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2.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 8173768, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046083

ABSTRACT

Purpose. This paper aimed to study how to analyze and study economic and social development under the new crown epidemic based on the neural network and described the BP neural network. Methodology. Economic forecasts are affected by multiple influencing factors, the relationships between these factors are complex, and it is a nonlinear system with a high degree of uncertainty. The use of traditional forecasting methods has many limitations, and neural network methods can overcome these limitations and achieve good nonlinear forecasting. Research Findings. Through the analysis and statistics of the impact of the SARS epidemic and the new crown epidemic on the economy, by 2021, the economic contribution of final consumption expenditure, total capital formation, and net exports will be 65.4%, 13.7%, and 20.9%, respectively, and the impact of the current new crown virus epidemic on the economy will be greater than that of the SARS epidemic in 2003. Research Implications. The model applied to economic forecasting based on the BP network can achieve good forecasting effect, and scientific and reasonable forecasting methods depend on the in-depth understanding of economic activities and dominance of familiarity with economic theory. Practical Implications. Through the analysis of the economy in the context of political will and the new crown epidemic, it will give more reference to more and more complex emergencies in the future.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Forecasting , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Social Change
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013826, 2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aerosols and spatter are generated in a dental clinic during aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) that use high-speed hand pieces. Dental healthcare providers can be at increased risk of transmission of diseases such as tuberculosis, measles and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) through droplets on mucosae, inhalation of aerosols or through fomites on mucosae, which harbour micro-organisms. There are ways to mitigate and contain spatter and aerosols that may, in turn, reduce any risk of disease transmission. In addition to personal protective equipment (PPE) and aerosol-reducing devices such as high-volume suction, it has been hypothesised that the use of mouth rinse by patients before dental procedures could reduce the microbial load of aerosols that are generated during dental AGPs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of preprocedural mouth rinses used in dental clinics to minimise incidence of infection in dental healthcare providers and reduce or neutralise contamination in aerosols. SEARCH METHODS: We used standard, extensive Cochrane search methods. The latest search date was 4 February 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials and excluded laboratory-based studies. Study participants were dental patients undergoing AGPs. Studies compared any preprocedural mouth rinse used to reduce contaminated aerosols versus placebo, no mouth rinse or another mouth rinse. Our primary outcome was incidence of infection of dental healthcare providers and secondary outcomes were reduction in the level of contamination of the dental operatory environment, cost, change in mouth microbiota, adverse events, and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened search results, extracted data from included studies, assessed the risk of bias in the studies and judged the certainty of the available evidence. We used mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect estimate for continuous outcomes, and random-effects meta-analysis to combine data  MAIN RESULTS:  We included 17 studies with 830 participants aged 18 to 70 years. We judged three trials at high risk of bias, two at low risk and 12 at unclear risk of bias.  None of the studies measured our primary outcome of the incidence of infection in dental healthcare providers.  The primary outcome in the studies was reduction in the level of bacterial contamination measured in colony-forming units (CFUs) at distances of less than 2 m (intended to capture larger droplets) and 2 m or more (to capture droplet nuclei from aerosols arising from the participant's oral cavity). It is unclear what size of CFU reduction represents a clinically significant amount. There is low- to very low-certainty evidence that chlorhexidine (CHX) may reduce bacterial contamination, as measured by CFUs, compared with no rinsing or rinsing with water. There were similar results when comparing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) with no rinsing and when comparing CPC, essential oils/herbal mouthwashes or boric acid with water. There is very low-certainty evidence that tempered mouth rinses may provide a greater reduction in CFUs than cold mouth rinses. There is low-certainty evidence that CHX may reduce CFUs more than essential oils/herbal mouthwashes. The evidence for other head-to-head comparisons was limited and inconsistent.  The studies did not provide any information on costs, change in micro-organisms in the patient's mouth or adverse events such as temporary discolouration, altered taste, allergic reaction or hypersensitivity. The studies did not assess acceptability of the intervention to patients or feasibility of implementation for dentists.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: None of the included studies measured the incidence of infection among dental healthcare providers. The studies measured only reduction in level of bacterial contamination in aerosols. None of the studies evaluated viral or fungal contamination. We have only low to very low certainty for all findings. We are unable to draw conclusions regarding whether there is a role for preprocedural mouth rinses in reducing infection risk or the possible superiority of one preprocedural rinse over another. Studies are needed that measure the effect of rinses on infectious disease risk among dental healthcare providers and on contaminated aerosols at larger distances with standardised outcome measurement.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Oils, Volatile , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Water
7.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(2): 118-125, jul. 22, 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1379964

ABSTRACT

Reportes actuales sugieren que el antecedente de infección por SARS - CoV-2 y completar un esquema de vacunación otorga mayor protección contra la presentación sintomática de COVID -19. Se comparó el riesgo de enfermar de COVID -19 entre el personal de salud con esquema completo de vacuna contra SARS - CoV-2 BNT162b2 y el antecedente de infección por SARS - CoV-2. Estudio de cohorte histórica en 1874 trabajadores de la salud del Nuevo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara inmunizados con la vacuna BNT162b2 entre enero y marzo de 2021. Después de seis meses de seguimiento, el grupo de no expuestos (sin antecedente de infección) fue de 1397 y el grupo expuesto (con antecedente de infección), de 477 sujetos. La incidencia de infección por SARS - CoV-2 fue de 39 casos. El riesgo de infección en la cohorte posterior a la inmunización fue de 0,021. El grupo de inmunización híbrida presentó un riesgo menor de infección comparado con el grupo de inmunización artificial (0,015 y 0,243). La inmunización híbrida contribuyó a una reducción del riesgo atribuible a la población de 0,003 (R0 0,024; Rp 0,020). La hospitalización se presentó en el 7,69 % de los casos confirmados con SARS - CoV-2. El riesgo de hospitalización en inmunización híbrida es de 0,210 y de 0,143 en el grupo de inmunización artificial (RR 1,46 IC95 % 0,13 -16,11). Se llegó a la conclusión que la inmunización híbrida podría contribuir a reducir el riesgo de infección por SARS - CoV-2, potenciando la inmunidad generada por la vacuna contra COVID -19


Current reports suggest that a history of SARS - CoV-2 infection and completing a vaccination schedule provides greater protection against the symptomatic presentation of COVID -19. The risk of becoming ill with COVID -19 was compared between health personnel with a complete SARS - CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccine schedule and a history of SARS - CoV-2 infection. Historical cohort study in 1874 health workers of the New Civil Hospital of Guadalajara immunized with the BNT162b2 vaccine between January and March 2021. After six months of follow-up, the non-exposed group (without a history of infection) was 1397 and the exposed group (with a history of infection), of 477 subjects. The incidence of SARS - CoV-2 infection was 39 cases. The risk of infection in the post-immunization cohort was 0.021. The hybrid immunization group had a lower risk of infection compared to the artificial immunization group (0.015 and 0.243). Hybrid immunization contributed to a population-attributable risk reduction of 0.003 (R0 0.024, Rp 0.020). Hospitalization occurred in 7.69% of confirmed cases with SARS - CoV-2. The risk of hospitalization in hybrid immunization is 0.210 and 0.143 in the artificial immunization group (RR 1.46 CI95% 0.13 -16.11). It was concluded that hybrid immunization could help reduce the risk of SARS - CoV-2 infection, enhancing the immunity generated by the vaccine against COVID -19


Subject(s)
Immunization , Health Personnel , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , El Salvador , BNT162 Vaccine , Infections
9.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(4): 217-224, Jul - Ago 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-206152

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: La bibliografía consultada, en su mayoría estudios descriptivos, establece asociación entre factores de riesgo para la salud, en su mayoría cardiovasculares, y la mala evolución de la COVID-19. Este estudio pretende mostrar dicha asociación entre la población perteneciente al área de salud zona vi de Albacete (España). Método: Estudio de cohortes de carácter retrospectivo. Mediante muestreo consecutivo se ha obtenido una muestra de 372 pacientes, mayores de 14 años, con diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Los grupos se han dividido entre buena y mala evolución, entendiendo esta última como ingreso en UCI y/o muerte. Los datos obtenidos mediante la explotación de historias clínicas han sido analizados obteniendo frecuencias, Chi cuadrado con intervalo de confianza al 95% y ajustando por factores de confusión.ResultadosPor edad los pacientes con mala evolución tenían una media de 76 años, frente a los 48,7 años de los pacientes que evolucionaron favorablemente.Los pacientes con HTA presentaron peor evolución; siendo la Chi cuadrado <0,001 y la OR, para un intervalo de confianza del 95%, estuvo entre 3,97 y 21,42.En los paciente con DM también se relacionó la mala evolución de la enfermedad, siendo la Chi cuadrado <0,001 y la OR, para un intervalo de confianza del 95%, entre 2.766 y 12.690. Los pacientes que presentaban DM+HTA tenían un riesgo 5 veces superior de mala evolución respecto a los que solo presentaban una de las enfermedades.Nuestro estudio no pudo encontrar diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el IMC, el sexo y los hábitos tóxicos (consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas) y la mala evolución de la COVID-19. Conclusiones: Los pacientes de mayor edad tuvieron un peor desenlace de la enfermedad, así como los hipertensos y diabéticos. No se encontró relación entre la evolución y la distribución por sexos. No se pudo establecer relación entre el IMC y hábitos tóxicos y la mala evolución.(AU)


Objectives: There are several retrospective studies that establish a relationship between some risk factors (cardiovascular risks mainly) and the development of COVID-19 and a severe outcome. Thus, our aim with this study is to find out the former relationship among the population within our basic health area. Method: Cohort study. The study sample consisted of 372 patients aged 14 or older who had tested positive for COVID-19 in our health centre by consecutive sampling. Data collected from medical records will be analysed using Frequencies, X2 with a Confidence interval of 95% and those carrying out the study will have prior experience/training in research and will be specifically trained for the aim of this research. Results: A worse outcome in patients aged 76 years old on average was found versus patients aged 48.7. Regarding high blood pressure patients, X2 was<.001 and OR between 3.975 and 21.425 with confidence interval of 95%, finding a worse outcome in these patients. With regard to Diabetes Mellitus (DM), X2 was<.001 and OR rated between 2.766 and 12.690 with a confidence interval of 95%, also resulting in a worse outcome in these patients. No significant differences regarding a worse outcome were found in Body Mass Index, gender, or toxic habits. Conclusions: Older patients had a worse outcome from COVID- 19, as well as patients with high blood pressure or DM. We found no differences regarding gender and neither could we find any differences regarding BMI.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Clinical Evolution , Risk Factors , Spain , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 912717, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784331

ABSTRACT

We present evidence suggesting that the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus non-structural protein 13 (Nsp13) modulates the Z-RNA dependent regulated cell death pathways . We show that Z-prone sequences [called flipons] exist in coronavirus and provide a signature (Z-sig) that enables identification of the animal viruses from which the human pathogens arose. We also identify a potential RIP Homology Interaction Motif (RHIM) in the helicase Nsp13 that resembles those present in proteins that initiate Z-RNA-dependent cell death through interactions with the Z-RNA sensor protein ZBP1. These two observations allow us to suggest a model in which Nsp13 down regulates Z-RNA activated innate immunity by two distinct mechanisms. The first involves a novel ATP-independent Z-flipon helicase (flipase) activity in Nsp13 that differs from that of canonical A-RNA helicases. This flipase prevents formation of Z-RNAs that would otherwise activate cell death pathways. The second mechanism likely inhibits the interactions between ZBP1 and the Receptor Interacting Proteins Kinases RIPK1 and RIPK3 by targeting their RHIM domains. Together the described Nsp13 RHIM and flipase activities have the potential to alter the host response to coronaviruses and impact the design of drugs targeting the Nsp13 protein. The Z-sig and RHIM domains may provide a way of identifying previously uncharacterized viruses that are potentially pathogenic for humans.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Animals , Coronavirus/metabolism , DNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA , SARS Virus/metabolism
11.
São Paulo; SMS; jul. 2022. (Boletim CEInfo, XXI, 21).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Munic. Saúde SP, CEINFO-Producao, Sec. Munic. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1380812

ABSTRACT

A Coordenação de Epidemiologia e Informação da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde de São Paulo apresenta a 21ª edição do Boletim CEInfo "Saúde em Dados". Esta publicação teve início em 2002 e tem se consagrado por divulgar anualmente um conjunto substancial de dados e indicadores de saúde na cidade e suas regiões, com a intenção de apoiar o planejamento e a gestão das políticas públicas de saúde no Município. Compõem o quadro de indicadores, agravos considerados de grande magnitude e relevância no perfil de morbimortalidade da população e/ou para os quais existem programas ou ações prioritárias para o seu enfrentamento. Neste boletim são apresentados dados de mortalidade, nascidos vivos, doenças de notificação compulsória, produção assistencial e estrutura do SUS para o ano 2021 e a estimativa populacional para 2022. Em continuidade ao ano anterior, são apresentados os registros de síndrome gripal (SG), síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) e óbitos causados pelo novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV2) em decorrência da pandemia de Covid-19. O documento é apresentado em dois formatos: uma versão em PDF para consulta e download e outra em formato aberto com os conteúdos apresentados em diferentes configurações territoriais do município de São Paulo ­ Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde/Supervisão Técnica de Saúde e Subprefeitura. Como destaque desta edição, são apresentadas algumas informações do censo demográfico da população em situação de rua ­ sexo, faixa etária, tempo em situação de rua e situação de moradia/acolhimento e a produção assistencial das equipes multiprofissionais de Consultório na Rua do Município. As informações podem ser utilizadas na produção de análises sobre a situação de saúde e de apoio aos gestores, trabalhadores e demais pessoas interessadas em discutir as ações e políticas de saúde na cidade de São Paulo. Assim qualquer pessoa pode acessar estes conteúdos e utilizá-los com diferentes finalidades e formatos, sendo necessária, apenas a preservação da sua origem e citação da fonte. Espera-se que esta publicação seja mais um instrumento público de divulgação de informações de saúde, de apoio aos gestores e participação social do SUS na cidade de São Paulo. Convidamos todos os leitores a contribuirem com comentários e sugestões para o contínuo aperfeiçoamento do "Saúde em Dados", acessando o formulário eletrônico no link: https://bit.ly/3nGSHid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Organization and Administration , Unified Health System , Health Status Indicators , Coronavirus , Censuses , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Health Policy
12.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 22(39): 4-14, junio 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1378481

ABSTRACT

La pandemia por SARS Covid 19 ha exigido una rápida respuesta del equipo de salud en las unidades de cuidados intensivos a nivel mundial. El uso de estrategias terapéuticas ya conocidas como el decúbito prono (DP) para el cuidado del paciente con distres respiratorio e hipoxemia grave refractaria trajo aparejado una serie de complicaciones, por lo cual resulta crucial el registro de las mismas para su posterior análisis. El objetivo general de esta investigación fue analizar las complicaciones del decúbito prono en pacientes con Covid19 desde octubre de 2020 a agosto de 2021 en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Adultos ­Sanatorio Allende Córdoba. Objetivos específicos Describir la población según condiciones socio demográficas, identificar y categorizar las principales complicaciones registradas. Material y método: el tipo de estudio fue descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal. La población (n=235) pacientes, la técnica fue análisis documental de las historias clínicas Resultados: Las características sociodemográficas de la población estudiada, el 26 % fueron mujeres y el 74% varones. De días de internación el 31% corresponde de 3 a 10 días, el 26% entre 21 a 30 días, el 23% entre de 11 a 20 días, el 12 % comprende de 31 a 40 días; el 6% entre de 41 a 50 días y solo el 2% requirió de 60 a 70 días. La presencia de obesidad correspondió en esta población al 51%. Duración de la técnica de decúbito prono, se destaca que el 45% estuvo entre 16 a 36 hs, el 41% entre de 6 a 12 hs. y el 14% restante entre de 40 a 74 hs. En relación a aparición de ulceras por presión (UPP) y localización se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: el 37% corresponde a la zona de labios, el 29% a la zona de la frente, el 23% se localizaron en zona de rodillas, el 11% correspondió a la pared anterior de tórax. Presencia de edema o lesiones mucosas el 55% presento edema facial y el 45% edema conjuntival. El 69% presento lesión mucosa lingual y el 31 % ulcera corneal[AU]


The SARS Covid 19 pandemic has required a rapid response from the health team in intensive care units worldwide. Te use of wellknown therapeutic strategies such as the prone position (PD) for the care of patients with respiratory distress and severe refractory hypoxemia brought with it a series of complications, which is why their registration is crucial for their subsequent analysis. Te general objective of this research was to analyze the complications of prone decubitus in patients with Covid19 from October 2020 to August 2021 at the Adult Intensive Care Unit - Sanatorio Allende Córdoba. Specifc objectives describe the population according to socio-demographic conditions, identify and categorize the main complications recorded. Te type of study was descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional. Te patient population (n = 235), the document analysis technique, the medical records instrument Te following results were obtained: Te sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population, 26% were women and 74% were men. Of days of hospitalization, 31% correspond from 3 to 10 days, 26% between 21 to 30 days, 23% between 11 to 20 days, 12% comprise from 31 to 40 days; 6% between 41 to 50 days and only 2% required 60 to 70 days. Te presence of obesity corresponded to 51% in this population. Duration of the prone decubitus technique, it stands out that 45% were between 16 to 36 hours, 41% between 6 to 12 hours. and the remaining 14% between 40 to 74 hours. Regarding the appearance of pressure ulcers and location, the following results: 37% corresponded to the lip area, 29% to the forehead area, 23% were located in the knee area, only 11% corresponded to the wall anterior thorax. Presence of edema or mucosal lesions, 55% presented facial edema and 45% conjunctival edema. 69% presented lingual mucosa lesions and 31% corneapl ulcers[AU]


A pandemia de SARS Covid 19 exigiu uma resposta rápida da equipe de saúde em unidades de terapia intensiva em todo o mundo. A utilização de estratégias terapêuticas bem conhecidas, como a posição prona (DP) para o atendimento de pacientes com desconforto respiratório e hipoxemia refratária grave, trouxe consigo uma série de complicações, razão pela qual seu registro é fundamental para sua posterior análise. O objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi analisar as complicações do decúbito prono em pacientes com Covid 19 no período de outubro de 2020 a agosto de 2021 na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Adulto - Sanatório Allende Córdoba. Objetivos específcos Descrever a população de acordo com as condições sociodemográfcas, identifcar e categorizar as principais complicações registradas. O tipo de estudo foi descritivo, retrospectivo e transversal. A população de pacientes (n = 235), a técnica de análise documental, o instrumento de prontuário Foram obtidos os seguintes resultados: As características sociodemográfcas da população estudada, 26% eram mulheres e 74% eram homens. Dos dias de internação, 31% correspondem de 3 a 10 dias, 26% de 21 a 30 dias, 23% de 11 a 20 dias, 12% compreendem de 31 a 40 dias; 6% entre 41 a 50 dias e apenas 2% requer 60 a 70 dias. A presença de obesidade correspondeu a 51% nesta população. Duração da técnica de decúbito prono, destaca-se que 45% fcaram entre 16 a 36 horas, 41% entre 6 a 12 horas. e os restantes 14% entre 40 a 74 horas. Em relação ao aspecto e localização da ulceras por preseao, os seguintes resultados: 37% correspondiam à região dos lábios, 29% à região da fronte, 23% localizavam-se na região do joelho, apenas 11% correspondiam à parede anterior do tórax. Presença de edema ou lesões de mucosa, 55% apresentavam edema facial e 45% edema conjuntival. 69% apresentavam lesões de mucosa lingual e 31% úlceras de córnea[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Prone Position , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/nursing , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , Nursing Care
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 410-418, May-June 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375650

ABSTRACT

Abstract An acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV2 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Current data in the world and in Brazil show that approximately 40% of patients who died have some type of cardiac comorbidity. There are also robust reports showing an increase in IL-6 / IL-1B / TNF-alpha and the presence of lymphopenia in patients with COVID-19. Our team and others have shown that increased cytokines are the link between arrhythmias/Left ventricular dysfunction and the immune system in different diseases. In addition, it has been well demonstrated that lymphopenia can not only be a good marker, but also a factor that causes heart failure. Thus, the present review focused on the role of the immune system upon the cardiac alterations observed in the SARS-CoV2 infection. Additionally, it was well described that SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect cardiac cells. Therefore, here it will be reviewed in deep.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardium/immunology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Cytokines , Cytokines/immunology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Heart Failure/complications , Lymphopenia/complications
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10050, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710694

ABSTRACT

Consolidation of healthcare in the US has resulted in integrated organizations, encompassing large geographic areas, with varying services and complex patient flows. Profound changes in patient volumes and behavior have occurred during the SARS Cov2 pandemic, but understanding these across organizations is challenging. Network analysis provides a novel approach to address this. We retrospectively evaluated hospital-based encounters with an index emergency department visit in a healthcare system comprising 18 hospitals, using patient transfer as a marker of unmet clinical need. We developed quantitative models of transfers using network analysis incorporating the level of care provided (ward, progressive care, intensive care) during pre-pandemic (May 25, 2018 to March 16, 2020) and mid-pandemic (March 17, 2020 to March 8, 2021) time periods. 829,455 encounters were evaluated. The system functioned as a non-small-world, non-scale-free, dissociative network. Our models reflected transfer destination diversification and variations in volume between the two time points - results of intentional efforts during the pandemic. Known hub-spoke architecture correlated with quantitative analysis. Applying network analysis in an integrated US healthcare organization demonstrates changing patterns of care and the emergence of bottlenecks in response to the SARS Cov2 pandemic, consistent with clinical experience, providing a degree of face validity. The modelling of multiple influences can identify susceptibility to stress and opportunities to strengthen the system where patient movement is common and voluminous. The technique provides a mechanism to analyze the effects of intentional and contextual changes on system behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
16.
J. Health NPEPS ; 7(1): 1-13, Jan-Jun, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1380551

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:traçar o perfil epidemiológico de cardiopatas que contraíram COVID-19 no primeiro ano pandêmico. Método:estudo observacional, do tipo coorte retrospectiva. Foram incluídos cardiopatas com resultado de PCR positivo, de março a dezembro de 2020. Excluíram-se os registros com dados incompletos para as variáveis analisadas. Na análise bivariada, foram calculadas as razões de prevalência (com IC 95%) como medida de associação entre a variável dependente (cardiopatia) e as variáveis independentes (idade, sexo, escolaridade e zona de residência) empregando-se o teste do χ2de Mantel Haenszel. Resultados:identificou-se associação com significância estatística em relação às variáveis faixa etária, sexo e escolaridade. O maior risco de ocorrer desfecho desfavorável, foi para a faixa etária acima de 70 anos (59,97%), seguido do intervalo de idade de 60 a 69 anos (38,31%), sexo masculino (45,28%) e escolaridade para o nível superior. Conclusão:evidenciou-se que os cardiopatas requerem maiores cuidados após o diagnóstico da doença, especialmente pelo fato deste grupo apresentar um maior índice de mortalidade.


Objective:to establish the epidemiological profile of patients with heart disease who contracted COVID-19 in the first pandemic year. Method:observational, retrospective cohort study. Patients with heart disease with positive PCR results from March to December 2020 were included. Records with incomplete data for the variables analyzed were excluded. In the bivariate analysis, the prevalence ratios (with CI 95%) were calculated as a measure of association between the dependent variable (cardiopathy) and the independent variables (age, sex, education and area of residence) using the χ2 test of Mantel Haenszel. Results:an association with statistical significance was identified in relation to the variables age, sex and education. The highest risk of an unfavorable outcome was for the age group over 70 years old (59.97%), followed by the age range from 60 to 69 years old (38.31%), male sex (45.28%) and schooling to higher level. Conclusion:it was evidenced that patients with heart disease require greater care after the diagnosis of the disease, especially because this group has a higher mortality rate.


Objetivo:establecer el perfil epidemiológico de los pacientes con cardiopatías que contrajeron COVID-19 en el primer año de pandemia. Método:estudio observacional de cohortes retrospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con cardiopatías con PCR positiva de marzo a diciembre de 2020. Se excluyeron los registros con datos incompletos para las variables analizadas. En el análisis bivariado se calcularon las razones de prevalencia (con IC 95%) como medida de asociación entre la variable dependiente (cardiopatía) y las variables independientes (edad, sexo, escolaridad y zona de residencia) mediante la prueba de χ2 de Mantel Haenszel. Resultados:se identificó una asociación con significancia estadística en relación a las variables edad, sexo y escolaridad. El mayor riesgo dedesenlace desfavorable fue para el grupo de edad de más de 70 años (59,97%), seguido del rango de edad de 60 a 69 años (38,31%), sexo masculino (45,28%) y nivel de escolaridad superior. Conclusión:se evidenció que los pacientes con cardiopatía requieren mayor cuidado luego del diagnóstico de la enfermedad, sobre todo porque este grupo presenta una mayor tasa de mortalidad.


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases
17.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 94-97, maio 05,2022. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370739

ABSTRACT

Introduction: there are reports of autoimmune disease related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) such neurological syndromes and hematological syndromes, and more recently autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions have been described. These reports suggest that SARS-CoV-2 acts as a probable trigger for triggering the autoimmunity process. Aim: to evaluate structural similarity between thyroid peroxidase [Homo sapiens] (TPO) and SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (COVID-19), and to propose this similarity as a likely trigger for autoimmune thyroiditis. Methodology: using bioinformatics tools, we compare the amino acids (AA) sequences between protein structure of TPO and chain A COVID-19, chain B COVID-19, and chain C COVID-19, accessible in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool in order to locate the homologous regions between the sequences of AA. Results: the homology sequence between the TPO and COVID-19 ranged from 27.0 % (10 identical residues out of 37 AA in the sequence) to 56.0% (5 identical residues out of 9 AA in the sequence). The similar alignments demonstrated relatively high E values in function of short alignment. Conclusion: data suggest a possible pathological link between TPO and COVID-19. The structural similarity of AA sequences between TPO and COVID-19 may present a molecular mimicry suggesting the possibility of antigen crossover between TPO and COVID-19 that might represent an immunological basis for autoimmune thyroiditis associated with COVID-19.


Introdução: há relatos de doenças autoimunes relacionadas à síndrome respiratória aguda grave por coronavírus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), tais como síndromes neurológicas e hematológicas, e mais recentemente disfunções autoimunes da tireoide foram descritas. Esses relatos sugerem que o SARS-CoV-2 atue como um provável gatilho para desencadear o processo de autoimunidade. Objetivo: avaliar a similaridade estrutural entre a peroxidase tireoidiana [Homo sapiens] (TPO) e a glicoproteína de superfície SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) e propor essa similaridade como provável gatilho para o desencadeamento da tireoidite autoimune. Metodologia: utilizando ferramentas de bioinformática, comparamos as sequências de aminoácidos (AA) entre a estrutura da TPO e a estrutura da cadeia A do COVID-19, a cadeia B do COVID-19 e a cadeia C do COVID-19, acessível no banco de dados do National Center for Biotechnology Information, através da Ferramenta Básica de Pesquisa de Alinhamento Local para localizar as regiões homólogas entre as sequências de AA. Resultados: a sequência de homologia entre o TPO e COVID-19 variou de 27,0% (10 resíduos idênticos em 37 AA nas sequências) a 56,0% (5 resíduos idênticos em 9 AA nas sequências). Os alinhamentos semelhantes demonstraram valores E relativamente altos em função do alinhamento curto. Conclusão: os dados sugerem uma possível ligação patológica entre TPO e COVID-19. A similaridade estrutural das sequências de AA entre TPO e COVID-19 pode apresentar um mimetismo molecular sugerindo a possibilidade de cruzamento de antígeno entre TPO e COVID-19 que podem representar uma base imunológica para tireoidite autoimune associada a COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune , Peroxidase , Molecular Mimicry , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221096528, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574692

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In coronavirus cases, reinfection has been associated with short-term immunity and genetic changes in viruses which allow them to escape from immune response, viral genotyping is required to make the precise diagnosis of reinfection, but the suspicion occurs in patients with more than 90 days between the tests and total improvement between them. We made a descriptive retrospective study with the cases of reinfection in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Results: We found up to June 30, 3249 cases with suspected reinfection, 1.1% of all cases. During the first infection episode, 68% of the patients had symptoms, while at the moment of reinfection, the percentage was 73.4%. 55% of the analyzed cases had symptoms in both infection episodes, hospitalization of reinfection cases was 2% during the first episode and 2.2% in the second one. Conclusion: the reinfection percentage was low, as well as the hospitalization and ICU cases. These results allow to define that in terms of the provision of healthcare services, reinfection defined in this study, does not generate any differences in care required vs the first episode.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Colombia/epidemiology , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
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