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1.
Soc Sci Res ; 105: 102709, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659046

ABSTRACT

We develop a novel methodology to explore the extent to which teacher and school assignments between fourth and eighth grade contribute to inequalities between advantaged and disadvantaged students-as defined by underrepresented minority (URM) status and eligibility for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL)-in their eighth-grade math and science test scores and high school math and science course-taking. We find that differences between advantaged and disadvantaged students in teacher and school assignments predict about 25% of the eighth-grade math test gaps, 10% of the eighth-grade science test gaps, and 35% of the gaps in advanced math course-taking. For science course-taking, school and teacher assignments predict about 20% of the URM gap and 10% of the FRL gap. While this methodology does not permit causal conclusions, the results are robust to analyses of a subsample in which students do not appear to be assigned to teachers based on prior test achievement.


Subject(s)
Achievement , Schools , Humans , Mathematics , Minority Groups , School Teachers , Students
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 222: 105479, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696756

ABSTRACT

The learning of number knowledge in childhood may directly influence children's mathematics learning ability in subsequent periods. Previous studies also show that the difficulties in mathematics learning faced by schoolchildren are mainly rooted in the lack of number knowledge in early childhood. Focusing on the development of numerical knowledge and basic arithmetic skills in early childhood, this study designed a linear number line game based on the theory of the mental number line. Accordingly, this study examined the effectiveness of the linear number line game in children's learning of number concepts and arithmetic skills and compared the effectiveness of the linear number line game with that of two other games (a nonlinear number line game and a non-number-line game). This study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. A total of 140 young children from remote areas of eastern Taiwan participated and were divided into three experimental groups and one control group, and a pretest-posttest experiment was conducted. The experimental results showed that the linear number line game could help children to acquire numerical knowledge effectively, especially in number line estimation compared with other experimental groups. In terms of the learning effectiveness of basic arithmetic skills (e.g., addition, subtraction), the two number line games (linear and nonlinear number line games) are significantly superior to the non-number-line game (traditional number decomposition and synthesis game). This study recommends that preschool teachers use linear number line games to improve children's numerical knowledge and arithmetic skills.


Subject(s)
Learning , School Teachers , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Knowledge , Mathematics
3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682110

ABSTRACT

The quality of work and task implementation in educational institutions to a large extent depends on the personnel of those institutions. This is particularly true in the case of teaching pupils with special educational needs. The climate of education and learning and job satisfaction depend on teachers themselves. The purpose of this study was to verify the extent to which the type of educational institution (a mainstream or special school) moderates the correlation between teachers' subjective evaluation of the organizational climate, their job satisfaction, and work-related emotions. The study involved 214 teachers representing all levels of school education in Poland, i.e., primary, middle, and high schools attended by pupils with special educational needs. Half of the teachers worked in mainstream schools and the other half-in special schools. The study used: The Organizational Climate Questionnaire by Litwin and Stringer; The Satisfaction with Job Scale; and The Work Affect Scale. The results clearly suggest that the teachers' perception of the organizational climate is a strong predictor of their job satisfaction and work-related emotions. A positive climate is associated with high satisfaction and good emotions (enthusiasm and comfort) while a negative climate co-occurs with low satisfaction and bad emotions (anxiety and depression). The organizational type of institution (mainstream or special school) does not significantly affect the above predictive attribute of the organizational climate.


Subject(s)
Educational Personnel , Job Satisfaction , Emotions , Faculty , Humans , School Teachers/psychology , Schools
4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682258

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of perceived support from principals and teacher professional identity (TPI) on teacher's motivation, vigour and burnout using a longitudinal design during a school year. A sample of 544 secondary teachers reported their perceived support from principals and TPI at the beginning of the year (T1) and their self-determined motivation, vigour, and burnout both at the beginning (T1) and at the end of the year (T2). Structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed that the support from principals was associated with T1 TPI. T1 TPI only partially predicted T2 self-determined motivation (controlling T1 scores), and T2 self-determined motivation was associated with T2 burnout and vigour (controlling T1 scores). The SEM revealed a positive process involving perceived support from principals, pedagogical expertise, autonomous motivation, and well-being indicators. In summary, the present study extends the knowledge about the teacher well-being process and the role of contextual and individual antecedents. In an applied perspective, to prevent burnout, teachers need efficient initial and continuing pedagogical education to be armed in front of the students and need the support of their principals during the school year.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Educational Personnel , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Motivation , School Teachers , Students
5.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2088456, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711126

ABSTRACT

A growing body of research has been focusing recently on the life and well-being of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and also on the well-being of their teachers. However, there is a need for in-depth, qualitative insights into ADHD issues from the teachers' perspectives. Therefore, the main aim of this qualitative study was to use thematic analysis to explore how teachers perceive the relationship with students with ADHD and the factors that influence the quality of this relationship. Sixteen teachers working with adolescent ADHD students were interviewed for this purpose. The results indicate that the quality of the teacher-ADHD student relationship is associated with the ADHD students related behaviours, ambivalent emotions of the teacher, the teacher's beliefs about ADHD and the beliefs about the determinants of the behaviour of the students with ADHD and the teacher's approaches and methods of work in the classroom. Furthermore, the results suggest that increasing the quality of the teachers' well-being is associated with knowledge of ADHD determinants, regulation of ambivalent emotions, empathy, teachers' ability to perceive positive qualities and the potentials of the students with ADHD and their motivation to teach ADHD students.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Emotions , Humans , Motivation , School Teachers/psychology , Students/psychology
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742377

ABSTRACT

Preschool teachers' job burnout has many adverse effects on their career development; although some studies have examined the influencing factors of teachers' burnout, less were explored from the perspective of individual factors. This study aimed to examine the relationship between mindfulness and job burnout of preschool teachers, and the mediating effects of emotional intelligence and coping style. A total of 394 preschool teachers in China filled in questionnaires measuring mindfulness, emotional intelligence, coping style, and job burnout. The findings suggested that: (1) mindfulness was negatively related to job burnout; (2) emotional intelligence and negative coping style played independent mediating effects between mindfulness and job burnout; and (3) emotional intelligence and positive coping style played a chain mediating effect between mindfulness and job burnout. The results revealed the mechanism of mindfulness on preschool teachers' job burnout, which is of great significance for the psychological intervention of preschool teachers in the future.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Mindfulness , Adaptation, Psychological , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Child, Preschool , Emotional Intelligence , Humans , Job Satisfaction , School Teachers/psychology
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Ghana, the COVID-19 pandemic led to the government's decision to shut down schools for nearly nine months. This study explores the experiences of preschool teachers in Ghana during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study was carried out using the Qualitative Description approach and aspects of Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory. Twenty-five teachers agreed to carry out face-to-face interviews with the researchers. An audio recorder device was used to record the interviews, with each interview lasting between 35-55 min. The analysis was carried out by two researchers who served as coders, and MAXQDA 2022 (VERBI Software GmbH) was used to do the analysis. RESULTS: All twenty-five participants indicated their awareness of COVID-19. Participants said they were so "Scared" when they heard about COVID-19 that it could spell the doom for all humanity. Participants also talked about the extra workload that came upon them as a result of the pandemic and the "financial challenges" that they went through during the pandemic because they had no income since they were not teaching. Study participants indicated that one benefit of the pandemic was the heightened awareness of the need to practice hygienic behavior in their classroom. CONCLUSION: Participants' beliefs about the virus being lethal led to mask wearing and the practice of hygienic behavior. Thus, although the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted the emotional and financial status of the studied participants, a positive outcome was the participants' awareness of the need to practice positive health behavior, which will contribute to the overall health and safety of everyone in the preschool environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , School Teachers , Schools
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269007, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704605

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted using a mixed methods approach combining lesson observations and interviews with teachers. A total of 204 hours of observation in 34 classes of 7th and 8th graders (aged 13-14 in the Polish primary school system) were conducted to investigate teachers' behaviour that may exacerbate gender stereotypes and gender bias in the classroom. Moreover, the 25 female teachers conducting the observed lessons were interviewed to identify: (i) teachers' awareness of stereotypical behaviours of girls and boys during classes; (ii) teachers' awareness of possible causes of these behaviours; (iii) teachers' responses to these behaviours, including actions that could deepen gender stereotypes; and (iv) teachers' sensitivity to the gender polarised content of school textbooks. The results of the study show that teachers, although they are aware of the existence of gender stereotypes and declare their willingness to counteract them, tend to strengthen rather than eliminate these stereotypes with the strategies and actions undertaken. They have difficulty recognising possible reasons for the occurrence of stereotypical student behaviour and have little awareness of the gender-polarised content of school textbooks. The results of the study are discussed, inter alia, in light of the concept of the vicious circle of stereotypes and self-fulfilling prophecies in education.


Subject(s)
Educational Personnel , Sexism , Female , Humans , Male , School Teachers , Schools , Students
9.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270125, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schools provide a big opportunity for promoting the student's health, life skill, and behavior. Teachers play a fundamental role in the promotion and successful implementation of school health services. This study aimed to assess the level of involvement in the Health Promoting School program and its associated factors and to explore the benefits and barriers to involvement among high school teachers in Myanmar. METHODS: A mixed methods explanatory sequential study was conducted among 194 high school teachers in Thanlyin Township, Yangon Region, Myanmar, from June to August 2020. Quantitative data were collected with the pretested structural questionnaire and analyzed by Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests. A qualitative strand was added by conducting in-depth interviews (n = 15, five teachers from each level of involvement: poor, medium, and good), analyzed by thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Of the 194 teachers, 23.7% had a good level of involvement in the Health Promoting School program. The factor associated with involvement in Health Promoting School program were age (p value < 0.001), duration of services (p value = 0.001), and a number of accomplished training-related school health (p value = 0.008). Qualitative data revealed that improvement of the health knowledge and awareness on health problems, the progress of healthy behaviors, development of physical and mental health, prevention of the disease spread, achievement of healthy and productive learning environment, and development of academic achievement were major benefits of teachers' involvement. Moreover, the main barriers to involvement were insufficient materials and human resources, time constraints, incompetence of the teachers, poor cooperation of school health partnerships, and insufficient awareness of parents. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of good involvement in the Health Promoting School program among high school teachers was low in this study area. Providing sufficient human resources and material, conducting the on-the-job and refresher training, enhancing parent-teacher cooperation, and strengthening the community partnerships were crucial to improve the level of involvement and reduced the barriers for the achievement of the Health Promoting School program.


Subject(s)
School Teachers , Schools , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Promotion , Humans , Myanmar , School Health Services , School Teachers/psychology
10.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e12, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Globally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is rising because of increased levels of physical inactivity and obesity. In South Africa, information about teachers' physical activity (PA), body fatness and MS is limited. AIM:  To assess the relationship between PA, body fatness and MS in urban South African teachers. SETTING:  The study setting was in Dr Kenneth Kaunda District in the North West province of South Africa. METHODS:  A cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data drawn from the sympathetic activity and ambulatory blood pressure in Africans (SABPA) study of 216 teachers (aged 25-65 years). Variables included anthropometry, biochemical measurements, objectively measured PA and lifestyle behaviours. RESULTS:  Twenty-nine percent of the total participants were classified with MS, with 46% in men compared to 13% in women; 33% were sedentary and 67% participated in light activity. A weak significant negative relationship was found between the mean 7-day awake metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs) and triglycerides (r = -0.29; p = 0.02) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (r = -0.25; p = 0.06), activity energy expenditure (r = -0.24; p = 0.06) and PA level (r = -0.23; p = 0.07). After adjusting for age, self-reported smoking and alcohol use or consumption, a weak significant negative relationship between mean 7-day awake METs and triglycerides (r = -0.28; p  0.01) was observed. CONCLUSION:  In the teachers with MS, only one MS marker (triglycerides) showed a negative association with PA. Physical activity could therefore be beneficial in the regulation of triglycerides. Participation in regular PA could be beneficial in the regulation of triglycerides. Focused PA interventions in school teachers that advocate the benefits of PA and healthy lifestyle choices to reduce dietary fat intake (and alcohol) are recommended.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Syndrome , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , School Teachers , South Africa/epidemiology , Triglycerides
11.
Work ; 72(2): 409-419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stress and unhealthy lifestyle are serious problems in public health and education, particularly due to their significant relevance in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To determine the correlation between stress and lifestyle in teachers at some schools in Lima, Peru, during telework in 2020. METHODS: This observational, quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted in 217 school teachers from Lima. Lifestyle was measured using the FANTASTIC questionnaire; stress was measured using the Teaching Stress Scale (ED-6), comprised of the anxiety, depression, maladaptive beliefs, work pressure and poor coping dimensions. The Spearman correlation between numerical variables, and the difference of the FANTASTIC score according to the categorical variables, were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test, as necessary. Multivariable analysis was done with a multiple linear regression model to find raw and adjusted ß (ßa). RESULTS: The median of the ED-6 scale was 81 (RI: 64-105). Sixty-four percent of the teachers had a good-excellent lifestyle; 27.2%, regular; and 8.49%, bad-dangerous. The FANTASTIC score had an inverse correlation with ED-6 (ßa: -0.16, 95%; CI: -0.20 to -0.12) adjusted for age and cohabitation with children. Likewise, teachers between 40 and 49 years old (ßa: 2.89, 95%; CI: 0.17 to 5.62) had a better lifestyle; and teachers who lived with children (ßa: -5.48, 95%; CI: -7.89 to -3.06), a worse lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: As stress increased, the lifestyle quality worsened in teachers at some schools in Lima, Peru, during telework in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Faculty , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Life Style , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peru , School Teachers , Teleworking
12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565168

ABSTRACT

We aimed to review the determinants of burnout onset in teachers. The study was conducted according to the PROSPERO protocol CRD42018105901, with a focus on teachers. We performed a literature search from 1990 to 2021 in three databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included longitudinal studies assessing burnout as a dependent variable, with a sample of at least 50 teachers. We summarized studies by the types of determinant and used the MEVORECH tool for a risk of bias assessment (RBA). The quantitative synthesis focused on emotional exhaustion. We standardized the reported regression coefficients and their standard errors and plotted them using R software to distinguish between detrimental and protective determinants. A qualitative analysis of the included studies (n = 33) identified 61 burnout determinants. The RBA showed that most studies had external and internal validity issues. Most studies implemented two waves (W) of data collection with 6-12 months between W1 and W2. Four types of determinants were summarized quantitatively, namely support, conflict, organizational context, and individual characteristics, based on six studies. This systematic review identified detrimental determinants of teacher exhaustion, including job satisfaction, work climate or pressure, teacher self-efficacy, neuroticism, perceived collective exhaustion, and classroom disruption. We recommend that authors consider using harmonized methods and protocols such as those developed in OMEGA-NET and other research consortia.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Educational Personnel , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Psychological , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Longitudinal Studies , School Teachers/psychology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268509, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594272

ABSTRACT

The remarkable upsurge in the attention for STEM education globally has inspired many countries including Malaysia to formulate STEM education policies to reform the existing segmented teaching of the four STEM subjects towards integrated teaching. One of the Malaysian government's initiatives include establishing a framework as a guide for teachers to practise STEM teaching. This exploratory, mixed methods study aimed to explore Malaysian science and mathematics teachers' perceptions to practise STEM teaching and develop a questionnaire to measure factors that explain their teaching practices. The interview findings identified teachers' knowledge of interdisciplinary and related pedagogical strategies, challenges encountered in STEM teaching practices, and teachers' self-efficacy beliefs to perform STEM teaching as factors that explain STEM teaching practices. Following that, a 33-item questionnaire was developed based on the qualitative findings. The results of exploratory factor analysis produced four distinct factors echoing the qualitative findings with 29 items, which were then validated using confirmatory composite analysis (CCA). CCA results in retaining all four factors and removing six items with lower loading values. Thus, the final version of the questionnaire consists of 23 items. The findings of this study were expected to benefit STEM advocates and educators globally. Additionally, the developed questionnaire would allow collective measurement of the factors that explain STEM teaching practices.


Subject(s)
Educational Personnel , School Teachers , Humans , Mathematics , Self Efficacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teaching
14.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(6): 2343-2363, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Growing evidence suggests that fatigue associated with listening difficulties is particularly problematic for children with hearing loss (CHL). However, sensitive, reliable, and valid measures of listening-related fatigue do not exist. To address this gap, this article describes the development, psychometric evaluation, and preliminary validation of a suite of scales designed to assess listening-related fatigue in CHL: the pediatric versions of the Vanderbilt Fatigue Scale (VFS-Peds). METHOD: Test development employed best practices, including operationalizing the construct of listening-related fatigue from the perspective of target respondents (i.e., children, their parents, and teachers). Test items were developed based on input from these groups. Dimensionality was evaluated using exploratory factor analyses (EFAs). Item response theory (IRT) and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were used to identify high-quality items, which were further evaluated and refined to create the final versions of the VFS-Peds. RESULTS: The VFS-Peds is appropriate for use with children aged 6-17 years and consists of child self-report (VFS-C), parent proxy-report (VFS-P), and teacher proxy-report (VFS-T) scales. EFA of child self-report and teacher proxy data suggested that listening-related fatigue was unidimensional in nature. In contrast, parent data suggested a multidimensional construct, composed of mental (cognitive, social, and emotional) and physical domains. IRT analyses suggested that items were of good quality, with high information and good discriminability. DIF analyses revealed the scales provided a comparable measure of fatigue regardless of the child's gender, age, or hearing status. Test information was acceptable over a wide range of fatigue severities and all scales yielded acceptable reliability and validity. CONCLUSIONS: This article describes the development, psychometric evaluation, and validation of the VFS-Peds. Results suggest that the VFS-Peds provide a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of listening-related fatigue in children that may be appropriate for clinical use. Such scales could be used to identify those children most affected by listening-related fatigue, and given their apparent sensitivity, the scales may also be useful for examining the effectiveness of potential interventions targeting listening-related fatigue in children. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19836154.


Subject(s)
Auditory Perception , Hearing Loss , Mental Fatigue , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Auditory Perception/physiology , Child , Hearing Loss/physiopathology , Humans , Mental Fatigue/diagnosis , Parents , Proxy , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , School Teachers
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 343, 2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common mental disorder and the leading cause of disability globally. Depression has a significant impact on the quality of life, cognition, emotion, and daily functioning and leads individuals to 39% of suicide globally. Previous studies reported that the magnitude of depression is higher among teachers than in the general population. However, little is known in the case of Ethiopia. Therefore this study aimed to assess the magnitude of depressive symptoms and associated factors among public school teachers in Jimma town. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study using was conducted a multistage random sampling technique. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress 21 items scale. The data were entered into Epi Data version 3.1 and analyzed using STATA V 14.2. Variables with p < 0.25 in the bi-variable logistic regression analysis were entered into a multivariable binary logistic regression to identify predictors. A statistically significant association was declared at a p-value < 0.05. RESULT: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in this study was found to be 44.7% (95% CI: 40-49.3). Moderate and severe level of occupational stress (AOR; 2.63 CI; 1.32, 5.28 and AOR; 4.15 CI; 1.83, 9.45) respectively, having stress, (AOR; 2.40 CI; 1.48, 3.90), having Anxiety symptoms (AOR; 4.43 CI; 2.79, 7.06) and consumption of alcohol (AOR; 2.21 CI; 1.11, 4.37) were identified as a significant predictor for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The study revealed that there is a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among participants. Moderate and severe levels of occupational stress, having stress, having anxiety, and consumption of alcohol were factors that are significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Therefore, giving awareness and routine screening of depressive symptoms among teachers is crucial in early detection and management.


Subject(s)
Depression , Occupational Stress , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Quality of Life , School Teachers
16.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268098, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522650

ABSTRACT

In Maldives' primary schools, physical education (PE) is mainly taught by generalist classroom teachers who often lack knowledge and confidence to teach PE. Also, PE programs in primary schools are affected by a perceived lack of infrastructure, resources and equipment. Children in primary schools are allocated one 35 minute period of PE per week. Researchers have previously investigated interventions implemented by specialist PE teachers to enhance the motivation of secondary school students in PE classes. However, limited research has been conducted with generalist teachers' implementing PE intervention with primary school children. In this study we applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of a professional learning program and an associated resource support package, that was then delivered by the Maldives generalist teachers' delivering PE. The participants were 30 primary school teachers (control group, n = 15; intervention group, n = 15), and their 725 primary school students aged 9-12 years (mean age of 10.5 years). The teachers in the group undertook eight hours of professional learning that focused on strategies and behaviours to support student satisfaction for the three main elements of self-determination theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. A repeated measure ANCOVA was carried out for each of the dependent variables. Overall results when compared to pre-intervention measures, the students of teachers in the intervention group significantly increased their post-intervention perceptions for autonomy, competence, and relatedness; and, increased their psychological need satisfaction. Moreover, intervention-students in the post-intervention phase reported reduced need frustration for autonomy, competence, and relatedness; and, experienced higher levels of self-efficacy, enjoyment and engagement. We contend that these results accentuate the usefulness of professional learning programs for generalist teachers delivering PE to promote students' psychological need satisfaction, whilst reducing thwarting behaviours to enhance students' self-determined motivation toward PE classes. The intervention program significantly enhanced the students' perceived need support, and autonomous motivation, it also reduced teachers' need frustrating behaviours within PE classes. Facilitating teachers to provide more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and psychological need support could reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases that are currently prevalent in the Maldives.


Subject(s)
Personal Autonomy , Physical Education and Training , Child , Humans , Motivation , School Teachers/psychology , Schools
17.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e15182, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the revision of the Japanese School Health and Safety Law in 2016, the use of growth and obesity curves has been recommended. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of growth and obesity curve creation in elementary and junior high schools using government-issued software in Japan between 2016 and 2019. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted with school nursing teachers in elementary and junior high schools in Osaka, Japan. The questionnaire was distributed and collected by e-mail between 1 and 31 March 2020. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 87.1%. In total, 78.5% of the elementary schools, and 75.0% of the junior high schools had the software for creating the growth curves. The rate of adoption of growth curve creation using the software increased in elementary schools (from 16.2% in 2016 to 40.5% in 2019 and in junior high schools from 6.0% in 2016 to 33.6% in 2019. The detection rates of growth abnormalities also increased over the 4 years in elementary and junior high schools, as follows: short stature (2.48- and 3.81-fold, respectively), tall stature (2.77- and 4.77-fold, respectively), emaciation (2.62 and 4.85-fold, respectively), mild obesity (2.66 and 5.15-fold, respectively), moderate obesity (2.71- and 4.14-fold, respectively), and severe obesity (2.45- and 3.32-fold, respectively). The rates of receiving a recommendation slip and going on to consult a specialist for each growth abnormality were low. CONCLUSIONS: By utilizing these curves, the detection rate of physical development abnormalities increased, but the rate of recommending a specialist consultation and the rate of actual consultation with a specialist were still low.


Subject(s)
School Nursing , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , School Teachers , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(20): e29209, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608421

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019, causing significant changes in people's social lives and other human activities. The outbreak halted educational activities throughout the world. The Nigerian experience was unique in that most people were skeptical about the pandemic's existence. This practice contributed to the Nigerian people's fear of the COVID-19 outbreak. However, in Nigeria, there has never been a validated or established Covid-19 phobia scale, necessitating this study.This study was a pure validation study on COVID-19 phobia scale (C19PS). The study area was south-east states and a sample of 386 preschool practitioners in urban and rural communities of South East States, Nigeria participated in the study. The eligibility criteria include being a preschool teacher and demonstrating signs of COVID-19 phobia. The validation of the C19PS was done by subjecting the data gathered to principal axis factoring analysis with varimax rotation. The model fit for the data was tested using root mean square error of approximation and comparative fit index.It was found that the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value of .845 for the measure of the adequacy of the sample size. There was also a significant Bartlett's test of sphericity (P < .05). This implies that the correlation matrix for the C19PS is not an identity matrix. It was revealed that C19PS had good overall reliability (α = .896) and model fit (Root mean square error of approximation = .042, comparative fit index = .943) in a sample of Nigerian preschool practitioners.As a result, C19PS was recommended as a trustworthy tool for identifying persons who suffer from COVID-19 phobia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phobic Disorders , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Rural Population , School Teachers , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564439

ABSTRACT

Inclusive education aims to eliminate barriers in the participation and performance of students, considering their diversity. In this sense, there is a regulation that governs the educational response, being different for each region. Therefore, this study aims to know the attitude of Physical Education teachers of different educational stages in Spain toward students with disabilities. A questionnaire was administered to 272 Physical Education teachers from public schools in a region of Spain. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the relationships between items and dimensions according to sex or center location, and Spearman's Rho was used to analyze the relationship between dimensions and years of experience. The main results showed that teachers do not feel prepared in terms of training, resources, and infrastructure, although they consider that the integration of students with disabilities in regular classes is beneficial for them.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Physical Education and Training , Attitude , Disabled Persons/education , Humans , School Teachers , Schools , Students
20.
Child Dev ; 93(3): 681-698, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503089

ABSTRACT

This study used secondary data from the My Teaching Partner-Math/Science 2013-2016 randomized control trial to explore whether equitable sociocultural classroom interactions (see Curenton et al., 2019) were associated with the skills of 105 four- and five-year-olds (52% boys; drawn from 20 unique video recordings of preschool teachers/classrooms; 43% were Black, Latine, Asian, or other racially marginalized learners). Equitable interactions predicted children's skills with effect sizes ranging from small (0.01-0.44) to large (1.00). Moderation analyses revealed that when classrooms had more racially marginalized learners, teachers' use of equitable disciplinary and personalized learning practices were associated with higher executive functioning gains across prekindergarten. Findings illustrate how classroom composition can be a key indicator between equitable classroom interactions and young children's early skills.


Subject(s)
Learning , School Teachers , Child , Child, Preschool , Executive Function , Female , Humans , Male , Mathematics
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