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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosomiasis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Deer , Cattle , Sheep , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Indian Ocean , Horses
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239323, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339341

ABSTRACT

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Resumo Os medicamentos combinados de β-lactâmicos / inibidores da lactamase (BLBLIs) são considerados uma alternativa eficaz aos carbapenêmicos. No entanto, existe uma preocupação crescente de que o aumento do uso de BLBLIs pode levar ao aumento da resistência. Este estudo determinou a associação temporal entre o consumo de BLBLI e a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias gram-negativas. Neste estudo retrospectivo, os dados eletrônicos sobre as bactérias gram-negativas isoladas, incluindo A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli e K. pneumoniae de pacientes internados e os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade foram recuperados dos registros médicos do laboratório clínico. Uma regressão linear e análise de correlação cruzada foram realizadas nos dados adquiridos. Foram observadas tendências crescentes (p < 0,05) no consumo de BIBLI e carbapenem com uma mediana de uso de 27,68 e 34,46 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre, respectivamente. Foi observada uma tendência de diminuição (p = 0,023) no consumo de fluoroquinolonas com uma mediana de uso de 29,13 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre. A taxa de resistência de K. pneumoniae foi sincronizada com os consumos de BIBLI e carbapenem com coeficiente de correlação de 0,893 (p = 0,012) e 0,951 (p = 0,016), respectivamente. A análise de correlação cruzada contra o consumo de BIBLI e K. pneumoniae resistente ao meropenem atingiu o pico no intervalo de 0 quarto (r = 951, p = 0,016). Houve uma tendência de aumento no consumo de BLBLI e carbapenêmicos. A tendência crescente nas taxas de resistência a piperacilina/tazobactam, em linha com o consumo crescente de BLBLI, sugere que BLBLI deve ser usado com cautela e não pode ser considerado diretamente como alternativa de longo prazo aos carbapenêmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria
4.
J Visc Surg ; 159(1): 13-20, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The management of lower rectal cancers is a therapeutic challenge both from the oncological and functional viewpoints. The aim of this study is to assess the oncological results and postoperative morbidity after transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) for low rectal cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this monocentric retrospective study, we compared the quality of carcinologic resection and the morbidity-mortality between a group of 20 patients undergoing TaTME and 21 patients treated by abdomino-perineal resection (APR) between 2016 to 2019. RESULTS: More patients had a positive circumferential resection margin (CRM) (≤1mm) in the APR group (47.6% vs. 5%; P<0.0036). The difference in the rates of grades I-II and III-IV complications (Clavien-Dindo classification) between the two groups was not statistically significant (50% vs. 57.1% and 5% vs. 9.5% in TaTME and APR, respectively; P=0.7579, P=1.00). The median follow-up was longer in the TaTME group (20 months vs. 11 months; P=0.58). The local recurrence rate did not differ between the two groups (5% vs. 4.8%; P=1.00) CONCLUSION: TaTME provides a reliable total mesorectal resection with an acceptable CRM. However, like any new technique, it requires experience and the learning curve is long.


Subject(s)
Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms , Humans , Learning Curve , Margins of Excision , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(4): 1044-1055, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a common motor complication in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although amantadine is indicated for LID treatment, it is uncertain whether early treatment with amantadine reduces the risk of LID in patients with PD. We aimed to evaluate the association between amantadine treatment and LID onset in patients with early-stage PD. METHODS: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study that used electronic medical records from January 1, 2009 to October 31, 2016. The effect of amantadine on LID onset was compared with those of anticholinergics and monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors in patients with PD. Propensity-score weighting and landmark analysis were used to reduce potential confounding. The time to LID onset was analyzed using Cox models. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the robustness of the results. RESULTS: The analyses included 807, 661, and 518 patients at 6-, 12-, and 18-month landmark points, respectively. Amantadine use was associated with delayed LID onset in the 6- and 12-month landmark analyses, with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49-0.86) and 0.64 (95% CI = 0.47-0.88), respectively. Sensitivity analysis findings were comparable to those of the main analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment with amantadine may delay LID onset more than treatment with other symptomatic agents. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of amantadine in LID onset delay and to validate our findings.


Subject(s)
Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced , Parkinson Disease , Amantadine/adverse effects , Antiparkinson Agents/adverse effects , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced/drug therapy , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced/epidemiology , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced/etiology , Humans , Levodopa/adverse effects , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(12): e96, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer (SVBT) cycle has been increasingly utilized for assisted reproductive technology. Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) comprise a significant portion of patients who have undergone 'freeze-all' cycles. This study investigated the association between the post-warming extended culture duration and pregnancy outcomes in patients of AMA. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed the outcomes of 697 SVBT cycles between January 2016 and December 2017. The cycles were divided into 3 groups based on the age of the female partners: group I: < 35 years (n = 407), group II: 35-37 years (n = 176); and group III, 38-40 years (n = 114). Data are shown as the mean ± standard error of the mean. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.001. RESULTS: The blastocyst rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate (LBR) was significantly lower in the AMA groups. However, there were no significant differences in LBR in the transfer between the AMA and younger groups according to blastocyst morphology and post-warming extended culture duration. CONCLUSION: Post-warming extended culture of blastocysts is not harmful to patients of AMA. It could be a useful parameter in clinical counseling and decision making for fertility treatments.


Subject(s)
Blastocyst , Embryo Transfer , Adult , Female , Humans , Maternal Age , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Rate , Retrospective Studies
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 254, 2022 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of small for gestational age (SGA <10th centile) and fetal growth restricted (FGR) (SGA <3rd centile) fetuses using three different sonographic methods in pregnancies at increased risk of fetal growth restriction: 1) fetal abdominal circumference (AC) z-scores, 2) estimated fetal weight (EFW) z-scores according to postnatal reference standard; 3) EFW z-scores according to a prenatal reference standard. METHODS: Singleton pregnancies at increased risk of fetal growth restriction seen in two university hospitals between 2014 and 2015 were studied retrospectively. EFW was calculated using formulas proposed by the INTERGROWTH-21st project and Hadlock; data derived from publications by the INTEGROWTH-twenty-first century project and Hadlock were used to calculate z-scores (AC and EFW). The accuracy of different methods was calculated and compared. RESULTS: The study group included 406 patients. Prenatal standard EFW z-scores derived from INTERGROWTH-21st project and Hadlock and co-workers performed similarly and were more accurate in identifying SGA infants than using AC z-scores or a postnatal reference standard. The subgroups analysis demonstrated that EFW prenatal standard was more or similarly accurate compared to other methods across all subgroups, defined by gestational age and birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal standard EFW z-scores derived from either INTERGROWTH-21 st project or Hadlock and co-workers publications demonstrated a statistically significant advantage over other biometric methods in the diagnosis of SGA fetuses.


Subject(s)
Fetal Growth Retardation , Fetal Weight , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Fetus , Gestational Age , Humans , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods
8.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 335, 2022 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with apatinib and camrelizumab (TACE + AC) for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the impact of the timing of the combination on it. METHODS: In this single-arm retrospective study, consecutive data of patients with unresectable HCC treated to our hospital from March 2017 to September 2021 were collected. These patients were treated with TACE and started on camrelizumab and apatinib within one week of TACE. Camrelizumab 200 mg intravenously once every three weeks and apatinib 250 mg orally once daily. Repeat TACE treatment was available on an on-demand basis. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety. The univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to assess the effect of early and late combination on OS and PFS. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients were enrolled in this study. The median OS was 22.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.8-30.5 months) and the median PFS was 15.7 months (95% CI: 14.7-16.6 months). The ORR was 58.8% (95% CI: 47.2-69.6) and DCR reached 81.2% (95% CI: 71.0-89.1). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analyses showed that TACE late combined with apatinib and camrelizumab provided better OS than early combination (HR = 0.175, 95% CI:0.060-0.509, P = 0.001), as did PFS (HR = 0.422, 95% CI:0.184-0.967, P = 0.041). All treatment-related adverse events were tolerable, and no serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION: TACE combined with apatinib plus camrelizumab for patients with unresectable HCC has promising antitumor activity and a manageable safety profile. For unresectable HCC with large tumor burden, late combination provides better OS and PFS compared to early combination.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Liver Neoplasms , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/adverse effects , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pyridines , Retrospective Studies
9.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 78, 2022 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive, real-world osteoporosis care has many facets not explicitly addressed in practice guidelines. We sought to determine the areas of knowledge and practice needs in osteoporosis medicine for the purpose of developing an osteoporosis curriculum for specialist trainees and knowledge translation tools for primary care. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of referral questions received from primary care and specialists to an academic, multi-disciplinary tertiary osteoporosis and metabolic bone clinic. There were 400 referrals in each of 5 years (2015-2019) selected randomly for review. The primary referral question was elucidated and assigned to one of 16 pre-determined referral topics reflecting questions in the care of osteoporosis and metabolic bone patients. The top 7 referral topics by frequency were determined while recording the referral source. RESULTS: The majority of referrals (71%) came from urban primary care. The most common specialists to request care included rheumatology, oncology, gastroenterology and orthopedic surgery (fracture liaison services). Primary care referrals predominantly requested assistance with routine osteoporosis assessments, bisphosphonate holidays, bisphosphonate adverse effects/alternatives, fractures occurring despite therapy and adverse changes on bone densitometry despite treatment. Specialists most often referred patients with complex secondary bone diseases or cancer. The main study limitation was that knowledge needs of referring physicians were inferred from the referral question rather than tested directly. CONCLUSION: By assessing actual community demand for services, this study identified several such topics that may be useful targets to develop high quality knowledge translation tools and curriculum design in programs training specialists in osteoporosis care.


Subject(s)
Fractures, Bone , Osteoporosis , Community Medicine , Humans , Osteoporosis/therapy , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies
10.
Anticancer Res ; 42(4): 1905-1910, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347009

ABSTRACT

AIM: The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ramucirumab (RAM) in clinical practice as post-treatment, following atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (Atz/Bev) for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels of ≥400 ng/ml. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of the 77 patients treated with Atz/Bev at our institution, 13 patients for whom RAM was introduced as post-treatment following Atz/Bev were enrolled in this retrospective study. There were 9 patients (69.2%) with Child-Pugh A and 11 patients (84.6%) for whom RAM was initiated as 3rd- or later-line therapy. The median AFP level was 2259 ng/ml. RESULTS: The objective response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours at 6 weeks was 15.4%, and the disease control rate was 69.2%. The median time to progression was 3.0 months; AFP level decreased at 2 weeks in 11 patients (84.6%) and at 6 weeks in seven patients (53.8%). The most common adverse events (AEs) within 6 weeks were ascites, peripheral oedema, and proteinuria, while grade 3 AEs occurred in six patients (46.2%). Albumin-bilirubin scores at both 4 and 6 weeks were significantly worse than those at baseline. CONCLUSION: In HCC patients with AFP levels of ≥400 ng/mL, RAM after Atz/Bev is expected to be an effective treatment option. Careful attention should be paid to the development of AEs and deterioration of liver function, especially when RAM is used as 3rd- or later-line therapy. Additional studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of RAM as 2nd-line treatment after Atz/Bev in Child-Pugh A patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Bevacizumab/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies
11.
Anticancer Res ; 42(4): 2017-2022, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: To assess response rates and survival in patients with recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who received PARP inhibitor (PARP-i) maintenance and who subsequently underwent salvage chemotherapy for disease progression after PARPi. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective investigation analyzed 103 patients who were treated in five Italian Gynecologic centers. The PARPi used was olaparib in 46 patients, niraparib in 55, and rucaparib in 2. The interval time between the last cycle of pre- PARPi platinum-based chemotherapy and the diagnosis of progression during PARPi maintenance was defined as platinum-free interval (PFI). RESULTS: Of the 28 patients with PFI <6 months, 23 received chemotherapy (non-platinum single agent, 20; trabectedin + pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), 3). Forty-two of the 43 patients with PFI 6-12 months underwent chemotherapy (platinum-based chemotherapy,11; trabectedin + PLD, 10; non platinum-single agent, 21). Thirty-one of the 32 patients with PFI >12 months received chemotherapy (platinum-based chemotherapy, 23; trabectedin + PLD, 3; non platinum - single agent, 5). An objective response was found in 13.0%, 26.2% and 41.9 % of the patients with PFI <6 months, 6-12 months, and >12 months (p= 0.03), respectively, and the corresponding median survivals after PARPi were 8.9 months, 17.5 months and 24.1 months (p= 0.002), respectively. CONCLUSION: Before the PARPi era, some randomized trials on platinum rechallenge in patients with recurrent EOC after more than 6 months from the last platinum cycle have shown response rates ranging from 47.2% to 66%. Response rates to chemotherapy for progression after PARPi appear to be lower than those expected according to PFI.


Subject(s)
Ovarian Neoplasms , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/etiology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
12.
Anticancer Res ; 42(4): 2095-2104, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The standard of treatment for esophageal cancer with adjacent organ invasion (T4) has not been established. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) in elderly and younger patients with T4 esophageal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with T4 esophageal cancer who underwent RT at the Kanagawa Cancer Center between January 2014 and November 2020 were included in this study. Patients aged ≥70 years were defined as the elderly group and those aged <70 years were defined as the younger group. The total dose of RT was set at 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Chemotherapy combined with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin was administered concurrently with RT in general. The overall survival (OS) rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Adverse events were assessed using CTCAE v4.0. RESULTS: The median survival time (MST) of the elderly group (n=35) was 21.5 months, and the OS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 63.7%, 31.3%, and 15.6%, respectively. The MST of the younger group (n=34) was 12.5 months, and the OS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 52.2%, 29.4%, and 29.4%, respectively. No significant difference in OS was observed between the two groups (p=0.767). Toxicities were not significantly different between the two groups except for thrombocytopenia and esophageal fistula (p=0.012 and p=0.022, respectively). CONCLUSION: The clinical outcomes of RT for T4 esophageal cancer in elderly patients were generally similar to those in the younger group.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Esophageal Neoplasms , Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy/adverse effects , Chemoradiotherapy/methods , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Esophageal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 35-48, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637023

ABSTRACT

Sixty-nine million people have a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year, and TBI is the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Traumatic SAH (TSAH) has been described as an adverse prognostic factor leading to progressive neurological deterioration and increased morbidity and mortality. A limited number of studies, however, evaluate recent trends in the diagnosis and management of SAH in the context of trauma. The objective of this scoping review was to understand the extent and type of evidence concerning the diagnostic criteria and management of TSAH. This scoping review was conducted following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. The review included adults with SAH secondary to trauma, where isolated TSAH (iTSAH) refers to the presence of SAH in the absence of any other traumatic radiographic intracranial pathology, and TSAH refers to the presence of SAH with the possibility or presence of additional traumatic radiographic intracranial pathology. Data extracted from each study included study aim, country, methodology, population characteristics, outcome measures, a summary of findings, and future directives. Thirty studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were grouped into five categories by topic: TSAH associated with mild TBI (mTBI), n = 13), and severe TBI (n = 3); clinical management and diagnosis (n = 9); imaging (n = 3); and aneurysmal TSAH (n = 1). Of the 30 studies, two came from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC), excluding China, nearly a high-income country. Patients with TSAH associated with mTBI have a very low risk of clinical deterioration and surgical intervention and should be treated conservatively when considering intensive care unit admission. The Helsinki and Stockholm computed tomography scoring systems, in addition to the American Injury Scale, creatinine level, age decision tree, may be valuable tools to use when predicting outcome and death.


Subject(s)
Brain Concussion , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Adult , Brain Concussion/complications , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnostic imaging , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic/etiology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic/therapy
14.
PM R ; 14(3): 377-382, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the effect of final needle position on contrast flow patterns during the performance of cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs). OBJECTIVE: To analyze fluoroscopically guided cervical TFESI contrast flow patterns based upon final needle tip position. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational in vivo study. SETTING: Outpatient private practice physical medicine and rehabilitation spine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred consecutive patients undergoing cervical TFESIs. INTERVENTIONS: Cervical TFESIs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Categories of contrast flow patterns including epidural, intraforaminal, "sufficient to inject," and "predominantly epidural and/or intraforaminal," based upon final needle tip position. RESULTS: Two independent observers reviewed images from 100 consecutive patients and classified injectate flow patterns stratified by needle tip position. The interrater reliability for all categories of interest was moderate, with kappa values from 0.61 to 0.76. More medially placed needles (middle third and lateral third of the articular pillars) resulted in higher rates of epidural contrast flow (75%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 56%-94%; and 60%; 95% CI: 47%-73%) compared to needles placed lateral to the articular pillars (26%; 95% CI: 8%-44%), and higher rates of "predominantly epidural and/or intraforaminal" flow patterns with needles placed in the middle one third (75%; 95% CI: 56%-94%) and lateral one third of the articular pillars (47%; 95% CI: 34%-60%) compared to flow patterns when needles were placed lateral to the articular pillars (17%; 95% CI: 2%-32%). No needles were placed in the medial third of the articular pillars. CONCLUSIONS: More medially placed needle tips result in more optimal flow patterns during cervical TFESIs. The importance of this finding is unknown as clinical outcomes were not measured.


Subject(s)
Needles , Steroids , Humans , Injections, Epidural/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies
15.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 349, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with relapsed Ewing sarcoma is poor. In this study, we aimed to pooled-analyze the efficacy and safety of the combination of irinotecan and temozolomide in treating patients with relapsed Ewing sarcoma. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, and EMBASE were systematically searched on September 27, 2021. The primary outcomes were rates of objective response and disease control, and the secondary outcomes were toxicities. RESULTS: Six retrospective studies with 184 patients were enrolled in the analysis. The median age ranged from 14 to 21. The integrated rates were 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 31-58) for objective response and 66% (55-77) for disease control. Grade 3-4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and diarrhea occurred in 8% (3-16), 7% (3-11), and 8% (5-10) of chemotherapeutic cycles, respectively. 18% (7-32) and 6% (2-11) of patients suffered grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia after irinotecan plus temozolomide treatment. CONCLUSION: Irinotecan plus temozolomide combination chemotherapy showed antitumor activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with relapsed Ewing sarcoma. More future prospective studies are needed to confirm the retrospective results.


Subject(s)
Neutropenia , Sarcoma, Ewing , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Camptothecin , Dacarbazine/adverse effects , Humans , Irinotecan/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma, Ewing/drug therapy , Temozolomide/therapeutic use
16.
J Card Surg ; 37(5): 1161-1167, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been and will continue to be a challenge to the healthcare system worldwide. In this context, we aimed to discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis, timing, and prognosis of surgical treatment for active infective endocarditis (IE) during the pandemic and share our coping strategy. METHODS: A total of 39 patients were admitted for active IE in the year 2020. The number of the same period last year was 50. Medical information of these two groups was extracted from our surgical database. Data were compared between the two groups and differences with or without statistical significance were discussed. RESULTS: In the pandemic year, we admitted fewer transferred patients (64.1% vs. 80%, p = .094). Timespan for diagnosis were prolonged (60 vs. 34.5 days, p = .081). More patients were admitted in emergency (41% vs. 20%, p = .030) More patients had heart failure (74.4% vs. 40%, p = .001), sepsis (69.2% vs. 42.0%, p = .018), or cardiogenic shock (25.6% vs. 8.0%, p = .038). Overall surgical risk (EuroSCORE II) was higher (4.15% vs. 3.24%, p = .019) and more commando surgery was performed (7.7% vs. 2.0%, p = .441). However, we did not see more postoperative complications, and early mortality was not worse either (0 vs. 4%, p = .502). CONCLUSIONS: The negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical practice of surgical treatment for active IE was multifaceted. However, with the preservation of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary IE surgical team, the early outcomes were comparable with those in the normal years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Endocarditis , Endocarditis/surgery , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Humans , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Artif Organs ; 46(4): 688-696, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) support is increasingly used in the management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the clinical decision-making to initiate V-V ECMO for severe COVID-19 still remains unclear. In order to determine the optimal timing and patient selection, we investigated the outcomes of both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients undergoing V-V ECMO support. METHODS: Overall, 138 patients were included in this study. Patients were stratified into two cohorts: those with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS. RESULTS: The survival in patients with COVID-19 was statistically similar to non-COVID-19 patients (p = .16). However, the COVID-19 group demonstrated higher rates of bleeding (p = .03) and thrombotic complications (p < .001). The duration of V-V ECMO support was longer in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients (29.0 ± 27.5 vs 15.9 ± 19.6 days, p < .01). Most notably, in contrast to the non-COVID-19 group, we found that COVID-19 patients who had been on a ventilator for longer than 7 days prior to ECMO had 100% mortality without a lung transplant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that COVID-19-associated ARDS was not associated with a higher post-ECMO mortality than non-COVID-19-associated ARDS patients, despite longer duration of extracorporeal support. Early initiation of V-V ECMO is important for improved ECMO outcomes in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Since late initiation of ECMO was associated with extremely high mortality related to lack of pulmonary recovery, it should be used judiciously or as a bridge to lung transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
18.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(2): e15231, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820971

ABSTRACT

Data on the effectiveness and safety of a drug in real-world clinical practice complement the evidence from clinical trials, which are carried out in a different setting. Little has been published on the effectiveness and safety of guselkumab in the treatment of psoriasis in clinical practice. The ojective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of guselkumab at 24 weeks in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in routine clinical practice. A retrospective, multicentre study of adult patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis treated with guselkumab for at least 24 weeks was carried out in Spain. We studied 343 patients, 249 of whom were followed for 24 weeks. By week 24, the mean (SD) psoriasis area severity index (PASI) had decreased from 11.1 (7.3) to 1.7 (2.8) (-9.3; [-10.2;-8.4]), 85.9% of the patients had achieved PASI score of 4 or less and 77.9% a PASI score of 2 or less. In terms of relative PASI response, 59.4% of the patients achieved a PASI-90 response and 49.0% a PASI-100 response. On multivariate analysis, two factors reduced the probability of a PASI of 2 or less at 24 weeks: a BMI ≥30 (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.88) and a greater previous exposure to biologic therapy (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, [0.56-0.84]). Adverse events were rare (9.9%) and led to withdrawal from treatment in only nine patients (2.6%) by the end of the follow-up period. The results of this study confirm the high efficacy and safety of guselkumab indicated by the clinical trial data. In clinical practice, the absolute PASI score appears to be a better marker of response to treatment than the relative value.


Subject(s)
Psoriasis , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Humans , Psoriasis/diagnosis , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
19.
World J Surg ; 46(5): 1067-1075, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The foley catheter balloon tamponade (FCBT) has been widely employed in the management of trauma. This study reviews our cumulative experience with the use of FCBT in the management of patients presenting with a penetrating neck injury (PNI). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at a major trauma centre in South Africa over a 9-year period from January 2012 to December 2020. All patients who presented with a PNI who had FCBT were included. RESULTS: A total of 1581 patients with a PNI were managed by our trauma centre, and 44 (3%) patients had an FCBT. Of the 44 cases of FCBT, stab wounds accounted for 93% (41/44) and the remaining 7% were for gunshot wounds. Seventy-five per cent of all FCBT (33/44) were inserted at a rural hospital prior to transfer to our trauma centre; the remaining 25% (11/44) were inserted in our resuscitation room. The success rate of FCBT was 80% (35/44), allowing further CT with angiography (CTA) to be performed. CTA findings were: 10/35 (29%) positive, 18/35 (51%) negative, and 7/35 (20%) equivocal. Fifteen patients required additional intervention (open surgery or endovascular intervention). The overall morbidity was 14% (6/44). Eighteen per cent required intensive care unit admission. The median length of stay was 1 day. The overall mortality rate was 11% (5/44). CONCLUSION: FCBT is a simple and effective technique as an adjunct in the management of major haemorrhage from a PNI. In highly selective patients, it may also be used as definitive management.


Subject(s)
Balloon Occlusion , Neck Injuries , Wounds, Gunshot , Wounds, Penetrating , Wounds, Stab , Catheters , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Neck Injuries/surgery , Neck Injuries/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Wounds, Gunshot/surgery , Wounds, Penetrating/therapy , Wounds, Stab/surgery
20.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 257-263, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212665

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality in patients with schizophrenia in this study. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 1620 patients with schizophrenia. Of the 1620 patients, 52 (3.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-19. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 40 patients were hospitalized, and 17 patients required intensive care unit admission due to COVID-19 (76.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Severe COVID-19 disease was noted in 17 patients (32.7%) requiring intubation. In the logistic regression analysis, antipsychotic dose, and comorbidity score were independently associated with a greater risk of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with schizophrenia. Our study suggests that factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, and a daily antipsychotic dose may have effects on the poor outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in schizophrenia patients. In addition, the current findings propose that mortality may be associated with an older age, comorbidity score, and a longer duration of psychiatric disease among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings of our study should be verified in prospective and larger sample studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Demography , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/epidemiology
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