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1.
Longit Life Course Stud ; 13(3): 454-464, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920635

ABSTRACT

Young adults are co-residing with their parents at higher rates now than in the past, and recent research has explored the correlates of both leaving and subsequently returning to the parental home. Of relevance here, females tend to leave home earlier than their male counterparts, and research finds that drinking and drug use are also linked to residential transitions. This research note explores if substance use during adolescence and young adulthood plays a role in gender differences in home-leaving and home-returning. We find that marijuana use plays a role in both home-leaving and home-returning, with adolescent females who use marijuana the most at risk for early exits from home, and marijuana using males the most at risk for home-returning.


Subject(s)
Marijuana Smoking , Marijuana Use , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Parents , Sex Factors , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272341, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939444

ABSTRACT

There is an ongoing debate about whether gender equality in education has been achieved or not. Research efforts have focused on primary and secondary education, while there are fewer studies on higher education, and few studies refer to distance education. To contribute to address this gap, this article presents a gender analysis of educational outcomes in economics at Spain's leading distance university, UNED, which is also the largest university in the European Union in terms of enrolment. The aim of the article is to assess whether there is a gender gap in academic results and to identify the sociodemographic and academic variables that may be causing such a gap by analysing how they shape such differences. Finally, the impact of COVID-19 is also considered. The results confirm that women underperformed significantly in our sample in terms of passing and scoring, especially among those between 30 and 45 years of age, who are more likely to have young children. When considering a distribution of family tasks biased against women, along with the higher average age of distance learning university students, gender gaps could probably be greater in nonface-to-face education. COVID-19 narrowed the gender gap during the lockdown period, as some men and women staying at home together were able to improve task sharing capabilities. After the lockdown, however, women's results worsened compared to pre-COVID-19 levels. A possible explanation is that they had to continue performing the same family duties in addition to substituting education and caring services (e.g., nurseries and day centres for the elderly) that did not resume activity immediately or continuously.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Economics , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Factors , Work-Life Balance
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1524, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of hypertension increases with age, but there is a general perception in India that women are less affected at every stage of life, although empiric evidence hardly exists regarding gender difference in hypertension in Indians of different ages. Therefore, we aimed to examine the gender difference in hypertension among Indians across various age-groups; and the contribution of variation in body mass index (BMI) to this difference. METHODS: Data were analysed after combining National Family Health Survey 4 (n = 294,584 aged 35-49 years) and Study of Ageing and Health wave 2 (n = 7118 aged 50 + years) datasets (NFHS-SAGE). Longitudinal Ageing Study of India (LASI) dataset (n = 65,900 aged > 45years) was analysed to replicate the results. Hypertension was defined if systolic and diastolic blood pressure was > 89 and/or > 139 respectively and/or if there was a history of anti-hypertensive medication. Descriptive summaries were tabulated and plotted to examine the gender difference in hypertension in various age-groups (35-39,40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, ≥ 70). Odds Ratios (ORs) from logistic regression models estimated the age gradient of hypertension and their male-female difference, adjusted for Body Mass Index (BMI). RESULTS: Males had a higher prevalence of hypertension up to 50 years; after that, females had higher rates. The estimates of age gradient, expressed as ORs, were 1.02 (1.02, 1.02) in males versus 1.05(1.05, 1.06) in females (p < 0.001) in NFHS-SAGE and 1.01(1.01, 1.02) in males versus 1.04(1.03, 1.04)in females (p < 0.001) in LASI;these differences marginally changed after adjustment with BMI. CONCLUSION: This is perhaps the first study to comprehensively demonstrate that cardio-metabolic risk in Indian females surpasses males after 50 years of age, "busting the myth" that Indian females are always at much lower risk than males; and this evidence should inform the Indian healthcare system to prioritise older women for screening and treatment of hypertension.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Aged , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
5.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2115-2122, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Esophageal variceal bleeding is a common reason for hospitalization in patients with cirrhosis. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of gender differences on outcomes in hospitalizations related to Esophageal variceal bleeding in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was performed using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for all hospitalizations with a discharge diagnosis of esophageal varices with hemorrhage from 2016 to 2019. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, while secondary outcomes included rate of early endoscopy (defined as less than 1 day), AKI, blood transfusion, sepsis, ICU admission and TIPS (Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt). We also compared the length of stay and total hospitalization charges. RESULTS: We identified a total of 166,760 patients with variceal bleeding of which 32.7% were females. In-hospital mortality was higher in males, 9.91%, compared to females, 8.31% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.88, p-value=.008, when adjusted for confounding factors). The odds of undergoing an EGD, length of stay, or total hospitalization charges did not differ between the two groups. Compared to men, women had lower odds of receiving TIPS (aOR = 0.83, p-value=.002). CONCLUSION: Women hospitalised with esophageal variceal bleeding are at a lower risk of death compared to males. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors associated with this lower risk.


Subject(s)
Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1496, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) was significantly associated with cognition and mental health in children and adolescent. However, there were few studies examining the associations of PA with academic achievement (AA) and academic burden (AB) by gender and school grade. Hence, this study aimed to 1) investigate the associations of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) with AA and AB in Chinese children and adolescents, and 2) assess whether these associations vary by gender and school grade. METHODS: Using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling design (at four different regions in Southern east China), 2653 children and adolescents (8-19 years old, 51.2% girls) were included. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data on study participants' gender, school grade, family social economic status (SES), parental education level, MVPA, AA and AB. Binary logistic regression was applied to examine the associations of MVPA with AA (groups: above-average AA, average and below-average AA) and AB (groups: reporting AB, reporting no AB) with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After testing gender*grade interaction, those associations were explored by gender and school grade separately. RESULTS: In the overall sample, compared with children and adolescents who did not meet the PA guidelines (at least 60 min MVPA daily), children and adolescents who met the PA guidelines were more likely to have above-average (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21-2.11) AA, and report no AB (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.13-2.30). In both genders, meeting the PA guidelines was positively associated with above-average AA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.03 for boys; OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.43-3.44 for girls). However, the significant relationship between meeting the PA guidelines and AB was observed only in girls (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.17-3.39). Meeting the PA guidelines was positively associated with above-average AA (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.18-2.40), and reporting no AB (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.08-2.91) only in middle school students. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that sufficient PA may be a contributary factor of improved AA and lower level of AB in Chinese children and adolescents. However, associations of PA with AA and AB may be different across gender or school grade. Promoting PA among girls or middle school students may be a good approach to improve AA and reduce AB.


Subject(s)
Academic Success , Adolescent , Adult , Child , China , Educational Status , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Factors , Young Adult
7.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956368

ABSTRACT

Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten ingestion. At CD diagnosis, gender differences have been previously reported, but data regarding follow-up are scant. We investigated gender differences in CD adult patients both at the time of diagnosis and at follow-up after the start of the gluten-free diet (GFD). This is a longitudinal cohort study on adult CD patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2019. Clinical, biochemical, and histological data were assessed and compared between males and females. At diagnosis, female gender was significantly associated with signs of malabsorption (OR 3.39; 95% CI: 1.4-7.9), longer duration of symptoms and/or signs before the diagnosis (OR 3.39; 95% CI: 1.5-7.5), heartburn (OR 2.99; 95% CI: 1.1-8.0), dyspepsia (OR 2.70; 95% CI: 1.1-6.5), nausea/vomit (OR 3.53; 95% CI: 1.1-10.9), and constipation (OR 4.84; 95% CI: 1.2-19.6) and less frequently associated to higher body mass index (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.8-0.9) and osteopenia/osteoporosis (OR 0.30; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7) compared to male patients. After 12-30 months, females presented lower median BMI, performed less frequently histological control, and had more frequently anaemia and hypoferritinaemia compared to males. No significant differences concerning the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, adherence to GFD, and Marsh score were found. Gender differences found at CD diagnosis mostly disappear at the follow-up, showing that these differences can be solved over time.


Subject(s)
Celiac Disease , Diet, Gluten-Free , Adult , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Sex Factors
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2209460119, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939691

ABSTRACT

There is a longstanding belief in relationship science and popular opinion that women are the barometers in mixed-gender relationships such that their perceptions about the partnership carry more weight than men's in predicting future relationship satisfaction, but this idea has yet to be rigorously tested. We analyze data from two studies to test within-person links between men's and women's relationship satisfaction on their own and their partner's next-day and next-year satisfaction. Study 1 combined nine daily diary datasets from Canada and the United States with 901 mixed-gender couples who provided 29,541 daily reports of relationship satisfaction. Study 2 analyzed five annual waves of data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) that surveyed 3,405 mixed-gender couples who provided 21,115 relationship satisfaction reports. Latent curve models with structured residuals (LCM-SR) revealed that in both studies, men's and women's relationship satisfaction significantly predicted their own and their partner's relationship satisfaction, with no gender differences in the magnitude of these effects. Results underscore the interdependence of romantic partners' satisfaction and indicate that both men and women jointly shape romantic relationship satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Personal Satisfaction , Sexual Partners , Attitude , Female , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954761

ABSTRACT

There is little information about the trend of the gender gap in chronic morbidities and whether the trend of expansion occurs equally in the age and gender groups. The objectives were to examine the consistency and stability of the gender gap in the main self-reported chronic morbidities in the general population, and, likewise, to analyze the trend of major chronic morbidities between 1997 and 2015 in men and women across age groups. The data were extracted from the Canary Health Survey, which uses a probabilistic sampling in the population >16 years of age, for the years 1997 (n = 2167), 2004 (n = 4304), 2009 (n = 4542), and 2015 (n = 4560). The data for the twelve most frequent chronic morbidities were analyzed using logistic regression, estimating the annual change ratio between 1997 and 2015, adjusting for age and educational level. The interaction of age with the period (1997-2015) was examined to analyze the rate of change for each morbidity in the age groups. Musculoskeletal diseases, headaches, anxiety and depression, and peripheral vascular diseases showed a stable gender gap across observed years. High cholesterol and high blood pressure tended to a gap reduction, while heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory disease did not show a significant gender gap along the period. The trend of the main chronic morbidities increased similarly in men and women in all age groups, but significantly in women older than 60 years and in men older than 45 years. Aging explained a substantial part of the trend of increasing prevalence of the main chronic morbidities, but not totally. Factors other than age and education are driving the increase in chronic morbidity in older age groups.


Subject(s)
Canaries , Hypertension , Adult , Aged , Animals , Educational Status , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors
11.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(4): 259-267, Ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-205964

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Examinar las diferencias de género en las características de la parada cardiaca extrahospitalaria (PCRE), los tratamientos, la supervivencia, y los cambios evolutivos en España. Método. Datos de dos series temporales (2013/2014 y 2017/2018) del registro prospectivo de PCRE (OHSCAR). Se incluyeron todos los casos consecutivos en los que intervino un equipo de emergencias. Las variables dependientes fueron las variables de atención de la PCRE, la llegada al hospital con pulso espontáneo, la supervivencia global al alta, y con buenos resultados neurológicos. El sexo fue la variable independiente. Resultados. Las mujeres fueron significativamente mayores, menos propensas a presentar una PCRE en lugar público, recibir desfibrilación externa automática, tener un ritmo inicial desfibrilable y ser atendidas por una ambulancia en menos de 15 minutos. Además, menos mujeres recibieron intervención coronaria percutánea o hipotermia al ingreso hospitalario. Tanto en 2013/2014 como en 2017/2018 las mujeres tuvieron menos probabilidades de supervivencia al ingreso hospitalario (OR = 0,52; p < 0,001; OR = 0,61; p = 0,009 respectivamente), y al alta hospitalaria (OR = 0,69; p = 0,001; OR = 0,72; p = 0,001, respectivamente) y con buenos resultados neurológicos (OR = 0,50; p < 0,001; OR = 0,63; p <0,001, respectivamente). Conclusiones. En ambos periodos las mujeres tuvieron menos probabilidades de sobrevivir y de hacerlo en buenas condiciones neurológicas. Estos resultados indican la necesidad de adoptar nuevos enfoques para abordar las diferencias de género en la PCRE. (AU)


Objective. To examine gender-related differences in the management and survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Spain during 2 time series. Methods. Analysis of data recorded in the prospective Spanish OHCA registry (OHSCAR in its Spanish acronym) for 2 time series (2013-2014 and 2017-2018). We included all 11036 consecutive cases in which an emergency team intervened. The dependent variables were arrival at the hospital after return of spontaneous circulation, overall survival to discharge, and overall survival with good neurological outcomes. Sex was the independent variable. We report descriptive statistics, patient group comparisons, and changes over time. Results.Women were significantly older and less likely to experience an OHCA in a public place, receive automatic external defibrillation, have a shockable heart rhythm, and be attended by an ambulance team within 15 minutes. In addition, fewer women underwent percutaneous coronary interventions or received treatment for hypothermia on admission to the hospital. In 2013-2014 and 2017-2018, respectively, the likelihood of survival was lower for women than men on admission (odds ratio [OR], 0.52 vs OR, 0.61; P < .001 and P = .009 in the 2 time series) and at discharge (OR, 0.69 vs 0.72 for men; P = .001 in both time series). Survival with good neurological outcomes was also less likely in women (OR, 0.50 vs 0.63; P < .001 in both series). Conclusions. The odds for survival and survival with good neurological outcomes were lower for women in nearly all patient groups in both time series. These findings suggest the need to adopt new approaches to address gender differences in OHCA. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Prospective Studies , 57426 , Sex Factors , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(4): 268-274, Ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-205965

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Analizar de forma independiente en mujeres y hombres la frecuencia y las características clínicas asociadas a una clasificación inicial errónea (CIE) en urgencias del dolor torácico (DT) como no coronario. Método. Se analizan todas las consultas por DT atendidas en urgencias entre 2008 y 2017 clasificadas inicialmente (historia clínica y ECG) como DT no coronario. Se consideró como CIE si el diagnóstico final fue síndrome coronario agudo (SCA). Se crearon dos modelos multivariable, uno con 10 factores de riesgo, y otro con 10 características clínicas del DT, en los que se investigó la asociación de estas variables con una CIE. Se analizaron independientemente mujeres y hombres. Resultados. Se analizaron 8.093 mujeres con DT clasificado inicialmente como no coronario (edad mediana: 54 años, RIC: 38-73), 72 con CIE (0,9%). Los factores de riesgo asociados independientemente a CIE fueron obesidad (OR = 0,40; IC 95% = 0,17-0,97) y consumo de cocaína (5,18; 1,16-23,2), y las características clínicas fueron relación con el esfuerzo (2,01; 1,21-3,33), existencia de irradiación (2,05; 1,23-3,41) y síntomas vegetativos acompañantes (1,86; 1,02-3,41). Se analizaron 9.979 hombres (edad mediana: 47 años, RIC: 33-64), 83 con CIE (0,8%). Los factores de riesgo asociados a CIE fueron edad > 40 años (1,74; 1,04-2,91) e hipertensión (0,45; 0,24-0,84). No hubo características clínicas del DT asociadas a CIE. Conclusión. En las mujeres con dolor torácico, se identifican más características asociadas al error de clasificación que en los hombres. Este estudio remarca la necesidad de análisis independiente por sexo en el SCA, en el que clásica- mente se ha considerado la clínica en las mujeres como atípica. (AU)


Objective. To analyze the frequency and clinical characteristics associated with erroneous initial classifications of noncardiac chest pain (NCP) in men and women. Methods. We analyzed all case records in which chest pain was initially classified as noncardiac in origin according to clinical signs and electrocardiograms evaluated in our emergency department between 2008 and 2017. We considered the initial evaluation of NCP to be in error if the final diagnosis was acute coronary syndrome. A risk model for an erroneous initial classification of NCP was developed based on multivariable analysis of our patient data. We also used multivariable analysis to explore associations between 10 clinical signs of chest pain and an erroneous initial NCP classification. The data for men and women were analyzed separately. Results. NCP was the initial classification for 8093 women; their median (interquartile range) age was 54 (38-73) years. The classification was in error for 72 women (0.9%). Odds ratios (ORs) showed that patient risk factors associated with an erroneous NCP classification in the women in our series were obesity (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.17- 0.97) and cocaine consumption (OR, 5.18; 95% CI, 1.16-23.2). Clinical risk factors associated with erroneous NCP classification in women were recent physical exertion (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.21-3.33), radiation exposure (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.23-3.41), and vegetative symptoms (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.02-3.41). For 9979 men with a median age of 47 (33-64) years, NCP was the initial classification; in 83 of the men (0.8%) the classification was erroneous. Patient factors associated with erroneous NCP classification in men were age over 40 years (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.04-2.91) and hypertension (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.24-0.84). No clinical signs of chest pain in men were associated with error. Conclusions. More clinical characteristics are associated with an erroneous classification of NCP in women. [...] (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Emergency Medical Services , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Chest Pain/etiology , Electrocardiography/adverse effects , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Retrospective Studies
13.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(4): 275-281, Ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-205966

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Investigar si existen diferencias en las manifestaciones clínicas por consumo de cannabis según la edad, y si estas se modifican en función del sexo o el consumo de etanol. Método. Estudio observacional descriptivo de pacientes atendidos en 11 servicios de urgencias con consumo de can- nabis como motivo de consulta. Se recogieron 11 manifestaciones clínicas y se analizó su frecuencia relativa en fun- ción de la edad mediante curvas spline cúbicas restringidas. Se analizó si existía interacción en el comportamiento etario de cada uno de los síntomas en función del sexo y del consumo de etanol. Resultados. Se analizaron 949 pacientes, edad media 29 años, 74% varones y 39% con coingesta de etanol. Se iden- tificaron tres patrones de síntomas según la edad: estable (vómitos, cefalea, convulsiones, hipotensión), incrementada en edades medias (agresividad-agitación, ansiedad, psicosis, palpitaciones, alucinaciones) y con aumento progresivo con la edad (dolor torácico e hipertensión). En la relación síntoma-edad, la frecuencia de palpitaciones, vómitos y ce- falea tuvo un comportamiento significativamente diferente según el sexo, más constante en hombres y con un incre- mento marcado en edades medias en mujeres. La coingesta de etanol se asoció con más agitación-agresividad (34,0%/23,4%, p < 0,001) y menos palpitaciones (9,8%/15,6%, p = 0,01), ansiedad (20,7%/27,8%, p = 0,01), psico- sis (10,3%/16,6%, p = 0,007) y dolor torácico (3,8%/9,5%, p = 0,001). En cuanto a la relación síntoma-edad, el eta- nol solo modificó significativamente la frecuencia de vómitos y de psicosis. Conclusión. La edad condiciona efectos clínicos diferenciales en algunas manifestaciones agudas de la intoxicación por cannabis que precisa asistencia hospitalaria, y el sexo y el consumo simultáneo de alcohol modifican esta relación entre edad y frecuencia de algunos síntomas. (AU)


Objectives. To study whether there are age-related differences in the clinical effects of cannabis poisoning and whether any age differences found are also related to sex or coingestion of alcohol. Methods. Descriptive observational study of patients treated in 11 emergency departments for symptoms related to cannabis use. We collected data on 11 clinical manifestations and used a restricted cubic spline model to analyze their relative frequency according to age. We also looked for any interactions between the findings and patient sex or alcohol coingestion. Results. A total of 949 patients were studied. The mean age was 29 years, 74% were males, and 39% had also consumed alcohol. We identified 3 symptom patterns related to age. One set of symptoms (vomiting, headache, convulsions, and hypotension) remained stable across all ages. Manifestations that increased in the middle of the age range studied were agitation and aggressivity, psychosis, palpitations and hallucinations. Chest pain and hypertension increased in older-aged patients. The frequencies of palpitations, vomiting, and headache differed according to sex. These manifestations held constant in males but were markedly higher in young-adult females. Coingestion of alcohol was associated with agitation and aggressivity (in 34.0% vs 23.4%, P < .001), fewer reports of palpitations (in 9.8% vs 15.6%, P = .01), less anxiety (in 20.7% vs 27.8%, P = .01), less psychosis (in 10.3% vs 16.6%, P = .007), and less chest pain (in 3.8% vs 9.5%, P = .001). The only significant interaction between age and alcohol coingestion occurred with respect to vomiting and psychosis. Conclusions. There are age-related differences in the acute clinical manifestations of cannabis poisoning requiring emergency hospital care. Sex and coingestion of alcohol modify the relationship between age and frequency of some manifestations. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cannabinoids , Psychotic Disorders , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology , Sex Factors
14.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(4): 282-286, Ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-205967

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Analizar la desigualdad de género en la producción científica de la revista EMERGENCIAS en la última década. Método. Estudio longitudinal retrospectivo que revisó los números publicados entre enero de 2011 y diciembre de 2020. Se analizaron el número de autores, género, tipo y año de publicación y autoría preferencial (primera autoría, autoría de correspondencia o última autoría). La participación de la mujer se calculó en base a valores porcentuales y se analizó la tendencia existente a lo largo de los años. Resultados. Se recogieron 1.240 artículos con un número total de 5.213 firmantes, 1.889 de ellos (36,2%) mujeres. En 384 (31%) artículos, una mujer asumió la primera autoría, en 352 (28,4%) fue autora para correspondencia y en 358 (28,9%) la última autora. A lo largo de la década, se identificó una tendencia creciente en los que una mujer fue primera autora en los artículos originales o metanálisis (p = 0,047). En los editoriales, revisiones, cartas científicas o comunicaciones breves, cartas al editor y otros no existió una tendencia creciente significativa en las autorías preferenciales. Conclusión. La participación de autoras en la producción científica de la revista EMERGENCIAS ha aumentado en la última década. No obstante, comparado con la de hombres, sigue existiendo una menor participación. (AU)


Objective. To analyze gender disparity in scientific productivity reflected by the authorship of articles in the journal Emergencias over the past decade. Methods. Retrospective longitudinal study. We included articles in all issues published between January 2011 and December 2020, analyzing the number of authors, their gender, article type, year of publication, and preferential authorship credit (first author, corresponding author, and last author positioning). The percentages of women named in each position were calculated, and the trend over time was analyzed. Results. A total of 1240 articles signed by 5213 authors were collected; a woman was named in 1889 of the cases (36.2%). A woman was the first author of 384 articles (31%), the corresponding author of 352 (28.4%), and the last author of 358 (28.9%). The number of female authors of original research articles or meta-analyses tended to increase over time (P = .047), but no statistically significant gender trends were observed in the authorship of editorials, narrative reviews, scientific letters or short communications, letters to the editor, or any other publication category. Conclusions. The publication of articles by women in Emergencias has increased over the past decade. However, women continue to author fewer articles than men. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Publications for Science Diffusion , Sex Factors , Authorship and Co-Authorship in Scientific Publications , Emergencies , Longitudinal Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sexism
15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886515

ABSTRACT

Heavy alcohol consumption and other drug use are prominent across Africa and increase the risk of exposure to violence, HIV acquisition, and other life-threatening injuries. This review synthesizes evidence on alcohol and other drug (AOD) interventions in Africa; evaluates the differences between interventions that do and do not specifically target populations that use AODs; and highlights the impact of comprehensive vs. brief interventions and those that address syndemic issues from a gender and contextualized lens. Literature searches were conducted to identify research outcomes of randomized interventions published between January 2010 and May 2022 that address AOD use in Africa. Thirty-five full-text articles were included in this review. Most of the identified research studies were concentrated in a few countries. Most studies were conducted in South Africa. Many of the studies comprised brief interventions. However, the most comprehensive interventions were the most effective for AOD outcomes. Several studies indicated the importance of addressing AOD use alongside gender-based violence, mental health needs, gender roles, and other social determinants that affect health outcomes. Intervening on AOD use and addressing social determinants from a gender and contextually relevant perspective is essential to ensuring the long-term health and well-being of people in Africa.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Health Promotion , Substance-Related Disorders , Africa , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Female , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Male , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sex Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Behav Addict ; 11(2): 533-543, 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895475

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic had numerous consequences for general, mental and sexual health. As gender differences in sexual compulsivity (SC) have been reported in the past and SC has been connected to adverse events and psychological distress, the current study aims at investigating associations between these factors in the context of contact restrictions in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Methods: We collected data for five time points in four retrospective measurement points in an online convenience sample (n T0 = 399, n T4 = 77). We investigated the influence of gender, several pandemic-related psychosocial circumstances, sensation seeking (Brief Sensation Seeking Scale), and psychological distress (Patient-Health-Questionnaire-4) on the change of SC (measured with an adapted version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale) between T0 and T1 (n = 292) in a linear regression analysis. Additionally, the course of SC over the time of the pandemic was explored with a linear mixed model. Results: Male gender was associated with higher SC compared to female gender over all measurement points. An older age, being in a relationship, having a place to retreat was associated with a change to lower SC during the first time of the pandemic. Psychological distress was associated with SC in men, but not in women. Men, who reported an increase of psychological distress were also more likely to report an increase of SC. Discussion: The results demonstrate that psychological distress seems to correlate with SC differently for men and women. This could be due to different excitatory and inhibitory influences on men and women during the pandemic. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the impact of pandemic related psychosocial circumstances in the times of contact restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
17.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 34(4): 256-261, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895969

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature evaluating the effect of surgeon gender on patient outcomes and satisfaction, and the impact of gender bias on female surgeons. RECENT FINDINGS: The proportion of female physicians has increased in recent years, especially in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Recent literature assessing this impact supports equivalent or superior medical and surgical outcomes for women surgeons and physicians. It also reveals superior counseling and communication styles as perceived by patients. However, women in medicine receive lower patient ratings in competence, medical knowledge, and technical skills despite the existing evidence. Additionally, female physicians experience pay inequality, limited advancement opportunities, higher prevalence of microaggressions, and higher rates of burnout. SUMMARY: Recognition of gender bias is essential to correcting this issue and improving the negative impact it has on female physicians, our patients, and the field of women's health.


Subject(s)
Gynecology , Surgeons , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Humans , Male , Sex Factors , Sexism
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e060673, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896294

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Women are more likely than men to provide unpaid care work. Previous research has shown that lack of support for various forms of unpaid care work and work-family conflicts have negative impacts on caregivers' mental health, especially among female caregivers. COVID-19 containment measures may exacerbate existing gender inequalities both in terms of unpaid care work and adverse mental health outcomes. This scoping review protocol describes the systematic approach to review published literature from March 2020 onwards to identify empirical studies and grey literature on the mental health impact of COVID-19 containment measures on subgroups of unpaid caregivers at the intersection of gender and other categories of social difference (eg, ethnicity, age, class) in Europe. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review is informed and guided by Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. We will search the databases Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, CINAHL, Social Sciences Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts as well as Applied Social Sciences Index & Abstracts (ASSIA) and hand-search reference lists of selected articles to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. We will conduct a grey literature search using Google Scholar and targeted hand-search on known international and European websites and include reports, working papers, policy briefs and book chapters that meet the inclusion criteria. Studies that report gender-segregated findings for mental health outcomes associated with unpaid care work in the context of COVID-19 containment measures in Europe will be included. Two reviewers will independently screen all abstracts and full texts for inclusion, and extract general information, study characteristics and relevant findings. Results will be synthesized narratively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is a review of published literature; ethics approval is not warranted. The findings of this study will inform public health research and policy. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caregivers , Delivery of Health Care , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Sex Factors
19.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221111113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818674

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: The health of elderly individuals is known to benefit from maintaining societal involvement and relationships with other people, such as through social participation. We aimed to determine trends in the percentage of Japanese elderly people who engaged in social participation before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in one municipality in Japan, and compared differences in this status by gender. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Questionnaires were sent by mail to 3000 people aged 65 to 85 years who were randomly selected by the administrative staff of the city. Participant characteristics (age, gender, working status, residential status) and their economic status, daily physical activity, and social participation status were obtained at 3 time points: (1) before the COVID-19 pandemic in January 2020; (2) immediately prior to the declaration of a state of emergency in April 2020; and (3) in January 2021, 1 year after (1). RESULTS: A total of 1301 people responded to the survey. The mean age was 73.3 (SD 5.5) years, and 690 (53.0%) were women. There were significant gender differences in terms of living alone, employment status, and amount of physical activity. The number of people reporting social participation gradually decreased from 543 respondents (41.7%) at (1) to 319 (24.5%) at (2) and 251 (19.3%) at (3). Women were more likely to demonstrate reduced social participation. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly individuals, particularly women, reported decreased social participation during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Participation , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805251

ABSTRACT

Due to the threat of colorectal cancer (CRC) to health, Taiwan included the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) under preventive health services in 2010. We examined the factors that affect the diagnosis of people with positive FOBT results. Data were retrospectively collected from the CRC screening database. In the model predicting factors that affect the diagnosis of 89,046 people with positive FOBT results, the risks of disease in the CRC group were lower in medical institutions that conducted follow-up examinations in regions such as Northern Taiwan compared to that in Eastern Taiwan (p = 0.013); they were lower in the age group of 50 to 65 years than those in the age group of 71 to 75 years (p < 0.001, p = 0.016), and lower in the outpatient medical units that conducted follow-up examinations than those in the inpatient medical units by 0.565 times (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.493-0.647). Factors affecting the diagnosis of patients with positive FOBT results were gender, the region of the medical institution, medical unit for follow-up examinations, age, screening site, family history, type of follow-up examinations, and follow-up time. Therefore, the identification of characteristics of patients with positive FOBT results and the promotion of follow-up examination are important prevention strategies for CRC.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Occult Blood , Age Factors , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Sex Factors , Taiwan
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