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1.
Vaccine ; 40(28): 3903-3917, 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus caused an estimated 151,714 deaths from diarrhea among children under 5 in 2019. To reduce mortality, countries are considering adding rotavirus vaccination to their routine immunization program. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) to inform these decisions are not available in every setting, and where they are, results are sensitive to modeling assumptions, especially about vaccine efficacy. We used advances in meta-regression methods and estimates of vaccine efficacy by location to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for rotavirus vaccination in 195 countries. METHODS: Beginning with Tufts University CEA and Global Health CEA registries we used 515 ICERs from 68 articles published through 2017, extracted 938 additional one-way sensitivity analyses, and excluded 33 ICERs for a sample of 1,418. We used a five-stage, mixed-effects, Bayesian metaregression framework to predict ICERs, and logistic regression model to predict the probability that the vaccine was cost-saving. For both models, covariates were vaccine characteristics including efficacy, study methods, and country-specific rotavirus disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. All results are reported in 2017 United States dollars. RESULTS: Vaccine efficacy, vaccine cost, GDP per capita and rotavirus DALYs were important drivers of variability in ICERs. Globally, the median ICER was $2,289 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): $147-$38,993) and ranged from $85 per DALY averted (95% UI: $13-$302) in Central African Republic to $70,599 per DALY averted (95% UI: $11,030-$263,858) in the United States. Among countries eligible for support from Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance, the mean ICER was $255 per DALY averted (95% UI: $39-$918), and among countries eligible for the PAHO revolving fund, the mean ICER was $2,464 per DALY averted (95% UI: $382-$3,118). CONCLUSION: Our findings incorporate recent evidence that vaccine efficacy differs across locations, and support expansion of rotavirus vaccination programs, particularly in countries eligible for support from Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Preschool , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Regression Analysis , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination/methods
2.
Vaccine ; 40(28): 3843-3850, 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644669

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus (RV) is a major pathogen causing severe diarrhea in infants and children aged less than 5 years. Vaccination is an economically feasible and effective strategy to prevent rotavirus infections. However, immune efficacy of live vaccines could be interfered by maternal antibodies and pre-existing antibodies of children. To develop an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV), we had previously isolated a wild-type human rotavirus strain ZTR-68-A (G1P[8]) from the fecal samples of infants having severe diarrhea in a region endemic for the presence of this pathogen. In our present study, we assessed whether the presence of maternal and pre-existing antibodies in newborn BALB/c mice affected the immunogenicity of IRV administered to these animals. Our results indicate that maternal antibodies, generated from either vaccine immunization or rotavirus infection, showed partial influence with the immune responses generated by two doses of IRV vaccination. Increasing the number of immunizations can significantly improve the titer of serum neutralizing antibody and a seroconversion rate of up to 100%. In newborn mice, single-virus infection did not elicit detectable levels of serum neutralizing antibodies. After an IRV vaccination, the immune responses of these mice remained unaffected, with no significant differences in titers compared with those of control-group mice. In summary, choosing a suitable immunization dose and dosing frequency is essential for the immune effectiveness of IRV. The results of this study will provide animal experimental support for the IRV clinical research in future.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Diarrhea , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Infant , Mice , Vaccines, Inactivated
3.
Cell Rep ; 39(11): 110969, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679864

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases, especially if caused by bat-borne viruses, significantly affect public health and the global economy. There is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of interspecies transmission, particularly to humans. Viral genetics; host factors, including polymorphisms in the receptors; and ecological, environmental, and population dynamics are major parameters to consider. Here, we describe the taxonomy, geographic distribution, and unique traits of bats associated with their importance as virus reservoirs. Then, we summarize the origin, intermediate hosts, and the current understanding of interspecies transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2, Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, Marburg virus, and rotaviruses. Finally, the molecular interactions of viral surface proteins with host cell receptors are examined, and a comparison of these interactions in humans, intermediate hosts, and bats is conducted. This uncovers adaptive mutations in virus spike protein that facilitate cross-species transmission and risk factors associated with the emergence of novel viruses from bats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Filoviridae , Henipavirus , Rotavirus , Viruses , Animals , Filoviridae/genetics , Humans , Rotavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1976): 20212727, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673869

ABSTRACT

To quantify the potential impact of rotavirus vaccines and identify strategies to improve vaccine performance in Bangladesh, a better understanding of the drivers of pre-vaccination rotavirus patterns is required. We developed and fitted mathematical models to 23 years (1990-2012) of weekly rotavirus surveillance data from Dhaka with and without incorporating long-term and seasonal variation in the birth rate and meteorological factors. We performed external model validation using data between 2013 and 2019 from the regions of Dhaka and Matlab. The models showed good agreement with the observed age distribution of rotavirus cases and captured the observed shift in seasonal patterns of rotavirus hospitalizations from biannual to annual peaks. The declining long-term trend in the birth rate in Bangladesh was the key driver of the observed shift from biannual to annual winter rotavirus patterns. Meteorological indices were also important: a 1°C, 1% and 1 mm increase in diurnal temperature range, surface water presence and degree of wetness were associated with a 19%, 3.9% and 0.6% increase in the transmission rate, respectively. The model demonstrated reasonable predictions for both Dhaka and Matlab, and can be used to evaluate the impact of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh against changing patterns of disease incidence.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Birth Rate , Climate , Humans , Infant , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control
5.
New Microbiol ; 45(2): 138-141, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699563

ABSTRACT

A variety of enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. To understand the evolution of gastroenteritis in Albania, in terms of distribution of aetiological pathogens, a one-year observational study was repeated in 2017, ten years after the first study performed in 2007. The data still show a clear circulation of viruses that cause gastroenteritis. Compared to the previous study in 2007, the data from the 2017 study showed the incidence of Norovirus and Adenovirus were significantly higher (p value <0.05), while Rotavirus was verified at a similar incidence rate.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus Infections , Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Viruses , Albania/epidemiology , Antigens, Viral , Feces , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3857-3862, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510351

ABSTRACT

This study aims to determine retrospectively the prevalence of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus in patients with gastroenteritis symptoms and the distribution of pathogens by gender, age, seasons, and years. The stool samples sent to Pamukkale University Healthcare Research and Practice Hospital's Medical Microbiology laboratory between January 2017 and December 2021 were evaluated for rotavirus/adenovirus antigen positivity. Rotavirus and adenovirus antigens were studied with the Rotavirus-Adenovirus Combo Rapid Cassette Test (Acro Biotech) kit. Rotavirus was detected in 683 (8.2%) of the 8315 stool samples evaluated, and 180 (2.2%) samples were positive for adenovirus. Coinfection was detected in 21 (0.25%) samples. Rotavirus was found at the highest rate in 2019 (p = 0.001). The adenovirus was detected in 2020 at a lower rate than in other years (p = 0.0001). The rotavirus was observed at a higher rate in 0-<3, 3-<6, and 6-<13 age groups and adenovirus was detected at a higher rate in 3-<6 and 6-<13 age groups compared to other age groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively). The highest rate of incidence of the rotavirus was found in spring and adenovirus in winter. In the etiology of gastroenteritis, especially in children, adenovirus and rotavirus should not be ignored in winter and spring. The prevalence of rotavirus was observed to have decreased in 2020 and onwards, and the prevalence of adenovirus decreased in 2020.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Adenovirus Infections, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Adenoviridae , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Antigens, Viral , Child , Feces , Humans , Infant , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Turkey/epidemiology
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 270: 109447, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561657

ABSTRACT

Enteric disease is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in young mammals including pigs. Viral species involved in porcine enteric disease complex (PEDC) include rotaviruses, coronaviruses, picornaviruses, astroviruses and pestiviruses among others. The virome of three groups of swine samples submitted to the Kansas State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for routine testing were assessed, namely, a Rotavirus A positive (RVA) group, a Rotavirus co-infection (RV) group and a Rotavirus Negative (RV Neg) group. All groups were designated by qRT-PCR test results for Porcine Rotavirus A, B, C and H such that samples positive for RVA only went in the RVA group, samples positive for > 1 rotavirus went in the RV group and samples negative for all were grouped in the RVNeg group. All of the animals had clinical enteric disease resulting in scours and swollen joints/lameness, enlarged heart and/or a cough. All samples were metagenomic sequenced and analyzed for viral species composition that identified 14 viral species and eight bacterial viruses/phages. Sapovirus and Escherichia coli phages were found at a high prevalence in RVA and RV samples but were found at low or no prevalence in the RVNeg samples. Picobirnavirus was identified at a high proportion and prevalence in RVNeg and RV samples but at a low prevalence in the RVA group. Non-rotaviral diversity was highest in RVA samples followed by RV then RV Neg samples. A sequence analysis of the possible host of Picobirnaviruses revealed fungi as the most likely host. Various sequences were extracted from the sample reads and a phylogenetic update was provided showing a high prevalence of G9 and P[23] RVA genotypes. These data are important for pathogen surveillance and control measures.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Feces , Genotype , Humans , Mammals , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Virome
8.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632617

ABSTRACT

Since their first recognition in human cases about four decades ago, rotaviruses have remained the leading cause of acute severe dehydrating diarrhea among infants and young children worldwide. The WHO prequalification of oral rotavirus vaccines (ORV) a decade ago and its introduction in many countries have yielded a significant decline in the global burden of the disease, although not without challenges to achieving global effectiveness. Poised by the unending malady of rotavirus diarrhea and the attributable death cases in developing countries, we provide detailed insights into rotavirus biology, exposure pathways, cellular receptors and pathogenesis, host immune response, epidemiology, and vaccination. Additionally, recent developments on the various host, viral and environmental associated factors impacting ORV performance in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC) are reviewed and their significance assessed. In addition, we review the advances in nonvaccine strategies (probiotics, candidate anti-rotaviral drugs, breastfeeding) to disease prevention and management.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea , Humans , Infant , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
9.
Arch Virol ; 167(7): 1603-1606, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568761

ABSTRACT

Species A rotaviruses (RVAs) have been recognized as one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Here, the complete coding sequences of 11 RNA segments of an uncommon G9P[4] RVA strain, which was detected in feces of a diarrheal child in Japan, were determined by next-generation sequencing technology. Its genomic constellation, VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5, was determined as G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. This work reports the complete coding sequences of a G9P[4] RVA strain containing DS-1-like (genotype 2) genes that was isolated in Japan in 2013.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Child , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Humans , Japan , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics
10.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3705-3712, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2015, Tajikistan became the second country in Central Asia to introduce rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program. Before vaccine introduction, rotavirus was estimated to cause > 40% of pediatric diarrhea hospitalizations in Tajikistan. We aimed to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on rotavirus disease burden and estimate rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE). METHODS: Using surveillance data from 2013 through 2019, we examined trends in monthly hospital admissions among children < 5 years old, before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Poisson regression was used to quantify decreases. VE was estimated using a test-negative case control design, with data from admissions during 2017 - 2019. Immunization records were obtained from clinics. RESULTS: Among enrolled children, rotavirus positivity declined from 42% to 25% in the post-vaccine introduction period, a decrease of 41% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 36 - 45%). Declines were greatest in children < 12 months of age. Estimated VE of a complete course of rotavirus vaccine was 55% (95% CI: 21 - 73%) among children 5 - 59 months of age and 64% (95% CI: 36 - 80%) among children 5 - 23 months of age. VE point estimates were higher among children receiving both doses of rotavirus vaccine non-concurrently with OPV and among children receiving their first dose of rotavirus vaccine at 4 - 11 months of age, but CIs were wide and overlapping. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that rotavirus vaccine introduction was associated with a substantial reduction in pediatric rotavirus hospitalization burden in Tajikistan, and that rotavirus vaccination is effective in Tajik children.


Subject(s)
Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated
11.
J Gen Virol ; 103(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639587

ABSTRACT

The group A rotavirus (RVA) genome comprising 11 double-stranded RNAs encodes six structural proteins (VP1-VP4, VP6, and VP7) and six non-structural proteins (NSP1-NSP6). Among these 12 rotaviral proteins, NSP6 has been less studied as to its function. We previously prepared a recombinant NSP6-deficient RVA derived from simian strain SA11-L2 by reverse genetics, and found that the NSP6-deficient virus grew well in cell culture, although its growth was less abundant than that of the parental SA11-L2 strain. In this study, we examined the potency of a recombinant RVA incapable of NSP6 expression to cause diarrhoea in suckling mice. The suckling mice infected with the NSP6-deficient virus apparently experienced diarrhoea, although the symptom was milder and the duration of diarrhoea was shorter than in the mice infected with the authentic SA11-L2 strain. Thus, together with the results obtained for cultured cells in the previous study, it can be concluded that NSP6 is not necessarily required for replication and pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Animals , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Diarrhea , Mice , Rotavirus/genetics
12.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632858

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus (RV) infections are the most important viral cause of diarrhea in piglets in Switzerland and are thought to cause substantial economic losses to the pig industry. However, no data are available on the occurrence and dynamics of the main porcine RV species, namely RVA, RVB, and RVC, and the diversity of the circulating strains. We therefore tested fecal samples from a cross-sectional (n = 95) and a longitudinal (n = 48) study for RVA, RVB, and RVC by real-time RT-PCR and compared the results of the cross-sectional study to postmortem findings. In addition, eight samples were fully genotyped by using next-generation sequencing. In the cross-sectional study, triple RV infections significantly correlated with diarrhea and wasting and were most frequent in the weaned age group. In the longitudinal study, the shedding of RV peaked one week after weaning and decreased thereafter. Here, mainly double infections were seen, and only a few animals showed diarrhea. The full-genome sequencing revealed a genotype pattern similar to other European countries and, importantly, co-infection by up to four RVA strains. Our results imply that the weaning of piglets may trigger not only RV shedding but facilitate co-infection of multiple RV species and strains in the same host.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Longitudinal Studies , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
13.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-04. (PAHO/FPL/IM/21-0043).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55954

ABSTRACT

This factsheet provides important information related to frequently asked questions on the following rotavirus vaccines: RotaSIIL (Serum Institute of India) and RotaVac (Bharat Biotech).


Subject(s)
Immunization , Rotavirus , Vaccines
14.
Vaccine ; 40(29): 3942-3947, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) vaccination was included in the Finnish National immunization Program (NIP) in 2009. RotaTeq (RV5) has been used exclusively with a national average vaccination coverage rate (VCR) of > 90%. While previous studies have demonstrated that inpatient rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) admissions declined by as much as 96% in Finnish children ≤ 5 years old following RV vaccination introduction, no study has evaluated long-term protection after vaccination in Finland. In this study, we analyze incidence of hospital outpatient visits and inpatient admissions of gastroenteritis in children up to 7 years of age. METHODS: We first describe the incidence of RVGE, viral gastroenteritis (VGE), and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) for all Finnish children born during 2008-2011. Children were stratified by the year of birth into not-eligible, partially eligible and rotavirus vaccine-eligible (born in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively). Hospital inpatient and outpatient data was collected from the National Care Register for all children from birth until December 31st, 2018. We also studied RVGE incidence during 2014-2017 for children<3 years of age in municipalities with VCRs of 90% and above and municipalities with VCRs below 90%. RESULTS: RVGE incidence decreased significantly soon after implementation of RV vaccination in the NIP. In vaccine-eligible cohorts, no clear peak incidence in the youngest age groups could be observed, and no RVGE cases were observed beyond 6 years after vaccination, in contrast to vaccine ineligible and partially eligible cohorts. Despite an overall high VCR in Finland, regions with high VCR had lower incidence of RVGE than regions with lower VCR. CONCLUSION: Incidence of RVGE has remained low in all age groups during the 10 years following introduction of RV vaccine in the Finnish NIP. Differences in RVGE incidence were observed in regions with high as compared with lower VCR, highlighting the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Finland/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
16.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 04 06.
Article in Dutch | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499510

ABSTRACT

Recently, the Netherlands Health Council (HC) issued an updated advice on rotavirus vaccination. Rotavirus gastro-enteritis primarily affects young children, of whom, in the Netherlands, annually ~2700 end up in the hospital and 5-7 die. In 2017, the HC judged positively on rotavirus vaccination of young children, but also concluded that the cost-effectiveness of general vaccination was unfavorable. Yet, the HC recommended to at least vaccinate vulnerable children in specific risk-groups. Because of the corona crisis, this, however, has not materialized. Meanwhile, the Dutch Risk-group Infant Vaccination Against Rotavirus study has demonstrated that rotavirus vaccination of children in risk-groups is less effective than previously thought. Therefore, the HC now recommends rotavirus vaccination of all children. General vaccination within the Dutch NIP is expected to result in herd-immunity, such that all children, including those in risk-groups, are protected. Nonetheless, the Dutch Ministry of Health has decided to postpone implementation of rotavirus vaccination.


Subject(s)
Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Infant , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccination
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 5231910, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502336

ABSTRACT

One of the common viral pathogens in infectious diarrhea is Rotavirus; in developing countries, it is a primary cause of deaths in children less than five years of age. This study was planned to find out the etiologic agents of acute watery diarrhea. In this study, 1465 stool samples were analyzed with the symptoms of acute diarrhea. Demographic data analysis showed no. of episodes of diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. All samples were checked by ELISA technique for the presence of Rotavirus circulating strains. More than 6% patients were found to be positive with Rotavirus. Common Rotavirus genotypes, including G2P4, G2P6, G3P4, G8P4, G8P6, G9P4, and G10P4, were detected in patients through RT-PCR. This study concluded that detection of rotavirus strain diversity and management of diarrheal patients may identify assortment of emerging strains and reduce emergence of antimicrobial resistance and repeated episodes of diarrhea, which may also help to avoid and manage the essential nutrients lost leading to malnutrition and stunted growth, as well as to reduce high mortality rate in young children less than five years.


Subject(s)
Dysentery , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology
18.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 217, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Group A rotavirus (RVA) remains the main causative agent of acute diarrhea among children under five years in countries that have not yet introduced the RVA vaccine worldwide. Long-term and continuous monitoring data on RVA infection in outpatient children were lacking in Shanghai. We investigated the prevalence and distribution of RVA genotypes in outpatient children with acute diarrhea in Shanghai from 2012 to 2018. METHODS: Stool specimens of outpatient children under five years were collected from the Children's Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai, China. All the samples enrolled in this study were detected and characterized for the P and G genotypes of RVA were determined using the semi-multiplex RT-PCR technique. RESULTS: Of 1814 children enrolled with acute diarrhea and having specimens collected, 246 (13.6%) were infected with RVA. The highest frequency of RVA was observed in children younger than two years old (87.0%, 214/246). Year-round RVA transmission was observed and the RVA detection rate peaked every winter and troughed in summer. In this study, 12 different RVA strains were identified in children. G9P[8] (49.2%, 121/246) was detected as the most prevalent genotype, followed by G-P[8] (22.8%, 56/246), G3P[8] (11.4%, 28/246), and G9P- (4.9%, 12/246). Although RVA strains detected in this study varied with the time, G9P[8] has been the most predominant circulating genotype since 2012. Furthermore, 12.2% (30/246) RVA positive samples were co-infected with other diarrhea viruses. CONCLUSION: The present analysis showed that RVA was still a major cause of children with acute diarrhea in Shanghai from 2012 to 2018. A great diversity of RVA strains circulated in children with acute diarrhea with G9P[8] being the predominant genotype since 2012. Long-term and continuous monitoring of RVA genotypes is therefore indispensable to refine future vaccine strategy in Shanghai.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces , Genotype , Humans , Outpatients , Prevalence , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology
19.
Vaccine ; 40(25): 3444-3451, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The underperformance of oral vaccines in children of low- and middle-income countries is partly attributable to underlying environmental enteric dysfunction (EED). METHODOLOGY: We conducted a longitudinal, community-based study to evaluate the association of oral rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) seroconversion with growth anthropometrics, EED biomarkers and intestinal enteropathogens in Pakistani infants. Children were enrolled between three to six months of their age based on their nutritional status. We measured serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) at enrollment and nine months of age with EED biomarkers and intestinal enteropathogens. RESULTS: A total of 391 infants received two doses of rotavirus (RV) vaccine. 331/391 provided paired blood samples. Of these 331 children, 45% seroconverted at 9 months of age, 35% did not seroconvert and 20% were seropositive at baseline. Non-seroconverted children were more likely to be stunted, wasted and underweight at enrollment. In univariate analysis, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) concentration at 6 months were higher in seroconverters, median (25th, 75th percentile): 26.3 (16.5, 43.5) ng/ml vs. 22.5 (13.6, 36.3) ng/ml for non-seroconverters, p-value = 0.024. At nine months, fecal myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations were significantly lower in seroconverters, 3050(1250, 7587) ng/ml vs. 4623.3 (2189, 11650) ng/ml in non-seroconverted children, p-value = 0.017. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and IGF-1 concentrations were positively associated with seroconversion at six months. The presence of sapovirus and rotavirus in fecal samples at the time of rotavirus administration, was associated with non-seroconversion and seroconversion, respectively. CONCLUSION: We detected high baseline RV seropositivity and impaired RV vaccine immunogenicity in this high-risk group of children. Healthy growth, serum IGF-1 and AGP, and fecal shedding of rotavirus were positively associated with RV IgA seroconversion following immunization, whereas the presence of sapovirus was more common in non-seroconverters. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials ID: NCT03588013.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Infant , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Pakistan/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Seroconversion , Vaccines, Attenuated
20.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268465, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35609031

ABSTRACT

Although rotavirus vaccines are available in many parts of the world and are effective in reducing the overall incidence of rotavirus infection, it remains a major cause of diarrhea in less-developed countries. Among various rotavirus group A (RVA) strains, the increasingly common genotype G3 (defined by the VP7 gene) has been identified in both humans and animals. Our previous epidemiological surveillance in Bangkok found several unusual non-vaccine-like G3 strains in patients with diarrhea. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the genomes of seven of these G3 strains, which formed combinations with genotypes P[4], P[6], P[9], and P[10] (defined by the VP4 gene). Interestingly, we identified a bat-like RVA strain with the genome constellation G3-P[10]-I3-R3-C3-M3-A9-N3-T3-E3-H6, which has not been previously reported in the literature. The amino acid residues deduced from the nucleotide sequences of our G3 strains differed at the antigenic epitopes to those of the VP7 capsid protein of the G3 strain in RotaTeq vaccine. Although it is not unusual for the segmented genomes of RVA to reassort and give rise to emerging novel strains, the atypical G3 strains identified in this study suggest possible animal-to-human RVA zoonotic spillover even in urban areas.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Animals , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Chiroptera/genetics , Diarrhea , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Humans , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics , Thailand
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