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4.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(12): 1301-1304, 2020 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542396

ABSTRACT

The novel strain of coronavirus that appeared in 2019, SARS-CoV-2, is the causative agent of severe respiratory disease, COVID-19, and the ongoing pandemic. As for SARS-CoV that caused the SARS 2003 epidemic, the receptor on host cells that promotes uptake, through attachment of the spike (S) protein of the virus, is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In a recent article published by Batlle et al. (Clin. Sci. (Lond.) (2020) 134, 543-545) it was suggested that soluble recombinant ACE2 could be used as a novel biological therapeutic to intercept the virus, limiting the progression of infection and reducing lung injury. Another way, discussed here, to capture SARS-CoV-2, as an adjunct or alternative, would be to use ACE2+-small extracellular vesicles (sEVs). A competitive inhibition therapy could therefore be developed, using sEVs from engineered mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), overexpressing ACE2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Extracellular Vesicles , SARS Virus , Angiotensins , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral
7.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 112(6): 511, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496122

ABSTRACT

Crespo et al. comment on the influence of immunomodulators and biological drugs on ulcerative colitis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Granulo-monocytoapheresis is a treatment used in ulcerative colitis outbreaks, whose mechanism of action is to selectively retain activated granulocytes and monocytes, in order to reduce the inflammatory process.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , SARS Virus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Digestive System , Humans , Leukapheresis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral
8.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(5): e00099920, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520073

ABSTRACT

We sought to evaluate contact rate reduction goals for household and close contacts and to provide preventive recommendations during the coronavirus pandemic. We applied an agent-based model to simulate the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 within household or close contacts through a social network of 150 nodes. there is no great difference in total infected people within modifications in number of links per node for networks with average number of links per node greater than three. For six nodes, total infected people are 149.85; for five nodes, 148.97; and for four nodes, 141.57. On the other hand, for three nodes, total infected are 82.39, for two nodes, 13.95; and for one node, 2.96. This model indicates a possible pitfall if social distancing measures are not stepwise suspended and close surveillance of cases are not provided, since the relationship between average links per node and number of infected people seems to be s-shaped, and not linear.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family Characteristics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS Virus , Social Distance , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Social Isolation
9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(12): 4897-4900, 2020 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478523

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, since emerging in Wuhan, China, has been a major concern because of its high infection rate and has left more than six million infected people around the world. Many studies endeavored to reveal the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 compared to the SARS-CoV, in order to find solutions to suppress this high infection rate. Some of these studies showed that the mutations in the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein might be responsible for its higher affinity to the ACE2 human cell receptor. In this work, we used molecular dynamics simulations and Monte Carlo sampling to compare the binding affinities of the S proteins of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2. Our results show that the protein surface of the ACE2 at the receptor binding domain (RBD) exhibits negative electrostatic potential, while a positive potential is observed for the S proteins of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the binding energies at the interface are slightly higher for SARS-CoV-2 because of enhanced electrostatic interactions. The major contributions to the electrostatic binding energies result from the salt bridges forming between R426 and ACE-2-E329 in the case of SARS-CoV and K417 and ACE2-D30 in the SARS-CoV-2. In addition, our results indicate that the enhancement in the binding energy is not due to a single mutant but rather because of the sophisticated structural changes induced by all these mutations together. This finding suggests that it is implausible for the SARS-CoV-2 to be a lab-engineered virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/chemistry , SARS Virus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections , Electrophysiological Phenomena , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Monte Carlo Method , Mutation/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/drug effects , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/genetics , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/genetics
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(11)2020 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486055

ABSTRACT

"Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)", the novel coronavirus, is responsible for the ongoing worldwide pandemic. "World Health Organization (WHO)" assigned an "International Classification of Diseases (ICD)" code-"COVID-19"-as the name of the new disease. Coronaviruses are generally transferred by people and many diverse species of animals, including birds and mammals such as cattle, camels, cats, and bats. Infrequently, the coronavirus can be transferred from animals to humans, and then propagate among people, such as with "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV)", "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV)", and now with this new virus, namely "SARS-CoV-2", or human coronavirus. Its rapid spreading has sent billions of people into lockdown as health services struggle to cope up. The COVID-19 outbreak comes along with an exponential growth of new infections, as well as a growing death count. A major goal to limit the further exponential spreading is to slow down the transmission rate, which is denoted by a "spread factor (f)", and we proposed an algorithm in this study for analyzing the same. This paper addresses the potential of data science to assess the risk factors correlated with COVID-19, after analyzing existing datasets available in "ourworldindata.org (Oxford University database)", and newly simulated datasets, following the analysis of different univariate "Long Short Term Memory (LSTM)" models for forecasting new cases and resulting deaths. The result shows that vanilla, stacked, and bidirectional LSTM models outperformed multilayer LSTM models. Besides, we discuss the findings related to the statistical analysis on simulated datasets. For correlation analysis, we included features, such as external temperature, rainfall, sunshine, population, infected cases, death, country, population, area, and population density of the past three months - January, February, and March in 2020. For univariate timeseries forecasting using LSTM, we used datasets from 1 January 2020, to 22 April 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Animals , Cats , Cattle , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , World Health Organization
11.
Radiol Med ; 125(7): 636-646, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500509

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an emerging infection caused by a novel coronavirus that is moving so rapidly that on 30 January 2020 the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and on 11 March 2020 as a pandemic. An early diagnosis of COVID-19 is crucial for disease treatment and control of the disease spread. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated a low sensibility; therefore chest computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role not only in the early detection and diagnosis, especially for false negative RT-PCR tests, but also in monitoring the clinical course and in evaluating the disease severity. This paper reports the CT findings with some hints on the temporal changes over the course of the disease: the CT hallmarks of COVID-19 are bilateral distribution of ground glass opacities with or without consolidation in the posterior and peripheral lung, but the predominant findings in later phases include consolidations, linear opacities, "crazy-paving" pattern, "reversed halo" sign and vascular enlargement. The CT findings of COVID-19 overlap with the CT findings of other diseases, in particular the viral pneumonia including influenza viruses, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, etc. There are differences as well as similarities in the CT features of COVID-19 compared with those of the severe acute respiratory syndrome. The aim of this article is to review the typical and atypical CT findings in COVID-19 patients in order to help radiologists and clinicians to become more familiar with the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS Virus
13.
Evid Based Dent ; 21(2): 50-51, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591656

ABSTRACT

Design Special report.Study population This paper presented a report about the experience of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMS) of Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, during the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic.Data analysis The experience of that department formed the content of the report.Results In this study, the authors presented an informative description of experience of treating patients under a pandemic condition. The authors offer some methods of trying to protect oro-maxillofacial surgeons, using an algorithm of diagnosis and classifying the risk of contamination and the materials required in order to avoid it.Conclusions In conclusion, the authors suggest the use of the algorithm for patient admission during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS Virus , Surgery, Oral , Betacoronavirus , Dentists , Humans
15.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 854-856, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526180

ABSTRACT

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Jia et al. used a vesicular stomatitis virus-based probe to isolate B cells expressing broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. Besides identifying neutralizing epitopes, this study highlights potential protection afforded by IgA arising from either direct IgM-to-IgA or sequential IgM-to-IgG-to-IgA class switching.


Subject(s)
HIV-1/immunology , SARS Virus , Single-Domain Antibodies , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , HIV Antibodies , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral
16.
Endocrine ; 68(3): 467-470, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488837

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is centralizing the interest of the scientific world. In the next months, long-term consequences on the endocrine system may arise following COVID-19. In this article, we hypothesized the effects of SARS-CoV-2 taking into account what learned from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that caused SARS in 2003.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Endocrine Glands/virology , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus
17.
Endocrine ; 68(3): 471-474, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507963

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 is produced by SARS-CoV-2. WHO has declared COVID-19 as a public health emergency, with the most susceptible populations (requiring ventilation) being the elderly, pregnant women and people with associated co-morbidities including heart failure, uncontrolled diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and cancer. However, such general guidance does not provide information regarding COVID-19 risks in patients with suffering from pre-existing thyroid problems, and furthermore, we do not know whether patients with COVID-19 (symptomatic or without symptoms), who have not previously had thyroid issues develop endocrine thyroid dysfunction after infection. The European Society for Endocrinology recently published a statement on COVID-19 and endocrine diseases (Endocrine, 2020); however, thyroid diseases were not mentioned specifically. We have therefore reviewed the current literature on thyroid diseases (excluding cancer) and COVID-19, including data from the previous coronavirus pandemic caused by the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a member of the same family Coronaviridae leading to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). At the moment there are no data suggesting that thyroid patients are at higher risk of COVID-19, but this requites further research and data analysis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Thyroid Diseases/immunology , Thyroid Diseases/virology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/virology
18.
Trends Microbiol ; 28(7): 515-517, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544437

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed a severe threat to global public health. Yet, the origin of SARS-CoV-2 remains mysterious. Several recent studies (e.g., Lam et al.,Xiao et al.) identified SARS-CoV-2-related viruses in pangolins, providing novel insights into the evolution and diversity of SARS-CoV-2-related viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral
19.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(7): 1584-1591, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483934

ABSTRACT

Many respiratory viral infections such as influenza and measles result in severe acute respiratory symptoms and epidemics. In the spring of 2003, an epidemic of coronavirus pneumonia spread from Guangzhou to Hong Kong and subsequently to the rest of the world. The WHO coined the acronym SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and subsequently the causative virus as SARS-CoV. In the summer of 2012, epidemic of pneumonia occurred again in Saudi Arabia which was subsequently found to be caused by another novel coronavirus. WHO coined the term MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) to denote the Middle East origin of the novel virus (MERS-CoV). In the winter of 2019, another outbreak of pneumonia occurred in Wuhan, China which rapidly spread globally. Yet another novel coronavirus was identified as the culprit and has been named SARS-CoV-2 due to its similarities with SARS-CoV, and the disease as coronavirus disease-2019. This overview aims to compare and contrast the similarities and differences of these three major episodes of coronavirus outbreak, and conclude that they are essentially the same viral respiratory syndromes caused by similar strains of coronavirus with different names. Coronaviruses have caused major epidemics and outbreaks worldwide in the last two decades. From an epidemiological perspective, they are remarkably similar in the mode of spread by droplets. Special focus is placed on the pediatric aspects, which carry less morbidity and mortality in all three entities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/history , Pediatrics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
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