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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368288

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Osteogênese Imperfeita (OI) é uma doença genética rara com fragilidade óssea. A classificação inclui muitos tipos. Além do risco de recorrência, o manejo pode variar com o tipo de OI. Relato do caso: Apresentamos um paciente do sexo masculino nascido com 39 semanas, de pais não consanguíneos e saudáveis. A hidrocefalia foi diagnosticada no pré-natal. Com 50 dias de vida, detectamos muitas fraturas e calos ósseos. O teste molecular identificou uma deleção em homozigose do éxon 4 do gene WNT1. Considerações finais: Concluímos que o caso apresentado tinha características clínicas de OI XV, e o teste molecular foi fundamental para o diagnóstico preciso e aconselhamento genético.


Introduction: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disease with bone fragility. The classification includes many types. In addition, the risk of a recurrence, the management can vary with the kind of OI. Case report: We report a male patient born at 39 weeks from non-consanguineous healthy parents. The patient was diagnosed with Hydrocephalus at prenatal. At 50 days of life, we detected many fractures and bone calluses. The molecular test identified a homozygous deletion of exon 4 of the WNT1 gene. Final considerations: We conclude this case had clinical features of OI XV, and the molecular test was fundamental for the precise diagnosis and the genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta , Osteogenesis , Patients , Prenatal Care , Sex , Infant, Premature , Fractures, Bone , Genetic Counseling , Genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Hydrocephalus , Men
2.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 20(1): 76-91, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365866

ABSTRACT

Resumen (analítico) Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres se caracterizan por recibir expresiones de rechazo y estigmatización, ante el ideal heteronormativo de los hombres que tienen sexo solo con mujeres, circunstancias que propician la aparición de problemas en el grupo familiar. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo con el objetivo de comparar la funcionalidad familiar desde la perspectiva de los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres frente a los hombres que tienen sexo solo con mujeres, con un muestreo no probabilístico por bola de nieve. Los resultados indican mayores porcentajes de disfuncionalidad familiar entre los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, en contraste a la funcionalidad moderada y normo-funcionalidad de los hombres que tienen sexo solo con mujeres, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p=.001). Se recomienda generar mayores evidencias al fondo común del conocimiento, a fin de derribar prejuicios, visibilizar la demanda de cuidado y promover la formulación de estrategias en atención a las necesidades de este grupo vulnerable.


Abstract (analytical) Men who have sex with men are characterized by receiving rejection and stigmatization based on the heteronormative ideal of men who only have sex with women. These circumstances can lead to problems in family groups. A quantitative study was carried out with the objective of comparing the family functionality based on the perspectives of men who have sex with men with men who only have sex with women and using non-probability snowball sampling. The results indicate higher percentages of family dysfunction among men who have sex with men, in contrast to the moderate functionality and normo-functionality of men who only have sex with women, and with statistically significant differences (p=.001). It is recommended to generate more knowledge in this area to challenge prejudices, highlights the need for assistance and to promote the design of assistance strategies that meet the needs of this vulnerable group.


Resumo (analítico) Homens que fazem sexo com homens se caracterizam por receber expressões de rejeição e estigmatização, dado o ideal heteronormativo de homens que fazem sexo apenas com mulheres, circunstâncias que levam ao surgimento de problemas no grupo familiar. Um estudo quantitativo foi realizado, com o objetivo de comparar a funcionalidade familiar na perspectiva de homens que fazem sexo com homens com homens que fazem sexo apenas com mulheres, amostragem não probabilística por bola de neve. Os resultados indicam percentuais mais elevados de disfunção familiar entre os homens que fazem sexo com homens, em contraste com a funcionalidade moderada e normofuncionalidade dos homens que fazem sexo apenas com mulheres com diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p=.001). Recomendase gerar mais evidências para o fundo comum de conhecimento, a fim de demolir preconceitos, visibilizar a demanda de cuidados e promover a formulação de estratégias para atender às necessidades desse grupo vulnerável.


Subject(s)
Sex , Women , Family , Men
3.
Licere (Online) ; 25(1): 248-276, mar.2022.
Article in Portuguese | Coleciona SUS, LILACS, BDENF - Nursing, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1368651

ABSTRACT

Diante das especificidades de gênero, este trabalho busca identificar o significado do uso recreativo de maconha para as mulheres em momentos de lazer. O estudo é uma pesquisa social desenvolvida por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Foram entrevistadas 8 mulheres, acessadas pelo método 'Bola de Neve'. Resultados: Foram definidas as seguintes categorias de sentidos atribuídos ao uso da maconha pelas mulheres: sociabilidade, relacionamentos afetivos e sexo com uso da maconha; relaxamento e descanso; 'calmante' e medicamento; autoconhecimento, afirmação de identidade e criatividade. De acordo com os achados da pesquisa foi identificado que a maconha se insere no universo feminino como parte constituinte da cultura e da identidade das mulheres usuárias.


In view of gender specificities, this paper discusses the meaning of recreational use of marijuana by women at leisure. The study was a social survey was conducted through semi-structured interviews. Eight women were interviewed, they were accessed using the Snowball sampling method. Results: the data were systematized into categories of meanings attributed to the use of marijuana by women: sociability, affective relationships and sex with marijuana use; relaxation and rest; 'Soothing' and medicine; self-knowledge, identity affirmation and creativity. According to research findings, it was identified that marijuana is inserted in the female universe as a constituent part of the culture and identity of women.


Subject(s)
Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Personal Satisfaction , Relaxation , Sex , Social Behavior , Women , Cannabis , Culture , Ego , Marijuana Use/psychology , Leisure Activities
4.
Physiol Rep ; 10(3): e15179, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150210

ABSTRACT

Non-contact coded hemodynamic imaging (CHI) is a novel wide-field near-infrared spectroscopy system which monitors blood volume by quantifying attenuation of light passing through the underlying vessels. This study tested the hypothesis that CHI-based jugular venous attenuation (JVA) would be larger in men, and change in JVA would be greater in men compared to women during two fluid shift challenges. The association of JVA with ultrasound-based cross-sectional area (CSA) was also tested. Ten men and 10 women completed three levels of head-down tilt (HDT) and four levels of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Both JVA and CSA were increased by HDT and reduced by LBNP (all p < 0.001). Main effects of sex indicated that JVA was higher in men than women during both HDT (p = 0.003) and LBNP (p = 0.011). Interaction effects of sex and condition were observed for JVA during HDT (p = 0.005) and LBNP (p < 0.001). We observed moderate repeated-measures correlations (rrm ) between JVA and CSA in women during HDT (rrm  = 0.57, p = 0.011) and in both men (rr m  = 0.74, p < 0.001) and women (rrm  = 0.66, p < 0.001) during LBNP. While median within-person correlation coefficients indicated an even stronger association between JVA and CSA, this association became unreliable for small changes in CSA. As hypothesized, JVA was greater and changed more in men compared to women during both HDT and LBNP. CHI provides a non-contact method of tracking large changes in internal jugular vein blood volume that occur with acute fluid shifts, but data should be interpreted in a sex-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Head-Down Tilt , Jugular Veins/diagnostic imaging , Optical Imaging/methods , Sex , Adult , Female , Humans , Jugular Veins/physiology , Lower Body Negative Pressure , Male , Optical Imaging/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 543-550, fev 11, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359315

ABSTRACT

Introdução: fatores de risco gestacionais podem culminar na prematuridade neonatal, que constitui um grande desafio para a saúde pública em todo o mundo, sendo uma das principais causas de mortes neonatais. Objetivo: analisar uma população de prematuros, internados em unidades neonatais em relação ao estado nutricional e à alimentação recebida. Metodologia: delineamento observacional retrospectivo, com 125 recém-nascidos prematuros de uma maternidade pública do Tocantins. Sexo, idade gestacional ao nascer, peso, comprimento e perímetro cefálico ao nascer, durante a internação e na alta, ganho de peso diário, tempo de internação e tipo de dieta recebida foram analisados por meio dos testes de Mann-Whitney, Qui-quadrado, Exato de Fisher e t-Student, Mc Nemar, Wilcoxon e Friedman, a 5% de significância, no Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20.0. Resultados: houve predomínio do sexo masculino na amostra. A prevalência de crianças muito prematuras foi maior na unidade de cuidados convencionais (UcinCo), enquanto a prevalência de crianças com muito baixo peso ao nascer foi maior na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTIN). O tempo de internação foi menor na UcinCo, sendo este menos da metade do tempo de internação na UTIN. O peso à alta e o ganho de peso foram maiores na UTIN. Observou-se declínio do estado nutricional nas duas unidades. A utilização de fórmulas comerciais foi maior na UcinCo, enquanto predominou a oferta de leite humano na UTIN. Conclusão: independentemente do tipo de dieta recebida e da unidade de terapia, as crianças declinaram de estado nutricional durante a internação.


Introduction: gestational risk factors can culminate in neonatal prematurity, which is a major public health challenge worldwide, being one of the leading causes of neonatal deaths. Objective: to analyze a population of preterm infants admitted to neonatal units in relation to nutritional status and the food received. Methodology: retrospective observational design with 125 premature newborns from a public maternity in Tocantins. Gender, gestational age at birth, weight, length and head circumference at birth, during hospitalization and at discharge, daily weight gain, length of stay and type of diet received were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher exact and Student t, Mc Nemar, Wilcoxon and Friedman tests, at 5% significance, in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20.0. Results: there was a predominance of males in the sample. The prevalence of very premature children was higher in the conventional care unit (CCU), while the prevalence of very low birth weight children was higher in the intensive care unit (ICU). Length of stay was shorter in the CCU, which was less than half of the length of stay in the ICU. Weight at discharge and weight gain were higher in the ICU. There was a decline in nutritional status in both units. The use of commercial formulas was higher in CCU, while the supply of human milk in the ICU predominated. Conclusion: regardless of the type of diet received and the therapy unit, the children declined their nutritional status during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Sex , Body Weight , Breast Feeding , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cephalometry , Gestational Age , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
7.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 322(3): H350-H354, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030071

ABSTRACT

The recent move to require sex as a biological variable (SABV), which includes gender, into the reporting of research published by the American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology follows a growing, and much-needed, trend by journals. Understandably, there is concern over how to do this without adding considerable work, especially if one's primary research focus is not on elucidating sex/gender differences. The purpose of this article is to provide additional guidance and examples on how to incorporate SABV into the conduct and reporting of basic and clinical research. Using examples from our research, which includes both studies focused and not focused on sex/gender differences, we offer suggestions for how to incorporate SABV into basic and clinical research studies.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/standards , Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Research Design/standards , Sex , Animals , Biomedical Research/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Humans , Sex Characteristics
8.
PLoS Med ; 19(1): e1003861, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Key populations, including sex workers, are at high risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Men who pay for sex can contribute to HIV transmission through sexual relationships with both sex workers and their other partners. To characterize the population of men who pay for sex in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we analyzed population size, HIV prevalence, and use of HIV prevention and treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed random-effects meta-analyses of population-based surveys conducted in SSA from 2000 to 2020 with information on paid sex by men. We extracted population size, lifetime number of sexual partners, condom use, HIV prevalence, HIV testing, antiretroviral (ARV) use, and viral load suppression (VLS) among sexually active men. We pooled by regions and time periods, and assessed time trends using meta-regressions. We included 87 surveys, totaling over 368,000 male respondents (15-54 years old), from 35 countries representing 95% of men in SSA. Eight percent (95% CI 6%-10%; number of surveys [Ns] = 87) of sexually active men reported ever paying for sex. Condom use at last paid sex increased over time and was 68% (95% CI 64%-71%; Ns = 61) in surveys conducted from 2010 onwards. Men who paid for sex had higher HIV prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.50; 95% CI 1.31-1.72; Ns = 52) and were more likely to have ever tested for HIV (PR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.06-1.24; Ns = 81) than men who had not paid for sex. Men living with HIV who paid for sex had similar levels of lifetime HIV testing (PR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.88-1.05; Ns = 18), ARV use (PR = 1.01; 95% CI 0.86-1.18; Ns = 8), and VLS (PR = 1.00; 95% CI 0.86-1.17; Ns = 9) as those living with HIV who did not pay for sex. Study limitations include a reliance on self-report of sensitive behaviors and the small number of surveys with information on ARV use and VLS. CONCLUSIONS: Paying for sex is prevalent, and men who ever paid for sex were 50% more likely to be living with HIV compared to other men in these 35 countries. Further prevention efforts are needed for this vulnerable population, including improved access to HIV testing and condom use initiatives. Men who pay for sex should be recognized as a priority population for HIV prevention.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Population Density , Sex , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Men , Prevalence
9.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 322(3): H355-H358, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995165

ABSTRACT

The number of research studies investigating whether similar or different cardiovascular responses or adaptations exist between males and females is increasing. Traditionally, difference-based statistical methods, e.g., t test, ANOVA, etc., have been implemented to compare cardiovascular function between males and females, with a P value of >0.05 used to denote similarity between sexes. However, an absence of evidence, i.e., large P value, is not evidence of absence, i.e., no sex differences. Equivalence testing determines whether two measures or groups provide statistically equivalent outcomes, in that they differ by less than an "ideally prespecified" smallest effect size of interest. Our perspective discusses the applicability and utility of integrating equivalence testing when conducting sex comparisons in cardiovascular research. An emphasis is placed on how cardiovascular researchers may conduct equivalence testing across multiple study designs, e.g., cross-sectional comparisons, repeated-measures intervention, etc. The strengths and weaknesses of this statistical tool are discussed. Equivalence analyses are relatively simple to conduct, may be used in conjunction with traditional hypothesis testing to interpret findings, and permit the determination of statistically equivalent responses between sexes. We recommend that cardiovascular researchers consider implementing equivalence testing to better our understanding of similar and different cardiovascular processes between sexes.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Research Design/standards , Sex Characteristics , Animals , Humans , Sex
11.
Genes Brain Behav ; 21(1): e12741, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960643

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the disrupted in schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) gene are associated with an increased risk of developing psychological disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Assessing the impact of knocking out genes, like DISC1, in animal models provides valuable insights into the relationship between the gene and behavioral outcomes. Previous research has relied on mouse models to assess these impacts, however these may not yield as reliable or rich a behavioral analysis as can be obtained using rats. Thus, the goal of the present study was to characterize the behavioral effects of a biallelic functional deletion of the DISC1 gene in the Sprague Dawley rat. Female and male wild type and DISC1 knockout rats were assessed beginning just prior to weaning and during the post-weaning periadolescent period. The primary outcomes evaluated were activity, anxiety, responses to novel objects and conspecifics, and prepulse inhibition. These behaviors were selected as analogous indices of psychological dysfunction in humans. The DISC1 knockout had significant effects on behavior, although the kind and magnitude of deficits was different for females and males: in females, effects included hyperactivity, aversion to novelty, and a modest prepulse inhibition deficit; in males, effects in anxiety and neophobia were mild but their prepulse inhibition deficit was large. These data confirm that the DISC1 knockout rat model is an excellent way to reproduce and study symptoms of psychological disorders and provides compelling evidence for differential consequences of its dysfunction for females and males in the progression and emergence of specific behavioral deficits.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/genetics , Behavior, Animal , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Sex , Animals , Exploratory Behavior , Female , Gene Deletion , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 35: e35103, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364860

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Sex is one of the demographic characteristics that better differentiates the independence of the elderly, despite this distinction not being consensual. Objective: To know the differences in functioning associated with sex in elderly people aged ≥ 65 years according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Methods: This was an analytical and cross-sectional observational study with a sample of 451 subjects. The instruments were a sociodemographic questionnaire identical to a ICF checklist and the Biopsychosocial Assessment Method. The student t, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Spearman correlation tests were used considering p < 0.05. Results: The average age was between 79.5 ± 7.5 years with a female prevalence (62.1%). Of the 43 variables studied, sex differences were found in 17 (39.5%). In the personal factors, women showed greater vulnerability in conjugality (p ≤ 0.001), cohabitation (p = 0.037), and economic income (p = 0.002). Nonetheless, they showed healthier behaviors in all health-related habits. As for environmental factors and body functions, greater fragility was once again observed in women: the need for assistive devices (p ≤ 0.001) and urinary incontinence (p = 0.021). In activities/participation, differences were found in mobility, where women experienced more restrictions, whereas men were more dependent on washing/drying clothes in domestic life (p = 0.022). Conclusion: Women are more unprotected in social and economic areas, while men showed more vulnerability in habits related to health. These differences are linked to demographic issues related to longevity, cultural differences, and socialization, and differences regarding activities/participation tend to dilute between sexes.


Resumo Introdução: O sexo é das caraterísticas demográficas que mais diferencia a independência dos idosos, apesar dessa distinção não ser consensual. Objetivo: Conhecer as diferenças da funcionalidade associadas ao sexo, de acordo com a Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (CIF) em idosos com idade ≥ 65 anos. Métodos: Estudo observacional, analítico e transversal com uma amostra de 451 indivíduos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram um questionário sociodemográfico idêntico à checklist da CIF e o Método de Avaliação Biopsicossocial. Utilizaram-se os testes de T-Student, Mann-Whitney, Qui-Quadrado e Correlação de Spearman, considerando-se p < 0,05. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 79,5 ± 7,5 anos, observando-se uma prevalência feminina (62,1%). Das 43 variáveis estudadas, foram encontradas diferenças entre os sexos em 17 (39,5%). Nos fatores pessoais, as mulheres apresentaram maior vulnerabilidade na conjugalidade (p ≤ 0,001), na coabitação (p = 0,037) e no rendimento econômico (p = 0,002). Em todos os hábitos relacionados com a saúde, contudo, revelaram comportamentos mais saudáveis. Nos fatores ambientais e nas funções do corpo, observou-se novamente maior fragilidade nas mulheres: na necessidade de dispositivos de auxílio (p ≤ 0,001) e na incontinência urinária (p = 0,021). Nas atividades/participação, as mulheres apresentaram maior restrição na mobilidade e os homens na vida doméstica (lavar/secar roupa p = 0,022). Conclusão: As mulheres apresentam-se mais desprotegidas nas dimensões social e econômica, enquanto os homens manifestam hábitos de saúde mais vulneráveis. Estas diferenças estão ligadas às questões demográficas de longevidade e às diferenças culturais e de socialização. As diferenças nos domínios das atividades/participação tendem a diluir-se entre os sexos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health , Frailty , Life Style , Sex , Habits , Longevity
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e235106, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1360643

ABSTRACT

Resumo A sexualidade no processo de envelhecer é um fenômeno que precisa ser compreendido de forma sistematizada. Dada a amplitude de possibilidades em discussões acerca da sexualidade, o presente estudo focou no intercurso sexual no envelhecimento. Assim, o objetivo traçado foi compreender as atitudes e os conhecimentos de idosos de um município do agreste de Pernambuco sobre o intercurso sexual no envelhecimento. Foi utilizado o método quantitativo descritivo, com instrumento de coleta e de análise dos dados a escala ASKAS (Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale) aplicada à amostra de 150 participantes de ambos os sexos. Os resultados evidenciaram que a maioria dos entrevistados compreende que práticas sexuais podem trazer benefícios psicológicos. Apesar disso, a maior parte dos participantes, tanto das mulheres quanto dos homens, indicaram que o interesse sexual inevitavelmente desaparece depois dos 65 anos. As mulheres da amostra, como já era esperado, mostraram-se mais afetadas por tabus e proibições quanto à realização de desejos sexuais, consideraram o sexo como algo perigoso e alegaram vergonha para demonstrar interesse sexual, o que aponta para a necessidade de uma discussão de gênero.(AU)


Abstract The sexuality in the process of aging is a phenomenon that should be understood in a systematic way. Given the number of possibilities surrounding sexuality, our study focused on sexual intercourses. Therefore, we aimed to understand the attitudes and the knowledge of the older adults from a municipality in the agreste of the state of Pernambuco about to sexual intercourse during aging. We used both quantitative and descriptive methods and the ASKAS (Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale) scale to collect and analyze the data of 150 participants of both sexes. The results showed that most people interviewed understand that sexual intercourses can bring some psychological benefits. Despite this, most of them pointed that sexual interest inevitably disappears after the 65 years of age. The women interviewed, as expected, were more affected by taboos and prohibition related to sexual desires, considering sex as a danger and being ashamed of showing sexual interest for their partner, pointing to the need of an open discussion on the topic.(AU)


Resumen La sexualidad en el proceso de envejecimiento es un fenómeno que necesita ser entendido sistemáticamente. De la amplitud de posibilidades que permite la discusión sobre la sexualidad, el presente estudio se centró en las prácticas sexuales. Su objetivo fue comprender las actitudes y el conocimiento que los ancianos de un municipio de agreste de Pernambuco (Brasil) tenían sobre las relaciones sexuales durante el envejecimiento. Se utilizó el método descriptivo cuantitativo, con un instrumento de recopilación y análisis de datos con la escala ASKAS (Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale) aplicada a la muestra de 150 participantes de ambos sexos. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los entrevistados entienden que las prácticas sexuales pueden traer beneficios psicológicos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los participantes, tanto mujeres como hombres, indicaron que el interés sexual desaparece inevitablemente después de los 65 años. Como se esperaba, las mujeres de la muestra se vieron más afectadas por los tabúes y las prohibiciones sobre el cumplimiento de los deseos sexuales, consideraron que el sexo era peligroso y alegaron vergüenza para demostrar interés sexual, lo que señala la necesidad de una discusión de género.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sex , Aging , Attitude , Shame , Taboo , Women , Sexuality , Men
14.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-12-22. (PAHO/EGC/COVID-19/21-0006).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55432

ABSTRACT

This document focus on the direct consequences of the virus (morbidity and mortality) in specific populations and on the results of measures aimed at mitigating the spread of the virus, with indirect impacts on socio-economic conditions. In this complex scenario, the gender approach has not received due attention during the pandemic. Gender is one of the structural determinants of health, but it does not appear in analyses of the direct and indirect effects of the pandemic, despite being essential in the recognition and analysis of the differential impacts on men and women and their interaction with the different determinants of health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Gender and Health , Sex , Gender Equity , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gender Inequality , Women
15.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-12-13. (OPS/EGC/21-0007).
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55369

ABSTRACT

La reducción de las disparidades de género en los resultados de salud sigue siendo un desafío, en especial para los grupos cuyo empoderamiento económico y social es menor. Los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) aprobaron la Política de la OPS en materia de igualdad de género en el 2005 y el plan de acción para su aplicación en el 2009. El objetivo de la política es contribuir a aumentar el compromiso y la respuesta de los ministerios de salud y la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana (la Oficina) a fin de lograr mejores resultados de salud para la diversidad de mujeres, hombres, niñas y niños de la Región de las Américas. En este folleto se presentan los aspectos destacados del Informe de progreso de la Política de la OPS en materia de igualdad de género, publicado en el 2020, y se describen los logros claros que se han alcanzado y las brechas en el progreso hacia la integración de la perspectiva de género en el sector de la salud. Representa un panorama útil e interesante de los logros y de los desafíos que deben superarse para lograr la igualdad de género en materia de salud en la Región de las Américas.


Subject(s)
Gender Equity , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Sex , Gender Inequality , Statistics , Health Statistics , Ethnic Groups , Gender-Based Violence
16.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-12-03. (PAHO/EGC/21-0007).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55300

ABSTRACT

Reducing gender disparities in health outcomes in the Americas remains a challenge, especially for groups with less economic and social empowerment. Member States of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) approved the PAHO Gender Equality Policy in 2005 and its associated Gender Equality Plan of Action in 2009. The goal of the Gender Equality Policy is to contribute to improved commitment and responses from ministries of health and the Pan American Sanitary Bureau for better health outcomes for diverse women, men, and children of the Americas. This brochure presents the highlights of the 2020 PAHO Gender Equality Policy: Progress Report, which describes the clear achievements of Member States and the Pan American Sanitary Bureau as well as the gaps in advancing gender mainstreaming in the health sector. It serves as an effective and attractive snapshot of the gains and remaining challenges to achieve gender equality in health in the Americas.


Subject(s)
Gender Equity , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Sex , Statistics , Ethnic Groups , Gender Inequality , Gender-Based Violence
18.
Infectio ; 25(4): 276-283, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286722

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la supervivencia a siete años y los principales factores asociados a esta, en las personas con VIH que fueron atendidas en el sistema de salud colombiano entre 2011 a 2018. Métodos: Análisis de supervivencia de una cohorte de 64 039 personas diagnosticadas con VIH en Colombia. Se aplicó el método de Kaplan-Meier para estimar la probabilidad de supervivencia a partir de la fecha del diagnóstico. Se ajustó un modelo de supervivencia paramétrico flexible de Royston Parmar. Resultados: La estimación de la supervivencia global a 7 años fue de 94,8% (IC 95%: 94,5-95,2). El mayor riesgo de muerte se presentó en los hombres (HR: 1,2; IC 95%: 1,1-1,4; p: 0,010); en personas ≥50 años de edad (HR: 3,1; IC 95%: 1,6-6,3; p: 0,002); en el régimen subsidiado (HR: 2,2; IC 95%: 1,9-2,5; p: <0,001); en la etapa sida (HR: 2,8; IC 95%: 2,1-3,7; p: <0,001); en quienes presentaron la última carga viral detectable (HR: 7,1; IC 95%: 6,0-8,3; p: <0,001); y en quienes mostraron conteo de linfocitos T CD4+ <350 células/μL (HR: 1,9; IC 95%: 1,4-2,4; p: <0,001). Conclusión: La probabilidad de la supervivencia de las personas que viven con VIH aumenta al ser diagnosticados en edades jóvenes, en quienes presenten un recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ ≥350 células/μL, una carga viral indetectable (< 50 copias/mL) y no se encuentren en etapa sida.


Summary Objective: to describe the seven-year survival and predictors of mortality among people with HIV who were treated in the Colombian health system between 2011 and 2018. Methods: 64 039 people diagnosed with HIV in Colombia were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the probability of survival from the date of diagnosis. A Royston Parmar flexible parametric survival model was fitted. Results: The overall survival at 7 years was 94.8% (95% CI: 94.5-95.2). Survival was related to sex (men, HR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4; p: 0.010); people ≥50 years of age (HR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.6-6.3; p: 0.002); subsidized regime (HR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.9-2.5; p: <0.001); AIDS stage (HR: 2.8; 95% CI: 2.1-3.7; p: <0.001); a detectable viral load (HR: 7.1; 95% CI: 6.0-8.3; p: <0.001); and a CD4+ Lymphocyte count <350 cells/μL (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; p: <0.001). Conclusion: The probability of survival of people living with HIV increases when they are diagnosed at a young age, in those with a CD4+ T Lymphocyte count ≥350 cells/μL, an undetectable viral load (<50 copies/mL) and are not in the AIDS stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Survival Analysis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Sex , T-Lymphocytes , Probability , HIV , Colombia , Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Survivorship
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1963): 20212245, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784765

ABSTRACT

Teleosts show varied master sex determining (MSD) genes and sex determination (SD) mechanisms, with frequent turnovers of sex chromosomes. Tracing the origins of MSD genes and turnovers of sex chromosomes in a taxonomic group is of particular interest in evolutionary biology. Oyster pompano (Trachinotus anak), a marine fish, belongs to the family Carangidae, in which 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (hsd17b1) has repeatedly evolved to an MSD gene. Whole-genome resequencing identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at chromosome 24 to be strictly associated with phenotypic sex, with females being the heterozygous sex. This SNP is located in a splicing site at the first exon/intron boundary of hsd17b1. The Z-linked SNP results in malfunction of all spliced isoforms, whereas the W-linked isoforms were predicted to have open reading frames that are conserved among vertebrates, suggesting that hsd17b1 is a female-determining gene. The differential alternative splicing patterns of ZZ and ZW genotypes were consistently observed both in undifferentiated stages and differentiated gonads. We observed elevated recombination around the SD locus and no differentiation between Z and W chromosomes. The extreme diversity of mutational mechanisms that hsd17b1 evolves to an MSD gene highlights frequent in situ turnovers between sex chromosomes in the Carangidae.


Subject(s)
Ostreidae , Sex , Animals , Female , Introns , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sex Chromosomes , Sex Determination Processes
20.
Genes Brain Behav ; 20(8): e12775, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672092

ABSTRACT

The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of the hormonal and behavioral stress responses, which critically involve corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its receptors. While it has been shown that CRF and the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor are co-localized in several brain regions, the physiological relevance of this co-expression remains unclear. Using double in situ hybridization, we confirmed co-localization in the piriform cortex, the lateral hypothalamic area, the paraventricular nucleus, and the Barrington's nucleus, albeit at low levels. To study the behavioral and physiological implications of this co-expression, we generated a conditional knockout mouse line that selectively lacks the expression of CB1 receptors in CRF neurons. We found no effects on fear and anxiety-related behaviors under basal conditions nor after a traumatic experience. Additionally, plasma corticosterone levels were unaffected at baseline and after restraint stress. Only acoustic startle responses were significantly enhanced in male, but not female, knockout mice. Taken together, the consequences of depleting CB1 in CRF-positive neurons caused a confined hyperarousal phenotype in a sex-dependent manner. The current results suggest that the important interplay between the central endocannabinoid and CRF systems in regulating the organism's stress response is predominantly taking place at the level of CRF receptor-expressing neurons.


Subject(s)
Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/metabolism , Reflex, Startle/genetics , Acoustic Stimulation , Animals , Corticosterone/blood , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Female , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurons/metabolism , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/cytology , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/metabolism , Piriform Cortex/cytology , Piriform Cortex/metabolism , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/genetics , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Sex
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