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1.
J Sch Health ; 92(4): 337-344, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine if school engagement is a viable target for early prevention of adolescent substance use, this study investigated whether school engagement in early adolescence (ages 12-14) is a cause of alcohol and cannabis use during middle to late adolescence (ages 15-19). METHODS: To facilitate causal inference, inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs), which are based on estimated probabilities of treatment selection (ie, school engagement), were created based on a robust set of potential confounders. Using the IPTWs, a cumulative link mixed model was fit to examine the impact of school engagement on alcohol and cannabis use among an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 360). RESULTS: School engagement was associated with a lower level of alcohol and cannabis use from age 15 to 18. School engagement was not associated with change in alcohol and cannabis use over time, suggesting that school engagement emits its effect early in the developmental course of substance use and offers protection throughout adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports a compensatory role of early school engagement in substance use across middle and late adolescence. School engagement is a malleable factor and thus offers an avenue for prevention efforts.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Schools , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Young Adult
2.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e7, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Sickle cell disease (SCD), a common hereditary disease, can be prevented by preparing young people ahead of the conception of an affected foetus. AIM:  To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding SCD amongst senior secondary school students in Surulere Local Government Area (LGA), Lagos, Nigeria. SETTING:  Senior secondary schools in Surulere LGA. METHODS:  This was a descriptive cross-sectional study amongst 300 senior secondary school students. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analysed using Stata16. The Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to determine the association between categorical variables. The level of significance was predetermined at p  0.05. RESULTS:  The mean age of the respondents was 15.2 (±1.3) years, with a male-to-female ratio of about 1:2. The majority (90.0%) of the respondents were aware of SCD, 63.0% had good knowledge, although less than half of them (46.3%) knew SCD to be a blood disorder, whilst about two-thirds (53.1%) knew that it was an inherited condition. About one fifth (24.4%) of them knew about prevention by genetic counselling. The majority (97.0%) of them had a positive attitude towards SCD. Over two-thirds (72.6%) were aware of their genotype. The prevalence of SCD was 2.0%, whilst 18.9% of them were carriers of the sickle cell trait. Knowing their SCD status but not necessarily their genotype was significantly associated with their attitude towards the disease (p = 0.014). CONCLUSION:  The prevention of SCD was not known to the majority, and better attitudes were more likely when the SCD status was known. Therefore, routine screening and counselling could potentially aid SCD control.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics , Anemia, Sickle Cell/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Local Government , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Schools , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268098, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522650

ABSTRACT

In Maldives' primary schools, physical education (PE) is mainly taught by generalist classroom teachers who often lack knowledge and confidence to teach PE. Also, PE programs in primary schools are affected by a perceived lack of infrastructure, resources and equipment. Children in primary schools are allocated one 35 minute period of PE per week. Researchers have previously investigated interventions implemented by specialist PE teachers to enhance the motivation of secondary school students in PE classes. However, limited research has been conducted with generalist teachers' implementing PE intervention with primary school children. In this study we applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of a professional learning program and an associated resource support package, that was then delivered by the Maldives generalist teachers' delivering PE. The participants were 30 primary school teachers (control group, n = 15; intervention group, n = 15), and their 725 primary school students aged 9-12 years (mean age of 10.5 years). The teachers in the group undertook eight hours of professional learning that focused on strategies and behaviours to support student satisfaction for the three main elements of self-determination theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. A repeated measure ANCOVA was carried out for each of the dependent variables. Overall results when compared to pre-intervention measures, the students of teachers in the intervention group significantly increased their post-intervention perceptions for autonomy, competence, and relatedness; and, increased their psychological need satisfaction. Moreover, intervention-students in the post-intervention phase reported reduced need frustration for autonomy, competence, and relatedness; and, experienced higher levels of self-efficacy, enjoyment and engagement. We contend that these results accentuate the usefulness of professional learning programs for generalist teachers delivering PE to promote students' psychological need satisfaction, whilst reducing thwarting behaviours to enhance students' self-determined motivation toward PE classes. The intervention program significantly enhanced the students' perceived need support, and autonomous motivation, it also reduced teachers' need frustrating behaviours within PE classes. Facilitating teachers to provide more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and psychological need support could reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases that are currently prevalent in the Maldives.


Subject(s)
Personal Autonomy , Physical Education and Training , Child , Humans , Motivation , School Teachers/psychology , Schools
4.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268118, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many schools have been cutting physical education (PE) classes due to budget constraints, which raises the question of whether policymakers should require schools to offer PE classes. Evidence suggests that PE classes can help address rising physical inactivity and obesity prevalence. However, it would be helpful to determine if requiring PE is cost-effective. METHODS: We developed an agent-based model of youth in Mexico City and the impact of all schools offering PE classes on changes in weight, weight-associated health conditions and the corresponding direct and indirect costs over their lifetime. RESULTS: If schools offer PE without meeting guidelines and instead followed currently observed class length and time active during class, overweight and obesity prevalence decreased by 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0%-1.6%) and was cost-effective from the third-party payer and societal perspectives ($5,058 per disability-adjusted life year [DALY] averted and $5,786/DALY averted, respectively, assuming PE cost $50.3 million). When all schools offered PE classes meeting international guidelines for PE classes, overweight and obesity prevalence decreased by 3.9% (95% CI: 3.7%-4.3%) in the cohort at the end of five years compared to no PE. Long-term, this averted 3,183 and 1,081 obesity-related health conditions and deaths, respectively and averted ≥$31.5 million in direct medical costs and ≥$39.7 million in societal costs, assuming PE classes cost ≤$50.3 million over the five-year period. PE classes could cost up to $185.5 million and $89.9 million over the course of five years and still remain cost-effective and cost saving respectively, from the societal perspective. CONCLUSION: Requiring PE in all schools could be cost-effective when PE class costs, on average, up to $10,340 per school annually. Further, the amount of time students are active during class is a driver of PE classes' value (e.g., it is cost saving when PE classes meet international guidelines) suggesting the need for specific recommendations.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Physical Education and Training , Adolescent , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/prevention & control , Schools
5.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e15182, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the revision of the Japanese School Health and Safety Law in 2016, the use of growth and obesity curves has been recommended. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of growth and obesity curve creation in elementary and junior high schools using government-issued software in Japan between 2016 and 2019. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted with school nursing teachers in elementary and junior high schools in Osaka, Japan. The questionnaire was distributed and collected by e-mail between 1 and 31 March 2020. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 87.1%. In total, 78.5% of the elementary schools, and 75.0% of the junior high schools had the software for creating the growth curves. The rate of adoption of growth curve creation using the software increased in elementary schools (from 16.2% in 2016 to 40.5% in 2019 and in junior high schools from 6.0% in 2016 to 33.6% in 2019. The detection rates of growth abnormalities also increased over the 4 years in elementary and junior high schools, as follows: short stature (2.48- and 3.81-fold, respectively), tall stature (2.77- and 4.77-fold, respectively), emaciation (2.62 and 4.85-fold, respectively), mild obesity (2.66 and 5.15-fold, respectively), moderate obesity (2.71- and 4.14-fold, respectively), and severe obesity (2.45- and 3.32-fold, respectively). The rates of receiving a recommendation slip and going on to consult a specialist for each growth abnormality were low. CONCLUSIONS: By utilizing these curves, the detection rate of physical development abnormalities increased, but the rate of recommending a specialist consultation and the rate of actual consultation with a specialist were still low.


Subject(s)
School Nursing , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , School Teachers , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Wiad Lek ; 75(3): 654-658, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522874

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To determine the activity of NO-synthase and arginase in oral fluid in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment scheme we elaborated in the treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 82 children were examined, they were divided into groups by presence of gingivitis and diabetes mellitus. NO-synthase (NOS) activity was determined in oral fluid by the difference in nitrite concentration before and after incubation. The arginase activity was determined in oral fluid by the difference in the concentration of L-ornithine before and after incubation. RESULTS: Results: Use our treatment scheme in children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis and type 1 diabetes mellitus lead to a change in the polarization of oral macrophages towards the predominance of M2 polarization in 1 month. The polarization of macrophages changed to the predominance of M1 polarization activity in 1 year. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: We have elaborated a scheme for the treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. It normalizes the polarization of oral macrophages caused by exposure to chronic catarrhal gingivitis as a local pathogenetic factor.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Gingivitis , Arginase , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Humans , Schools
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055231, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523488

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: National violence against children (VAC) surveys in Tanzania and Kenya reported that approximately three-quarters of children in Tanzania experienced physical violence while 45.9% of women and 56.1% of men experienced childhood violence in Kenya. In response to VAC, Investing in Children and their Societies-Strengthening Families & Protecting Children (ICS-SP) developed the whole school approach (WSA) for reducing VAC in and around schools. Objectives of this evaluation are to: (1) determine intervention's feasibility and (2) the extent to which the WSA reduces prevalence and incidence of VAC in and around schools in Kenya and Tanzania; (3) gain insights into changes in stakeholders' knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to VAC following intervention implementation and (4) provide evidence-based recommendations for refining intervention content, delivery and theory of change (ToC). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is a mixed-methods, controlled before-and-after, quasi experimental pilot designed to assess the delivery and potential changes in knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and VAC prevalence and incidence in and around schools following the WSA intervention implementation in Kenya and Tanzania. The preintervention phase will entail stakeholder enhancement of the WSA ToC and baseline cross-sectional surveys of teaching and non-teaching staff and parents (knowledge, attitude and practices), pupils (VAC incidents and school climate) and school safety audits. The WSA intervention implementation phase will include an intervention delivery process assessment and random school visits. In the postintervention phase, end-line surveys will be conducted similarly to baseline. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews will be held with ICS-SP staff, training facilitators, teachers, parents and pupils to gain insights into acceptability, delivery and potential intervention effects. Quantitative and qualitative data will be analysed using SPSS V.25 and NVIVO V.12, respectively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approvals were received from Amref Health Africa in Kenya (AMREF-ESRC P910/2020) and National Health Research Ethics Committee (NatHREC) in Tanzania (NIMR/HQ/R.8a/Vol.IX/3655). Dissemination will be through research reports.


Subject(s)
Schools , Violence , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kenya , Male , Pilot Projects , Tanzania , Violence/prevention & control
8.
Pediatrics ; 149(Suppl 5)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503329

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Previous reviews of mental health interventions have focused on adolescents (10-19 years), with a paucity of comprehensive evidence syntheses on preventive interventions for school-aged children (5-10 years). OBJECTIVE: To summarize and synthesize the available evidence from systematic reviews of mental health and positive development interventions for children aged 5-14.9 years in both high-income (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with a focus on preventive and promotive strategies. DATA SOURCES: This overview includes all relevant reviews from OVID Medline, The Cochrane Library, and Campbell Systematic Reviews through December 2020. STUDY SELECTION: We included systematic reviews that synthesized empirical studies using experimental or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in children aged 5-14.9 years. DATA EXTRACTION: Data extraction and quality assessment were completed independently and in duplicate by two review authors. The AMSTAR2 tool was used to assess methodological quality. RESULTS: We included 162 reviews. The greatest evidence was found in support of school-based universal and anti-bullying interventions in predominantly HIC. Moderate evidence was found for the use of substance abuse prevention, and early learning and positive development interventions in mixed settings. In LMIC-only contexts, the most promising evidence was found for positive youth development programs. LIMITATIONS: The review was primarily limited by paucity of high-quality research due to methodological issues and high heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: This overview of reviews highlights the need for further research to consolidate findings and understand the specific criteria involved in creating positive mental health and development outcomes from the various interventions considered.


Subject(s)
Income , Mental Health , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Poverty , Schools , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 212, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545760

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of myopia in Chinese primary school students and their ocular biometrics including axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature (CRC) and spherical equivalent refraction (SER). To analyze their association with potential myopia risk factors, such as body mass index (BMI), cram school, time of outdoor activity and electronic screen use. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 4500 primary school students from 5 schools, participants underwent refraction using non-cycloplegic autorefractor and visual acuity testing. A follow-up study in the same schools was conducted in 2022. Myopia was defined as SER ≤ -0.50 diopter (D) and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) < 0.00 logMAR (6/6). Logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with myopia. RESULTS: After excluding 389 participants, the overall prevalence of myopia was 33.6%. The prevalence of high myopia was 0.6%. The prevalence of myopia in girls was significantly higher than that in boys (37.6% vs. 30.0%, p < 0.001). The height, weight and BMI were significantly associated with AL (r = 0.471, r = 0.440, r = 0.276, p < 0.001, respectively). AL/CRC ratio was more highly correlated with SER than AL alone. Regression analysis showed that AL/CRC and hyperopia reserve were associated with myopia onset in the subsequent year (F = 201.557, p < 0.001; F = 68.934, p < 0.001). The cut point of hyperopia reserve for myopia in the subsequent year for grade 1 students was + 0.31D. Age (p < 0.001), parental myopia (p = 0.001) and lack of outdoor activity between classes (p = 0.049) were independently associated with higher prevalence rates of myopia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of myopia among Chinese schoolchildren is alarming high. Consistent with previous cross-sectional data, AL/CRC and hyperopia reserve could function as myopia detection indicators. The hyperopia reserve among children aged between 6 ~ 7 years was low. Healthcare providers need to raise parents' awareness of the importance of regular eye examination and proper optical correction.


Subject(s)
Hyperopia , Myopia , Child , China/epidemiology , Cornea , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Refraction, Ocular , Risk Factors , Schools , Students
10.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267942, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511878

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the experience of autistic young adults aged 18 to 25 years old over a 12-month transition period from 2016 to 2017. Data was collected through a longitudinal repeated measures case series design with assessments conducted at 2 time points, at baseline then 12 months later. Assessments included self-report evaluations of transition planning and intervention received at high school, engagement in post-secondary education and access to employment, living circumstances, and social support. Examination of 9 cases showed family and social support was an important facilitator of successful transition whilst low independence was a risk factor associated with unsuccessful transition. In-depth analysis of cases showed a lack of engagement in post-secondary education and unemployment were associated with poor quality of life whilst skills development, work experience placements, and support from service providers were associated with improved quality of life. Implications of the findings highlight the need for educational and socially inclusive interventions to support the heterogeneity in individual, social, communication, and behavioural challenges in autistic young adults.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Adolescent , Adult , Educational Status , Employment , Humans , Quality of Life , Schools , Young Adult
12.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(5): 555-8, 2022 May 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543948

ABSTRACT

By arranging Mr. LU Shan-zhong's papers and works, his academic contributions to acupuncture and moxibustion were summarized. It mainly includes standardizing the clinical diagnosis and treatment of acupuncture and moxibustion, and finding the fusion point of the western and traditional medicine; building the acupuncture and moxibustion education system, innovating acupuncture and moxibustion talent training programs; exploring the academic connotation of acupuncture and moxibustion, and promoting acupuncture and moxibustion therapy.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Acupuncture , Moxibustion , Acupuncture/education , Acupuncture Points , China , Medicine, Traditional , Schools
13.
Codas ; 34(6): e20210176, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544882

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Relational ability is a key attribute of language. Knowledge of relational terms, including spatial terms, can facilitate development of relational ability. Acquisition of spatial terms can be challenging and necessitates experience and input due to the abstractness of the concepts. Service delivery models for school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are changing from traditional "pull-out" therapy to intervention in the classroom. Response to Intervention (RtI) and multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) frameworks have expanded SLPs' roles to working with all children at-risk for academic difficulties. METHODS: Given the importance of spatial terms, and the changing roles and service delivery models for school-based SLPs, this investigation evaluated a six-week classroom-based intervention targeting spatial terms in a developmental kindergarten classroom of five-year-old children. RESULTS: At post-test, more than half of the children who did not understand the targeted spatial terms at pre-test demonstrated understanding of the words first, front, last, behind, center, below, under, and right by correctly identifying pictures representing these words. Around and left were the only two words learned by fewer than half of the children. CONCLUSION: These findings augment research used by SLPs providing language support to children within the first tier of Response to Intervention or multi-tiered system of support.


Subject(s)
Speech-Language Pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Educational Status , Humans , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Creat Nurs ; 28(2): 102-108, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501134

ABSTRACT

Conducting original research in the school setting advances our understanding of diverse, vulnerable youth with the objective of improving future outcomes through evidence-based health initiatives. School-based research may involve formal collaboration and partnership with school personnel or may be conducted through use of school facilities, site location, or access to participant recruitment. Despite the recognized benefits of school-based research, the school setting presents many unique challenges to the nurse researcher, including obtaining site access and facilitating the implementation of the research study. Traditional nursing research textbooks and training describe research methods, ethics, and applications well. However, these resources provide little information on gaining access to research settings including community settings such as schools. The purpose of this article is to describe researcher experiences in the school setting and identify lessons learned for conducting school-based research. We provide guidance with examples illustrating real-world experiences with access to and completion of research in the elementary and high-school setting. Five lessons learned that support school-based research are identified: 1) do your homework, 2) cultivate relationships, 3) be well prepared and remain flexible, 4) follow the rules, and 5) find ways to give back.


Subject(s)
Nursing Research , Schools , Adolescent , Humans
15.
Am J Health Behav ; 46(2): 114-123, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501961

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Injuries are common events that impair the function of joggers; it is important to take effective measures to reduce the incidence of jogging injuries to maximize its benefits. Methods: We collected questionnaires from 3468 Chinese exercisers using a stratified random sampling method. We analyzed these data using AMOS 22.0 (IBM) and SPSS 26.0 (IBM). Results: We constructed a relationship model of jogging risk cognition, jogging risk behaviors, and jogging injury incidence, and the indicators fit well. The path coefficient between jogging risk cognition and jogging risk behaviors of joggers was -0.64; the path coefficient between jogging risk behaviors and jogging injuries incidence was 0.44; and the path coefficient between jogging risk cognition and jogging injuries incidence was -0.23. Conclusions: The higher the level of jogging risk cognition of joggers, the lower their jogging risk behaviors, leading to a lower incidence of jogging injuries. Based on the generally low level of jogging risk cognition of joggers, the construction of a jogging risk cognitive education system that can be integrated into universities, middle schools and primary schools, as well as family, school and society, is conducive to comprehensively improve the level of jogging risk cognition of joggers.


Subject(s)
Jogging , Research Design , Cognition , Humans , Schools
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 760746, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493383

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a global serious public health threat. Seasonal influenza among children in Chongqing has been a heavy health burden. To date, few studies have examined the spatial and temporal characteristics of influenza. This research sheds new light on correlating them with influenza outbreaks with data of over 5 years (2014-2018). All cluster outbreaks among preschool and school-age children reported in Chongqing were collected through the Public Health Emergency Management Information System. The demographical, epidemiological, and clinical data of the cases were analyzed. From 2014 to 2018, a total of 111 preschool- and school-based influenza-like illness outbreaks involving 3,549 cases were identified. Several clinical symptoms that were analyzed in this study showed significant contrast between influenza A and B. Spatial autocorrelation analysis over the 5-year data detected Xiushan district being the most likely cluster. The exploration of the spatial distribution and clinical characteristics of influenza cluster of children in Chongqing could help the effective implementation of health policies. Future studies should be conducted to monitor the outbreaks of influenza among children.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Forecasting , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Schools
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 889793, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493398

ABSTRACT

Objective: Infectious etiology of acute appendicitis is a current hot topic. The most of study on appendicitis came from sporadic patients and focused on clinical treatment rather than control and prevention of appendicitis in the population. The present study aims to investigate the epidemiological features of cluster of acute appendicitis, risk factors, and evaluate effectiveness of control and prevention in population. Methods: We conducted longitudinal study on a cluster of acute appendicitis among Tibetan students at a high school in eastern China, which was divided into three stages: 1. We retrospectively collected epidemiological data and clinical data to explore risk factor and possible transmission route in August of 2005; 2. We conducted targeted measures from August of 2005 and analyzed incidence trend from 2000 to 2010; 3. Since no new patients occurred in 2011, we conducted surveillance from the beginning of 2012 until July 2018. Results: Among 973 Tibetan students, there were 120 patients with more female patients (102 of 499, 20.4%) than male patients (18 of 474, 3.8%) from January of 2000 to December of 2010. The 4-year cumulative incidence rates in female students enrolled in 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 were 26.8% (11 of 41), 27.1% (13 of 48), 44.7% (21 of 47), 42.4% (14 of 33), 23.1% (9 of 39), and 19.3% (11 of 57), respectively before their graduation. There was a clustering feature. Mutual contact with patients before the onset of symptoms was an important risk factor (Adjusted OR 4.89, 95% CI: 1.67-14.35). Transmission route may be fecal-oral infection. Before conducting targeted measures, the incidence rate increased from 2000 and peaked in 2005. After conducting targeted measures, the incidence rate decreased year by year until 2010. Under surveillance from January of 2012 to July of 2018, only four sporadic patients occurred at this school. Conclusion: This cluster of acute appendicitis had features of an infectious disease in epidemiology, which can be controlled and prevented by targeted measures. Our study may also be used for prevention of sporadic patients and be generalized in general population as cluster of appendicitis occurred in many provinces of China.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Retrospective Studies , Schools , Students , Tibet
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 879588, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498418

ABSTRACT

The first International Summer School on Bone Marrow Adiposity was organized by members of Bone Marrow Adiposity Society and held virtually on September 6-8 2021. The goal of this meeting was to bring together young scientists interested in learning about bone marrow adipose tissue biology and pathology. Fifty-two researchers from different backgrounds and fields, ranging from bone physiopathology to adipose tissue biology and hematology, participated in the summer school. The meeting featured three keynote lectures on the fundamentals of bone marrow adiposity, three scientific workshops on technical considerations in studying bone marrow adiposity, and six motivational and career development lectures, spanning from scientific writing to academic career progression. Moreover, twenty-one participants presented their work in the form of posters. In this report we highlight key moments and lessons learned from the event.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Bone Marrow , Humans , Obesity , Schools , Seasons
19.
Value Health ; 25(5): 699-708, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Most countries have adopted public activity intervention policies to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nevertheless, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of different interventions on the containment of the epidemic was inconsistent. METHODS: We retrieved time-series intervention policy data for 145 countries from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker from December 31, 2019, to July 1, 2020, which included 8 containment and closure policies. We investigated the association of timeliness, stringency, and duration of intervention with cumulative infections per million population on July 1, 2020. We introduced a novel counterfactual estimator to estimate the effects of these interventions on COVID-19 time-varying reproduction number (Rt). RESULTS: There is some evidence that earlier implementation, longer durations, and more strictness of intervention policies at the early but not middle stage were associated with reduced infections of COVID-19. The counterfactual model proved to have controlled for unobserved time-varying confounders and established a valid causal relationship between policy intervention and Rt reduction. The average intervention effect revealed that all interventions significantly decrease Rt after their implementation. Rt decreased by 30% (22%-41%) in 25 to 32 days after policy intervention. Among the 8 interventions, school closing, workplace closing, and public events cancellation demonstrated the strongest and most consistent evidence of associations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides more reliable evidence of the quantitative effects of policy interventions on the COVID-19 epidemic and suggested that stricter public activity interventions should be implemented at the early stage of the epidemic for improved containment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Schools
20.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 109, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In many African countries, cultural norms and values hinder conversations about sexuality among adolescents and their parents. Currently, there are no sex education classes in the curriculum at schools in Tanzania. Even when sex education is provided, the content is often abstinence-oriented, and there is a lack of in-depth instruction and exploration on the topic. To help overcome this, peer education is encouraged. After implementing peer-based adolescent education via a non-profit organization, this study aims to (1) identify students' and peer educators' perceptions of adolescent education and (2) identify the changes that occur as a result of adolescent education with peer educators. METHODS: This was a qualitative descriptive study using focus group discussions (FGDs). Secondary school students, including peer educators as well as students who received adolescent education, were asked about their perception of peer-based adolescent education. The FGDs were conducted in Swahili with the support of local collaborators. Data were transcribed and translated into English and Japanese. Content analysis was conducted to merge the categories and subcategories. RESULTS: A total of 92 students (57 girls and 35 boys) were included from three urban and three rural secondary schools where peer education was being implemented. Six FGDs were conducted for girls and four for boys, for a total of 10 FGDs. The students had both positive and negative perceptions of peer-based adolescent education. Both the peer educators and the other students felt that they gained more confidence through the process, based on the conversations they had and the trusting relationship that formed as a result. The peer educators were also successful in eliciting behavioral changes, and the students shared their sex-related knowledge with other peers as well. CONCLUSION: The peer education process helped students gain confidence in teaching their peers and elicit behavioral changes. Adult supervision for peer educators is suggested.


Peer education, such as sharing correct knowledge, skills, and behaviors, is encouraged for maintaining a healthy lifestyle in later life. The non-profit organization Class for Everyone conducted adolescent education in collaboration with a local NGO, the New Rural Children Foundation, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and social isolation among adolescent girls. In secondary schools, the NGO members provided adolescent education led by peer educators.In this study, we conducted focus group discussions to understand how peer educators and other secondary school students perceived peer-based adolescent education. The study included 92 students (57 girls and 35 boys) from three urban and three rural secondary schools where peer education was being implemented. We used content analysis to merge the categories and subcategories.We found that students had both positive and negative perceptions about peer-based adolescent education. The participants felt that they gained more confidence through the peer education process. The peer educators were also successful in eliciting behavioral changes. Moreover, the students receiving peer education shared their sex-related knowledge with other peers as well.In conclusion, the peer education process helped students gain confidence in teaching their peers and elicit behavioral change. Adult supervision for peer educators is suggested.


Subject(s)
Peer Group , Sex Education , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Schools , Students , Tanzania
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