protect child health. FUNDING: Dutch Heart Foundation, Lung Foundation Netherlands, Dutch Cancer Society, Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation, Netherlands Thrombosis Foundation, and Health Data Research UK.


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Smoke-Free Policy , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Child , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humans , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects
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