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1.
Health Soc Care Deliv Res ; 12(13): 1-181, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767587

ABSTRACT

Background: The mental health of children/young people is a growing concern internationally. Numerous reports and reviews have consistently described United Kingdom children's mental health services as fragmented, variable, inaccessible and lacking an evidence base. Little is known about the effectiveness of, and implementation complexities associated with, service models for children/young people experiencing 'common' mental health problems like anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and self-harm. Aim: To develop a model for high-quality service design for children/young people experiencing common mental health problems by identifying available services, barriers and enablers to access, and the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and acceptability of such services. Design: Evidence syntheses with primary research, using a sequential, mixed-methods design. Inter-related scoping and integrative reviews were conducted alongside a map of relevant services across England and Wales, followed by a collective case study of English and Welsh services. Setting: Global (systematic reviews); England and Wales (service map; case study). Data sources: Literature reviews: relevant bibliographic databases and grey literature. Service map: online survey and offline desk research. Case study: 108 participants (41 children/young people, 26 parents, 41 staff) across nine case study sites. Methods: A single literature search informed both reviews. The service map was obtained from an online survey and internet searches. Case study sites were sampled from the service map; because of coronavirus disease 2019, case study data were collected remotely. 'Young co-researchers' assisted with case study data collection. The integrative review and case study data were synthesised using the 'weaving' approach of 'integration through narrative'. Results: A service model typology was derived from the scoping review. The integrative review found effectiveness evidence for collaborative care, outreach approaches, brief intervention services and the 'availability, responsiveness and continuity' framework. There was cost-effectiveness evidence only for collaborative care. No service model appeared to be more acceptable than others. The service map identified 154 English and Welsh services. Three themes emerged from the case study data: 'pathways to support'; 'service engagement'; and 'learning and understanding'. The integrative review and case study data were synthesised into a coproduced model of high-quality service provision for children/young people experiencing common mental health problems. Limitations: Defining 'service model' was a challenge. Some service initiatives were too new to have filtered through into the literature or service map. Coronavirus disease 2019 brought about a surge in remote/digital services which were under-represented in the literature. A dearth of relevant studies meant few cost-effectiveness conclusions could be drawn. Conclusions: There was no strong evidence to suggest any existing service model was better than another. Instead, we developed a coproduced, evidence-based model that incorporates the fundamental components necessary for high-quality children's mental health services and which has utility for policy, practice and research. Future work: Future work should focus on: the potential of our model to assist in designing, delivering and auditing children's mental health services; reasons for non-engagement in services; the cost effectiveness of different approaches in children's mental health; the advantages/disadvantages of digital/remote platforms in delivering services; understanding how and what the statutory sector might learn from the non-statutory sector regarding choice, personalisation and flexibility. Study registration: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42018106219. Funding: This award was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health and Social Care Delivery Research programme (NIHR award ref: 17/09/08) and is published in full in Health and Social Care Delivery Research; Vol. 12, No. 13. See the NIHR Funding and Awards website for further award information.


In this research study, we explored services for children and young people with 'common' mental health problems like depression, anxiety and self-harm. We aimed to find out what services exist, how children/young people and families find out about and access these services, what the services actually do, whether they are helpful and whether they offer value for money. We looked at the international literature (reports and research papers) to identify different approaches to providing support, and to find out whether certain approaches worked better than others and whether children/young people and families preferred some approaches over others. The literature provided very little information about the value for money of services. We also carried out a survey and used the internet to identify 154 relevant services in England and Wales. To explore services in more detail, and hear directly from those using them, we planned to visit 9 of the 154 services to interview children/young people, parents and staff. Unfortunately, coronavirus disease 2019 stopped us directly visiting the nine services and so we conducted phone and video interviews instead. We still managed to speak to, and hear the experiences of, more than 100 people (including children/young people and parents). We combined information from the literature with information from the interviews to create an evidence-based 'model' of what services should look like. This model considers some basic things like how quickly children/young people could access a service, what information was available, the importance of confidentiality and whether staff make the service fit with the child/young person's needs and interests. It also considers whether the service helps children/young people learn skills to manage their mental health and whether staff at a service work well together. We hope our model will help existing and new services improve what they offer to children/young people and families.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Mental Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , England , Wales , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Male , Female , Child Health Services/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303280, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Access to breast screening mammogram services decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objectives were to estimate: 1) the COVID-19 affected period, 2) the proportion of pandemic-associated missed or delayed screening encounters, and 3) pandemic-associated patient attrition in screening encounters overall and by sociodemographic subgroup. METHODS: We included screening mammogram encounter EPIC data from 1-1-2019 to 12-31-2022 for females ≥40 years old. We used Bayesian State Space models to describe weekly screening mammogram counts, modeling an interruption that phased in and out between 3-1-2020 and 9-1-2020. We used the posterior predictive distribution to model differences between a predicted, uninterrupted process and the observed screening mammogram counts. We estimated associations between race/ethnicity and age group and return screening mammogram encounters during the pandemic among those with 2019 encounters using logistic regression. RESULTS: Our analysis modeling weekly screening mammogram counts included 231,385 encounters (n = 127,621 women). Model-estimated screening mammograms dropped by >98% between 03-15-2020 and 05-24-2020 followed by a return to pre-pandemic levels or higher with similar results by race/ethnicity and age group. Among 79,257 women, non-Hispanic (NH) Asians, NH Blacks, and Hispanics had significantly (p < .05) lower odds of screening encounter returns during 2020-2022 vs. NH Whites with odds ratios (ORs) from 0.70 to 0.91. Among 79,983 women, those 60-69 had significantly higher odds of any return screening encounter during 2020-2022 (OR = 1.28), while those ≥80 and 40-49 had significantly lower odds (ORs 0.77, 0.45) than those 50-59 years old. A sensitivity analysis suggested a possible pre-existing pattern. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest a short-term pandemic effect on screening mammograms of ~2 months with no evidence of disparities. However, we observed racial/ethnic disparities in screening mammogram returns during the pandemic that may be at least partially pre-existing. These results may inform future pandemic planning and continued efforts to eliminate mammogram screening disparities.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer , Mammography , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Mammography/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Adult , Academic Medical Centers , Midwestern United States/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0297272, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768163

ABSTRACT

A dynamic of virus adaptation and a mass vaccination campaign could significantly reduce the severity of clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and transmission. Hence, COVID-19 may become an endemic disease globally. Moreover, mass infection as the COVID-19 pandemic progressed affected the serology of the patients as a result of virus mutation and vaccination. Therefore, a need exists to acquire accurate serological testing to monitor the emergence of new outbreaks of COVID-19 to promptly prevent and control the disease spreading. In this study, the anti-Orf8 antibodies among samples collected in Thailand's first, fourth, and fifth waves of COVID-19 outbreaks compared with pre-epidemic sera were determined by indirect ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the anti-Orf8 IgG ELISA for COVID-19 samples from the first, fourth, and fifth waves of outbreaks was found to be 100% compared with pre-epidemic sera. However, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the anti-Orf8 IgG ELISA for a larger number of patient samples and controls from the fifth wave of outbreaks which were collected on day 7 and 14 after an RT-PCR positive result were 58.79 and 58.44% and 89.19 and 58.44%, respectively. Our data indicated that some of the controls might have antibodies from natural past infections. Our study highlighted the potential utility of anti-Orf8 IgG antibody testing for seroprevalence surveys but still warrants further investigations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Thailand/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Adult , Female , Viral Proteins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Aged , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Antibody Formation/immunology
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301344, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768237

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a set of social measures were adopted for the preservation of business activity and the protection of workers. One of these measures was issuing the Temporary Disability (TD) for COVID-19 cases, close contacts, and especially vulnerable workers. OBJETIVE: This study analyzes whether the TD registry could be used as a complementary source to traditional epidemiological surveillance. METHODS: A longitudinal study of time series was carried out with a cross-correlation analysis of TD and COVID-19 cases reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RENAVE). The analysis included six pandemic waves between 10/03/2020 and 31/12/2021 in Spain. Cross-correlation coefficients (r) were calculated using a time lag of -14 days. RESULTS: During the study period, 2,253,573 TD processes were recorded in Spain and 4,894,802 COVID-19 cases were reported to RENAVE. Significant positive correlations were observed at time lags of -7, -10, and -14, indicating that TD notification preceded RENAVE notification. In the first and sixth pandemic waves, TD notification preceded RENAVE by 12 and 7 days, respectively. Negative correlations between the two series were observed in the second and fourth waves, coinciding with a lower number of reported cases. In the third and fifth waves, TD notification also preceded RENAVE (lags -1, -5 and -14, -7, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the usefulness of TD registry as a complementary system to traditional epidemiological surveillance in Spain, by detecting COVID-19 cases in the 7, 10, and 14 days prior. A better positive correlation is observed in waves where more cases were reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Registries , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Epidemiological Monitoring , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299309, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonpharmacological interventions, such as personal protective equipment for example, surgical masks and respirators, and maintenance of hand hygiene along with COVID-19 vaccines have been recommended to reduce viral transmission in the community and health care settings. There is evidence from the literature that surgical and N95 masks may reduce the initial degree of exposure to the virus. A limited research that has studied the cost-effective analysis of surgical masks and N95 masks among health care workers in the prevention of COVID-19 in India. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of N95 and surgical mask compared to wearing no mask in public hospital settings for preventing COVID-19 infection among Health care workers (HCWs) from the health care provider's perspective. METHODS: A deterministic baseline model, without any mask use, based on Eikenberry et al was used to form the foundation for parameter estimation and to estimate transmission rates among HCWs. Information on mask efficacy, including the overall filtering efficiency of a mask and clinical efficiency, in terms of either inward efficiency(ei) or outward efficiency(e0), was obtained from published literature. Hospitalized HCWs were assumed to be in one of the disease states i.e., mild, moderate, severe, or critical. A total of 10,000 HCWs was considered as representative of the size of a tertiary care institution HCW population. The utility values for the mild, moderate and severe model health states were sourced from the primary data collection on quality-of-life of HCWs COVID-19 survivors. The utility scores for mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 conditions were 0.88, 0.738 and 0.58, respectively. The cost of treatment for mild sickness (6,500 INR per day), moderate sickness (10,000 INR per day), severe (require ICU facility without ventilation, 15,000 INR per day), and critical (require ICU facility with ventilation per day, 18,000 INR) per day as per government and private COVID-19 treatment costs and capping were considered. One way sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the model inputs which had the largest impact on model results. RESULTS: The use of N95 masks compared to using no mask is cost-saving of $1,454,632 (INR 0.106 billion) per 10,000 HCWs in a year. The use of N95 masks compared to using surgical masks is cost-saving of $63,919 (INR 0.005 billion) per 10,000 HCWs in a year. the use of surgical masks compared to using no mask is cost-saving of $1,390,713 (INR 0.102 billion) per 10,000 HCWs in a year. The uncertainty analysis showed that considering fixed transmission rate (1.7), adoption of mask efficiency as 20%, 50% and 80% reduces the cumulative relative mortality to 41%, 79% and 94% respectively. On considering ei = e0 (99%) for N95 and surgical mask with ei = e0 (90%) the cumulative relative mortality was reduced by 97% and the use of N95 masks compared to using surgical masks is cost-saving of $24,361 (INR 0.002 billion) per 10,000 HCWs in a year. DISCUSSION: Both considered interventions were dominant compared to no mask based on the model estimates. N95 masks were also dominant compared to surgical masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Personnel , Masks , N95 Respirators , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , India/epidemiology , Masks/economics , N95 Respirators/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Public Health , Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299668, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768244

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread and developed into a pandemic disease, forcing countries to impose challenging protocols and lockdowns. This study assessed shopping, food consumption behavior, and feelings in Jordan and several Arab countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional web-based survey among the Middle East population was conducted using an online questionnaire between July and September 2022. Participants were requested to answer a standardized and validated structured questionnaire. Demographic information, shopping behavior information, and mental health data were requested. A total of 542 respondents were included in the study. During COVID-19 quarantine, participants (68.6%) reported decreased shopping frequency and buying more food than usual (37.5%). Cereals and legumes were the primary food types stored by participants (76.9%). Multiple logistic regression revealed the age of the participant as a significant factor affecting storing of food (being ≤ 25 years old (OR = 0.456, p value = 0.038)). 75.7% of female participants eat less frequently in restaurants than usual. In contrast, among males, 48.5% reported that they eat at restaurants less frequently than usual. The country of residency and gender were the significant factors affecting negative feelings and emotions. Participants in countries other than Jordan had a higher negative feeling score (Beta = 0.086, p value = 0.042). Furthermore, females had a higher negative feeling score (Beta = -0.128, p value = 0.003) as the negative feelings score for females was 3.58 (SD = 5.443). On the other hand, it was 2.10 (SD = 5.091) for males. The COVID-19 pandemic has altered Jordanians' attitudes, shopping, and food consumption habits. Although positive behaviors have improved, such as shopping less frequently, eating home-cooked meals, and dining with family, frequent snacking and food storage have increased. Finally, public awareness of shopping and food consumption habits should be promoted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Male , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adult , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Middle Aged , Jordan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent
7.
Hum Genomics ; 18(1): 48, 2024 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, detection of other disseminated respiratory viruses using highly sensitive molecular methods was declared essential for monitoring the spread of health-threatening viruses in communities. The development of multiplex molecular assays are essential for the simultaneous detection of such viruses even at low concentrations. In the present study, a highly sensitive and specific multiplex one-step droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and absolute quantification of influenza A (IAV), influenza B (IBV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and beta-2-microglobulin transcript as an endogenous internal control (IC B2M). RESULTS: The assay was first evaluated for analytical sensitivity and specificity, linearity, reproducibility, and recovery rates with excellent performance characteristics and then applied to 37 wastewater samples previously evaluated with commercially available and in-house quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) assays. IAV was detected in 16/37 (43%), IBV in 19/37 (51%), and RSV in 10/37 (27%) of the wastewater samples. Direct comparison of the developed assay with real-time RT-qPCR assays showed statistically significant high agreement in the detection of IAV (kappa Cohen's correlation coefficient: 0.834, p = 0.001) and RSV (kappa: 0.773, p = 0.001) viruses between the two assays, while the results for the detection of IBV (kappa: 0.355, p = 0.27) showed good agreement without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the developed one-step multiplex ddPCR assay is cost-effective, highly sensitive and specific, and can simultaneously detect three common respiratory viruses in the complex matrix of wastewater samples even at low concentrations. Due to its high sensitivity and resistance to PCR inhibitors, the developed assay could be further used as an early warning system for wastewater monitoring.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Wastewater , Wastewater/virology , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Humans , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Reproducibility of Results , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/virology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1277578, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770363

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Schoolteachers have reported multiple demands contributing to poor perceptions regarding their quality of life and high rates of musculoskeletal disorders. However, there are few studies about the association between musculoskeletal disorders and quality of life from the end of the academic period during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: Evaluate musculoskeletal disorders rates and their association with quality of life perceptions among teachers from the last academic period during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants and methods: A total sample of 161 Chilean schoolteachers was included in a cross-sectional study musculoskeletal disorders prevalence was evaluated using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, and quality of life was evaluated through the Short-Form 12 Health Survey Instrument. A logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association between musculoskeletal disorders and quality of life perceptions adjusted by gender, age, and contract type. Results: 98% of teachers have suffered from some type of musculoskeletal disorders during the last 12 months, and 64% have had six or more painful regions. Women showed a higher musculoskeletal disorders rate than men. The group of teachers with the most musculoskeletal disorders (≥p50) saw significantly greater risk of low scores on the physical (OR: 2.16; p < 0.05) and mental components (OR: 4.86; p < 0.01) of quality of life, regardless of gender, age, and contract type. Conclusion: High musculoskeletal disorders rates suggest that preventive and informative actions must be taken regarding these disorders in order to protect teachers' mental and physical health, considering the effects of the school year and the COVID-19 health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Quality of Life , School Teachers , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Female , Male , Chile/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , School Teachers/psychology , School Teachers/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/psychology
9.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(5)2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771623

ABSTRACT

The emergent fungal pathogen Candida auris is increasingly recognised as an important cause of healthcare-associated infections globally. It is highly transmissible, adaptable, and persistent, resulting in an organism with significant outbreak potential that risks devastating consequences. Progress in the ability to identify C. auris in clinical specimens is encouraging, but laboratory diagnostic capacity and surveillance systems are lacking in many countries. Intrinsic resistance to commonly used antifungals, combined with the ability to rapidly acquire resistance to therapy, substantially restricts treatment options and novel agents are desperately needed. Despite this, outbreaks can be interrupted, and mortality avoided or minimised, through the application of rigorous infection prevention and control measures with an increasing evidence base. This review provides an update on epidemiology, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, risk factors, identification and typing, resistance profiles, treatment, detection of colonisation, and infection prevention and control measures for C. auris. This review has informed a planned 2024 update to the United Kingdom Health Security Agency (UKHSA) guidance on the laboratory investigation, management, and infection prevention and control of Candida auris. A multidisciplinary response is needed to control C. auris transmission in a healthcare setting and should emphasise outbreak preparedness and response, rapid contact tracing and isolation or cohorting of patients and staff, strict hand hygiene and other infection prevention and control measures, dedicated or single-use equipment, appropriate disinfection, and effective communication concerning patient transfers and discharge.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , COVID-19 , Candida auris , Candidiasis , Infection Control , Humans , Candidiasis/prevention & control , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/microbiology , Infection Control/methods , Candida auris/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , England/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Candida/drug effects , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
10.
Ann Hum Biol ; 51(1): 2341727, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and subsequent COVID-19 has spread world-wide and become pandemic with about 7 million deaths reported so far. Interethnic variability of the disease has been described, but a significant part of the differences remain unexplained and may be attributable to genetic factors. AIM: To analyse genetic factors potentially influencing COVID-19 susceptibility and severity in European Roma minority. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two genetic determinants, within OAS-1 (2-prime,5-prime-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, a key protein in the defence against viral infection; it activates RNases that degrade viral RNAs; rs4767027 has been analysed) and LZTFL1 (leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1, expressed in the lung respiratory epithelium; rs35044562 has been analysed) genes were screened in a population-sample of Czech Roma (N = 302) and majority population (N = 2,559). RESULTS: For both polymorphisms, Roma subjects were more likely carriers of at least one risky allele for both rs4767027-C (p < 0.001) and rs35044562-G (p < 0.00001) polymorphism. There were only 5.3% Roma subjects without at least one risky allele in comparison with 10.1% in the majority population (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that different genetic background plays an important role in increased prevalence of COVID-19 in the Roma minority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neanderthals , Roma , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Roma/genetics , Male , Female , Animals , Neanderthals/genetics , Mutation , Middle Aged , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Adult , Prevalence , 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transcription Factors/genetics , Aged
11.
Issues Law Med ; 39(1): 3-20, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771711

ABSTRACT

Background: Nowadays, the quality of medical care and health care measures is considered the main target function of the health care system and at the same time the determining criterion for its activities. Objective: The article examines state regulation of medical care quality post- COVID and during martial law, identifying improvement areas. It emphasizes state roles in healthcare standardization, continuous feedback monitoring, and studying patient satisfaction. Interrelationships among Ukraine's state regulation mechanisms are determined, highlighting the need to enhance tools such as criteria and quality indicators for medical care assurance. Methods: The authors of this article utilize various scientific methods, including analysis, synthesis, induction, and deduction, as well as historical and legal, formal legal, and comparative legal methods to examine the state regulation of ensuring the quality of medical care during martial law in Ukraine. Results: The article considered the interrelationships of mechanisms and instruments of state regulation of quality assurance of medical care in Ukraine. Conclusions: The state should enhance medical care quality regulation, drawing on international experiences from the EU and the USA and adapting best practices to national circumstances. The resilience of the healthcare system depends on effective quality assurance, ensuring preparedness, stability, and ongoing improvement prospects.


Subject(s)
Quality of Health Care , Ukraine , Humans , Quality of Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19 , Quality Assurance, Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Government Regulation , Delivery of Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government
12.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2350654, 2024 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771862

ABSTRACT

The local manufacture of advanced pharmaceutical products has been a long-standing objective of health and industry policy in many developing countries, including in Latin America. This strategy has been applied to fight epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we still know little about the politics and governance that enable such arrangements, especially when there is no consent from the originator company. This study focuses on the case of Brazil, a country that is well-known for its health-industry policy, which includes the local production of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), a new treatment for hepatitis C. We seek to explain the factors that have contributed to Brazil's successful production of generic versions of DAAs, and, later, to the decision by the Ministry of Health (MoH) to procure drugs from multinational pharmaceutical companies rather than from local laboratories. A lack of support for domestic production by important stakeholders, the patent holder's attempt to block domestic production and the MoH's adoption of more modern treatment guidelines under a different procurement logic all created an unfavourable environment for local production and procurement of DAAs. Our study draws implications for middle-income countries that wish to produce drugs domestically without voluntary license agreements.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Industry , Hepatitis C , Politics , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Brazil , Humans , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Policy
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(22): e2313496121, 2024 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771874

ABSTRACT

Closing the achievement gap for minority students in higher education requires addressing the lack of belonging these students experience. This paper introduces a psychological intervention that strategically targets key elements within the learning environment to foster the success of minority students. The intervention sought to enhance Palestinian minority student's sense of belonging by increasing the presence of their native language. We tested the effectiveness of the intervention in two field experiments in Israel (n > 20,000), at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic when all classes were held via Zoom. Lecturers in the experimental condition added a transcript of their names in Arabic to their default display (English/Hebrew only). Our findings revealed a substantial and positive impact on Palestinian student's sense of belonging, class participation, and overall grades. In experiment 1, Palestinian student's average grade increased by 10 points. In experiment 2, there was an average increase of 4 points among Palestinian students' semester grade. Our intervention demonstrates that small institutional changes when carefully crafted can have a significant impact on minority populations. These results have significant implications for addressing educational disparities and fostering inclusive learning environment.


Subject(s)
Arabs , COVID-19 , Minority Groups , Students , Humans , Israel , Minority Groups/education , Minority Groups/psychology , Students/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Arabs/psychology , Male , Learning , Education, Distance/methods , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(22): e2316300121, 2024 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771876

ABSTRACT

The transition to remote learning in the context of COVID-19 led to dramatic setbacks in education. Is the return to in-person classes sufficient to eliminate these losses eventually? We study this question using data from the universe of secondary students in São Paulo State, Brazil. We estimate the causal medium-run impacts of the length of exposure to remote learning during the pandemic through a triple-differences strategy, which contrasts changes in educational outcomes across municipalities and grades that resumed in-person classes earlier (already by Q4/2020) or only in 2021. We find that relative learning losses from longer exposure to remote learning did not fade out over time-attesting that school reopening was at the same time key but not enough to mitigate accumulated learning losses in face of persistence. Using observational and experimental variation in local responses across 645 municipalities, we further document that remedial educational policies in the aftermath of the pandemic boosted learning recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Education, Distance/methods , Schools , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Students , Learning , Adolescent
15.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1309: 342693, 2024 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CRISPR-Cas12a based one-step assays are widely used for nucleic acid detection, particularly for pathogen detection. However, the detection capability of the one-step assay is reduced because the Cas12a protein competes with the isothermal amplification enzymes for the target DNA and cleaves it. Therefore, the key to improving the sensitivity of the one-step assay is to address the imbalance between isothermal amplification and CRISPR detection. In previous study, we developed a Cas12a one-step assay using single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified crRNA (mD-crRNA) and applied this method for the detection of pathogenic DNA. RESULTS: Here, we utilized mD-crRNA to establish a sensitive one-step assay that enables the visual detection of SARS-CoV-2 under ultraviolet light, achieving a detection limit of 5 aM without cross-reactivity. The sensitivity of mD-crRNA in the one-step assay was 100-fold higher than that of wild-type crRNA. Mechanistic studies revealed that the addition of ssDNA at the 3' end of mD-crRNA attenuates the binding affinity between the Cas12a-mD-crRNA complex and the target DNA. Consequently, this reduction in binding affinity decreases the cis-cleavage activity of Cas12a, mitigating its cleavage of the target DNA in the one-step assay. As a result, there is an augmentation in the amplification and accumulation of target DNA, thereby enhancing detection sensitivity. In the clinical testing of 40 SARS-CoV-2 RNA samples, the concordance between the results of the one-step assay and known qPCR results was 97.5 %. SIGNIFICANCE: The one-step assay using mD-crRNA proves to be highly sensitive and specificity and visually effective for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Our study delves into the application of the mD-crRNA-mediated one-step assay in nucleic acid detection and its associated reaction mechanism. This holds great significance in addressing the inherent incompatibility issues between isothermal amplification and CRISPR detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA, Single-Stranded , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , DNA, Single-Stranded/chemistry , DNA, Single-Stranded/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Limit of Detection , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Endodeoxyribonucleases/chemistry , Endodeoxyribonucleases/metabolism , Endodeoxyribonucleases/genetics , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/metabolism , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins
16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1309: 342671, 2024 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772664

ABSTRACT

Electrochemical biosensors, known for their low cost, sensitivity, selectivity, and miniaturization capabilities, are ideal for point-of-care devices. The magnetic metal-organic framework (MMOF), synthesized using the in-situ growth method, consists of ferric salt, magnetic nanoparticles, histidine, and benzene tetracarboxylic acid. MMOF was sequentially modified with aptamer-biotin and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, serving as a detector for spike protein and a transducer converting electrochemical signals using H2O2-hydroquinone on a screen-printed electrode. MMOF facilitates easy washing and homogeneous deposition on the working electrode with a magnet, enhancing sensitivity and reducing noise. The physical and electrochemical properties of the modified MMOFs were thoroughly characterized using various analytical techniques. The aptasensors' performance achieved a detection limit of 6 pM for voltammetry and 5.12 pM for impedance spectroscopy in human serum samples. This cost-effective, portable MMOF platform is suitable for rapid point-of-care testing for SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , Electrochemical Techniques , Limit of Detection , Metal-Organic Frameworks , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Humans , Biosensing Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Magnetite Nanoparticles/chemistry , Electrodes
17.
J Med Virol ; 96(5): e29681, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773815

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus gastroenteritis is accountable for an estimated 128 500 deaths among children younger than 5 years worldwide, and the majority occur in low-income countries. Although the clinical trials of rotavirus vaccines in Bangladesh revealed a significant reduction of severe rotavirus disease by around 50%, the vaccines are not yet included in the routine immunization program. The present study was designed to provide data on rotavirus diarrhea with clinical profiles and genotypes before (2017-2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020-2021). Fecal samples were collected from 2% of the diarrheal patients at icddr,b Dhaka hospital of all ages between January 2017 and December 2021 and were tested for VP6 rotavirus antigen using ELISA. The clinical manifestations such as fever, duration of diarrhea and hospitalization, number of stools, and dehydration and so on were collected from the surveillance database (n = 3127). Of the positive samples, 10% were randomly selected for genotyping using Sanger sequencing method. A total of 12 705 fecal samples were screened for rotavirus A antigen by enzyme immunoassay. Overall, 3369 (27%) were rotavirus antigen-positive, of whom children <2 years had the highest prevalence (88.6%). The risk of rotavirus A infection was 4.2 times higher in winter than in summer. Overall, G3P[8] was the most prominent genotype (45.3%), followed by G1P[8] (32.1%), G9P[8] (6.8%), and G2P[4] (6.1%). The other unusual combinations, such as G1P[4], G1P[6], G2P[6], G3P[4], G3P[6], and G9P[6], were also present. Genetic analysis on Bangladeshi strains revealed that the selection pressure (dN/dS) was estimated as <1. The number of hospital visits showed a 37% drop during the COVID-19 pandemic relative to the years before the pandemic. Conversely, there was a notable increase in the rate of rotavirus positivity during the pandemic (34%, p < 0.00) compared to the period before COVID-19 (23%). Among the various clinical symptoms, only the occurrence of watery stool significantly increased during the pandemic. The G2P[4] strain showed a sudden rise (19%) in 2020, which then declined in 2021. In the same year, G1P[8] was more prevalent than G3P[8] (40% vs. 38%, respectively). The remaining genotypes were negligible and did not exhibit much fluctuation. This study reveals that the rotavirus burden remained high during the COVID-19 prepandemic and pandemic in Bangladesh. Considering the lack of antigenic variations between the circulating and vaccine-targeted strains, integrating the vaccine into the national immunization program could reduce the prevalence of the disease, the number of hospitalizations, and the severity of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feces , Genotype , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Humans , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Child, Preschool , Infant , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feces/virology , Female , Male , Child , Diarrhea/virology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Infant, Newborn , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Young Adult , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Middle Aged , Seasons
18.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2345970, 2024 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic affected healthcare delivery globally, impacting care access and delivery of essential services. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the pandemic's impact on care for patients with type 2 diabetes and factors associated with care disruption in Kenya and Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults diagnosed with diabetes pre-COVID-19. Data were collected in February-April 2022 reflecting experiences at two time-points, three months before and the three months most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire captured data on blood glucose testing, changes in medication prescription and access, and healthcare provider access. RESULTS: We recruited 1000 participants (500/country). Diabetes care was disrupted in both countries, with 34.8% and 32.8% of the participants reporting change in place and frequency of testing in Kenya, respectively. In Tanzania, 12.4% and 17.8% reported changes in location and frequency of glucose testing, respectively. The number of health facility visits declined, 14.4% (p < 0.001) in Kenya and 5.6% (p = 0.001) in Tanzania. In Kenya, there was a higher likelihood of severe care disruption among insured patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI][1.05-2.34]; p = 0.029) and a lower likelihood among patients residing in rural areas (aOR, 0.35[95%CI, 0.22-0.58]; p < 0.001). Tanzania had a lower likelihood of severe disruption among insured patients (aOR, 0.51[95%CI, 0.33-0.79]; p = 0.003) but higher likelihood among patients with low economic status (aOR, 1.81[95%CI, 1.14-2.88]; p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 disrupted diabetes care more in Kenya than Tanzania. Health systems and emergency preparedness should be strengthened to ensure continuity of service provision for patients with diabetes.


Main findings: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted diabetes care in Kenya and Tanzania resulting in changes in place and frequency of blood glucose testing, medication prescribed (less oral hypoglycaemics and more insulin), fewer health facility visits and more difficulty accessing healthcare providers.Added knowledge: This study quantifies the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on diabetes care in Kenya and Tanzania, and describes the factors associated with care disruption in both countries.Global health impact for policy and action: Evidence on diabetes care disruption is useful in making plans and policies responsive to the needs of diabetes patients during pandemics or related emergency situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Tanzania/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Male , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Pandemics
19.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2351782, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775008

ABSTRACT

Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are among the most vulnerable groups to experience burnout during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Understanding the risk and protective factors of burnout is crucial in guiding the development of interventions; however, the understanding of burnout determinants in the Canadian HCW population remains limited.Objective: Identify risk and protective factors associated with burnout in Canadian HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate organizational factors as moderators in the relationship between COVID-19 contact and burnout.Methods: Data were drawn from an online longitudinal survey of Canadian HCWs collected between 26 June 2020 and 31 December 2020. Participants completed questions pertaining to their well-being, burnout, workplace support and concerns relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. Baseline data from 1029 HCWs were included in the analysis. Independent samples t-tests and multiple linear regression were used to evaluate factors associated with burnout scores.Results: HCWs in contact with COVID-19 patients showed significantly higher likelihood of probable burnout than HCWs not directly providing care to COVID-19 patients. Fewer years of work experience was associated with a higher likelihood of probable burnout, whereas stronger workplace support, organizational leadership, supervisory leadership, and a favourable ethical climate were associated with a decreased likelihood of probable burnout. Workplace support, organizational leadership, supervisory leadership, and ethical climate did not moderate the associations between contact with COVID-19 patients and burnout.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HCWs who worked directly with COVID-19 patients, had fewer years of work experience, and perceived poor workplace support, organizational leadership, supervisory leadership and ethical climate were at higher risk of burnout. Ensuring reasonable work hours, adequate support from management, and fostering an ethical work environment are potential organizational-level strategies to maintain HCWs' well-being.


Canadian HCWs endorsed high levels of burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic.Having direct contact with COVID-19 patients and having fewer years of work experience were associated with a higher likelihood of probable burnout.Having stronger workplace support, greater perceived organizational and supervisory leadership, and a favourable ethical climate were associated with a lower likelihood of probable burnout.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Male , Adult , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace/psychology , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors
20.
JCI Insight ; 9(10)2024 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775156

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence, SARS-CoV-2 has been continuously evolving, hampering the effectiveness of current vaccines against COVID-19. mAbs can be used to treat patients at risk of severe COVID-19. Thus, the development of broadly protective mAbs and an understanding of the underlying protective mechanisms are of great importance. Here, we isolated mAbs from donors with breakthrough infection with Omicron subvariants using a single-B cell screening platform. We identified a mAb, O5C2, which possesses broad-spectrum neutralization and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxic activities against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including EG.5.1. Single-particle analysis by cryo-electron microscopy revealed that O5C2 targeted an unusually large epitope within the receptor-binding domain of spike protein that overlapped with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding interface. Furthermore, O5C2 effectively protected against BA.5 Omicron infection in vivo by mediating changes in transcriptomes enriched in genes involved in apoptosis and interferon responses. Our findings provide insights into the development of pan-protective mAbs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Animals , Mice , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/immunology , Female
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