Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 12.002
Filter
1.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 78, 2024 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As well as being associated with serious negative health outcomes, smoking has been reported to have an array of physiological and psychological effects, including effects on mood and cognitive function. Post-cessation, loss of such effects (including temporary deficits in cognitive function) have been cited as reasons for resumption of smoking. The effects of e-cigarettes and nicotine delivered by e-cigarettes on these functions have not been widely researched but may play a role in the effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a satisfactory alternative to combustible cigarettes for people who smoke, and in encouraging individuals who would otherwise continue to smoke, to transition to e-cigarettes. METHODS: The study was an exploratory, randomised, partially-blinded, single-centre, five-arm crossover trial that recruited 40 healthy male and female people who smoke. At 5 study sessions, following a 12-h period of nicotine abstinence, participants were randomly assigned to use either a combustible cigarette, an e-cigarette of three varying nicotine strengths (18 mg/mL, 12 mg/mL or 0 mg/mL respectively) or observe a no product usage session. Participants completed pre- and post-product usage assessments to examine the product usage effect on cognitive performance (using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)), subjective mood and smoking urges. RESULTS: A significant improvement in sustained attention task performance was observed following use of both the nicotine containing e-cigarettes and combustible cigarette compared to no product use. Additionally, there were no significant differences between the nicotine containing products, indicating that nicotine use enhanced sustained attention regardless of delivery format. Nicotine containing e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use also significantly improved overall mood of participants compared to no product use, with no significant differences observed between the nicotine containing products. Nicotine containing e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use significantly reduced smoking urges compared to no product use, though combustible cigarette use elicited the greatest reduction in smoking urges. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the nicotine containing products improved sustained attention and mood while reducing smoking urges, with the studied e-cigarettes having comparable effects to combustible cigarettes across the assessed cognitive parameters and mood measures. These results demonstrate the potential role of e-cigarettes to provide an acceptable alternative for combustible cigarettes among people who would otherwise continue to smoke. Trial registration ISRCTN (identifier: ISRCTN35376793).


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Nicotine/adverse effects , Cross-Over Studies , Smokers , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoking , Cognition
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7823, 2024 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570551

ABSTRACT

Prior research has predominantly focused on the overall effects of the tobacco tax increase and the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent smoking behavior. However, there is a need to examine both the immediate and sustained associations of these two factors on subgroups of adolescents, employing an interrupted time-series model. We aimed to investigate the immediate and sustained association of tobacco tax increase and the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent smoking prevalence. This study utilized data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey to analyze the prevalence of current smoking among all participants (CSP) and the prevalence of daily smoking among current smokers (DSP) of Korean adolescents (n = 1,159,995; mean, age 14.99; male 51.5%) over 18 years from 2005 to 2022. The study examined 18-year trends in CSP and DSP among Korean adolescents, emphasizing the influences of the 2015 tobacco tax increase and the COVID-19 pandemic, using ß coefficients and their differences (ßdiff) from an interrupted time-series ARIMA model. While CSP exhibited a decreasing trend, DSP exhibited an increasing trend. Tobacco tax increase was associated with both the short and long terms in smoking prevalence, however, the short-term association on prevalence (CSP, - 3.076 [95% CI, - 3.707 to - 2.445]; DSP, - 4.112 [95% CI, - 6.488 to - 1.735]) was stronger. The pandemic was associated with an immediate increase in DSP (9.345 [95% CI, 5.285-13.406]). These effects were strongest among adolescents from low economic status and those exposed to familial secondhand smoking. Supportive programs for adolescents in low-income families will help overcome the effects associated with the pandemic. As a tobacco tax increase was associated with a reduction in smoking prevalence, this could be one method to overcome the effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , Male , Humans , Pandemics , Smoking Cessation/methods , Prevalence , Taxes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
3.
Sante Publique ; 36(1): 33-44, 2024 04 05.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A multi-center observational study was carried out in ten ESMS, using a mixed methodology (site visits, questionnaire survey, semi-directive group interviews with professionals and individual interviews with users). PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: The aim of this article is to describe the management and prevention of smoking in ESMS for people with mental health disorders, and to characterize and identify the smoking behaviors and representations of ESMS users and the professionals working there. RESULTS: The study made it possible to distinguish between ESMS in terms of the organization of smoking areas and tobacco prevention initiatives. It also revealed that 37 percent of respondents among the professionals said they smoked tobacco, with some of them explaining that they smoked with users and sometimes gave them cigarettes. With regard to prevention, there was a consensus among professionals that they should help users who wanted to stop smoking. Professionals were divided, however, on the need for more active prevention, citing the users' freedom and the fact that ESMS are places where people live. Among the users, 47 percent said they were smokers. Of the users who smoked, 55 percent said they wanted to stop. Interviews with the users revealed that twelve of them wanted to quit, with some asking for help and more assistance from professionals. CONCLUSIONS: This report suggests that intervention research could be developed in ESMS for people with mental health disorders, who could benefit from the smoking prevention actions identified in the facilities and services investigated.


Introduction: Une étude observationnelle multicentrique a été réalisée dans dix ESMS et mobilisait une méthodologie mixte (visite des structures, enquête par questionnaires, entretiens semi-directifs collectifs avec des professionnels et individuels avec des usagers). But de l'étude: Cet article vise à décrire la gestion et la prévention du tabagisme dans des établissements et services médico-sociaux (ESMS) accueillant des personnes avec un trouble psychique, et à caractériser et identifier les comportements tabagiques et les représentations de leurs usagers et professionnels. Résultats: L'étude a permis de distinguer les ESMS au regard de l'organisation des espaces du tabagisme et des actions de prévention du tabac. Elle a permis également de constater que 37 % des professionnels qui ont répondu déclaraient fumer du tabac, une partie d'entre eux expliquant fumer avec les usagers et leur donner parfois des cigarettes. Concernant la prévention, un consensus se dégageait chez les professionnels sur le fait d'aider les usagers qui souhaitaient arrêter. Les professionnels étaient cependant divisés à l'égard d'une prévention plus active, invoquant la liberté de l'usager et le fait que les ESMS sont des lieux de vie. 47 % des usagers se disaient fumeurs. 55 % des usagers fumeurs déclaraient vouloir arrêter. Les entretiens avec les usagers ont permis de constater que douze d'entre eux souhaitaient arrêter, une partie réclamant de l'aide et d'être davantage aidés par les professionnels. Conclusions: Cet état des lieux invite à développer des recherches interventionnelles dans les ESMS accueillant des personnes avec un trouble psychique qui pourraient tirer profit des actions de prévention du tabac repérées dans des structures enquêtées.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoking/psychology , Tobacco Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smoking Prevention
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 990, 2024 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite multiple recommendations and strategies implemented at a national and international level, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and cannabis use during pregnancy remains high in most countries. The objective of this study was to examine key stakeholders' perception of the treatment interventions adopted in Spain, to identify political, organizational and personal factors associated with successful implementation, and to propose strategies for improvement. METHODS: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach was conducted in 2022. The target groups were: (1) clinical decision makers in the field of addiction science, (2) health professionals who carry out treatment interventions, and (3) pregnant individuals who use tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Two focus groups and eight in-depth interviews were conducted, recorded, and transcribed. Exploratory analysis and inductive open coding was performed, codes were merged into categories, and subcategories were identified. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in 10 subcategories which were further merged into three main categories: (1) Degree of adoption and utility of treatment interventions implemented; (2) Needs and demands with respect to the organization of treatment interventions; and, (3) Personal barriers to and facilitators for treatment. Respondents reported that despite multiple national and regional cessation initiatives, treatment interventions were rarely adopted in clinical practice. Health care administrators demanded reliable records to quantify substance use for better planning of activities. Health care professionals advocated for additional time and training and both echoed the importance of integrating cessation interventions into routine prenatal care and creating in-house specialized units. The difficulty in quitting, lack of awareness of risk for foetus and child and the controversial advice were identified as barriers by pregnant individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous work, this study found that cessation strategies implemented by the health authorities are not effective if they are not accompanied by organizational and behavioral changes. The current study identifies a set of factors that could be pivotal in ensuring the success of treatment interventions targeting tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among pregnant individuals.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Pregnancy , Female , Child , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Qualitative Research , Prenatal Care , Ethanol , Perception , Decision Making
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e076725, 2024 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580367

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Globally, guideline-recommended antenatal care for smoking cessation is not routinely delivered by antenatal care providers. Implementation strategies have been shown to improve the delivery of clinical practices across a variety of clinical services but there is an absence of evidence in applying such strategies to support improvements to antenatal care for smoking cessation in pregnancy. This study aims to determine the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of implementation strategies in increasing the routine provision of recommended antenatal care for smoking cessation in public maternity services. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A non-randomised stepped-wedge cluster-controlled trial will be conducted in maternity services across three health sectors in New South Wales, Australia. Implementation strategies including guidelines and procedures, reminders and prompts, leadership support, champions, training and monitoring and feedback will be delivered sequentially to each sector over 4 months. Primary outcome measures will be the proportion of: (1) pregnant women who report receiving a carbon monoxide breath test; (2) smokers or recent quitters who report receiving quit/relapse advice; and (3) smokers who report offer of help to quit smoking (Quitline referral or nicotine replacement therapy). Outcomes will be measured via cross-sectional telephone surveys with a random sample of women who attend antenatal appointments each week. Economic analyses will be undertaken to assess the cost effectiveness of the implementation intervention. Process measures including acceptability, adoption, fidelity and reach will be reported. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained through the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee (16/11/16/4.07; 16/10/19/5.15) and the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council (1236/16). Trial findings will be disseminated to health policy-makers and health services to inform best practice processes for effective guideline implementation. Findings will also be disseminated at scientific conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry-ACTRN12622001010785.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Australia , Prenatal Care/methods , Smoking/therapy , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic
6.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 15: 21501319241245275, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584453

ABSTRACT

Many low-income adults who smoke also have unmet social needs, such as food insecurity, which can serve as a barrier to smoking cessation. We developed a novel intervention to jointly address smoking cessation and food insecurity and assessed its feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes. We enrolled participants who screened for food insecurity, reported smoking daily, and were ready to quit. All participants received 3 months of resources navigation from a community health worker through monthly telephone calls for referrals and check-ins for smoking cessation and food access resources. Participants randomized to the intervention group received an economic intervention equivalent to the cost of 1 week of groceries/month for 3 months. We randomized 55 participants who were smoking on average 13 cigarettes/day. The trial was feasible and acceptable based on 3-month retention rates (80%) and end-of-study qualitative feedback (91% would recommend the study to others). At 3 months, participants in the intervention versus control group reported a longer length of abstinence from smoking and had a higher proportion of serious quit attempts. Results from this pilot study suggest the importance of attending to social needs, particularly food insecurity, as a strategy to promote smoking cessation among low-income adults who smoke.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Telecommunications , Adult , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Pilot Projects , Poverty , Motivation
7.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080525, 2024 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the return on investment (ROI) of the New York Tobacco Control Programme (NY TCP). SETTING: New York and other states of the USA. INTERVENTIONS: NY TCP. OUTCOMES: Smoking prevalence, smoking-attributable healthcare expenditures (SAEs), smoking-attributable mortality, years of life lost (YLL), the dollar value of YLL and the ROI for healthcare expenditures and mortality. DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a synthetic control method to estimate the effectiveness of NY TCP funding on smoking prevalence. The synthetic control method created a comparison group that best matched the adult smoking prevalence trend in New York state in the period prior to implementation of the NY TCP and compared smoking prevalence in the state to smoking prevalence in the synthetic control in the period after treatment (2001-2019). The synthetic control group represents what the trend in smoking prevalence in New York would have been had there been no tobacco control expenditures. The ROI was calculated as net savings for each outcome divided by net programme expenditures. RESULTS: Cumulative savings in SAE in New York from 2001 to 2019 amounted to US$13.2 billion. An estimated 41 771 smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) were averted in New York from 2001 to 2019, and an estimated 672 141 YLL averted as a result of NY TCP funding in the same period. From 2001 to 2019, the ROI for SAE in New York was approximately 14, the economic value ROI of the YLL due to SAD was nearly 145 and the combined ROI was almost 160. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found relatively large ROIs for the NY TCP, which suggests that the programme-which lowers SAE and saves lives-is an efficient use of public funds.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Adult , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/methods , Health Expenditures , Tobacco Control
8.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(7): 1126-1132, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503709

ABSTRACT

Background: A growing body of literature suggests that many people who use e-cigarettes become dependent and have difficulty quitting. Most people who use e-cigarettes have interest in quitting, yet there is currently a lack of evidence to inform interventions for e-cigarette cessation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with successful e-cigarette quit attempts among a large sample of people who use e-cigarettes. Methods: Participants (n=586) were people who use e-cigarettes who reported at least one lifetime attempt to quit their e-cigarette use. Adjusted logistic regression models were performed to examine differences in e-cigarette use characteristics and quit methods between people who currently use e-cigarettes and who quit e-cigarettes. Results: Most participants were people who currently use e-cigarettes and only 27.5% reported successfully quitting. Most participants (90.6%) used e-cigarettes that contained nicotine, and over half (54.0%) used closed-system e-cigarette devices with replaceable pre-filled pods or cartridges. The quit method most commonly used overall (63.1%) and for people who quit e-cigarettes (70.8%) was cold turkey. Past 30-day cigarette use and past 30-day other tobacco use was significantly associated with reduced odds of quitting, and there were no e-cigarette characteristics significantly associated with successful cessation. Nicotine replacement therapy was the only e-cigarette cessation method that was significantly associated with increased odds of quitting after adjusting for past 30-day cigarette and other tobacco use. Conclusions: These results suggests that cigarette use, other tobacco use, and quit method used may significantly influence the likelihood of e-cigarette cessation. Future research is needed to determine the effectiveness of interventions for e-cigarette cessation using nicotine replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adult , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy
9.
Addict Biol ; 29(3): e13376, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488699

ABSTRACT

A network meta-analysis (NMA) including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effects of different interventions on smoking cessation. Studies were collected from online databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eligible studies were further examined in the NMA to compare the effect of 14 interventions on smoking cessation. Thirty-four studies were examined in the NMA, including a total of 14 interventions and 28 733 participants. The results showed that health education (HE; odds ratio ([OR] = 200.29, 95% CI [1.62, 24 794.61])), other interventions (OI; OR = 29.79, 95% CI [1.07, 882.17]) and multimodal interventions (MUIs; OR = 100.16, 95% CI [2.06, 4867.24]) were better than self-help material (SHM). HE (OR = 243.31, 95% CI [1.39, 42531.33]), MUI (OR = 121.67, 95% CI [1.64, 9004.86]) and financial incentive (FI; OR = 14.09, 95% CI [1.21, 164.31]) had positive effects on smoking cessation rate than smoking cessation or quitting APP (QA). Ranking results showed that HE (83.6%) and motivation interviewing (MI; 69.6%) had better short-term effects on smoking cessation. HE and MUI provided more smoking cessation benefits than SHM and QA. FI was more effective at quitting smoking than QA. Also, HE and MI were more likely to be optimal smoking cessation interventions.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Network Meta-Analysis , Smoking , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Behavior Therapy
10.
CNS Spectr ; 29(2): 96-108, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433577

ABSTRACT

We aim to assess the relationship between validated smoking cessation pharmacotherapies and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and insomnia and parasomnia using a systematic review and a network meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed until August 2022 in the following databases: PUBMED, COCHRANE, CLINICALTRIAL. Randomized controlled studies against placebo or validated therapeutic smoking cessation methods and e-cigarettes in adult smokers without unstable or psychiatric comorbidity were included. The primary outcome was the presence of "insomnia" and "parasomnia." A total of 1261 studies were selected. Thirty-seven studies were included in the quantitative analysis (34 for insomnia and 23 for parasomnia). The reported interventions were varenicline (23 studies), nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, 10 studies), bupropion (15 studies). No studies on e-cigarettes were included. Bayesian analyses found that insomnia and parasomnia are more frequent with smoking cessation therapies than placebo except for bupropion. Insomnia was less frequent with nicotine substitutes but more frequent with bupropion than the over pharmacotherapies. Parasomnia are less frequent with bupropion but more frequent with varenicline than the over pharmacotherapies. Validated smoking cessation pharmacotherapies can induce sleep disturbances with different degrees of frequency. Our network meta-analysis shows a more favorable profile of nicotine substitutes for insomnia and bupropion for parasomnia. It seems essential to systematize the assessment of sleep disturbances in the initiation of smoking cessation treatment. This could help professionals to personalize the choice of treatment according to sleep parameters of each patient. Considering co-addictions, broadening the populations studied and standardizing the measurement are additional avenues for future research.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Parasomnias , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Smoking Cessation , Adult , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Bupropion/adverse effects , Nicotine/therapeutic use , Varenicline/adverse effects , Nicotinic Agonists/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Bayes Theorem , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Parasomnias/drug therapy
11.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 333-339, 2024 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The decision to make a quit attempt is the first step toward the tobacco cessation process. It is well established in the literature that if someone does not take tobacco till the age of 21 years then his chances of remaining tobacco-free for life are higher than his counterparts who start tobacco at early developmental ages. METHODOLOGY AND TOOLS: The present study was conducted among 400 university undergraduate students. A cross-sectional survey design was used, multi-stage sampling was done, and four colleges were selected via random sampling. The motivation to quit tobacco, tobacco craving, and maintenance of tobacco abstinence was assessed via contemplation ladder, tobacco craving questionnaire Short Form, and smoking abstinence questionnaire. To validate subjective data, a urine cotinine test was performed. RESULTS: The age of tobacco initiation significantly impacts intentions to quit tobacco and tobacco craving levels. The number of unsuccessful quit attempts was also significantly associated with the maintenance of tobacco abstinence. The failed quit attempts play a vital role in altering tobacco cravings and make the withdrawals more complicated to handle for recent tobacco quitters.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Smoking Cessation/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smoking , Tobacco , Motivation
12.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 241(4): 653-685, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Varenicline is considered one of the most effective treatment options for smoking cessation. Nonetheless, it is only modestly effective. A deeper comprehension of the effects of varenicline by means of the in-depth review of relevant fMRI studies may assist in paving the development of more targeted and effective treatments. METHODOLOGY: A search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases was conducted with the keywords "functional magnetic resonance imaging" or "fMRI", and "varenicline". All peer-reviewed articles regarding the assessment of smokers with fMRI while undergoing treatment with varenicline and meeting the predefined criteria were included. RESULTS: Several studies utilizing different methodologies and targeting different aspects of brain function were identified. During nicotine withdrawal, decreased mesocorticolimbic activity and increased amygdala activity, as well as elevated amygdala-insula and insula-default-mode-network functional connectivity are alleviated by varenicline under specific testing conditions. However, other nicotine withdrawal-induced changes, including the decreased reward responsivity of the ventral striatum, the bilateral dorsal striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex are not influenced by varenicline suggesting a task-dependent divergence in neurocircuitry activation. Under satiety, varenicline treatment is associated with diminished cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum and medial orbitofrontal cortex concomitant with reduced cravings; during the resting state, varenicline induces activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and suppression of the right amygdala. CONCLUSIONS: The current review provides important clues with regard to the neurobiological mechanism of action of varenicline and highlights promising research opportunities regarding the development of more selective and effective treatments and predictive biomarkers for treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Humans , Varenicline/pharmacology , Varenicline/therapeutic use , Smoking Cessation/methods , Nicotine , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nicotinic Agonists/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging
13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 664, 2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present research aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the extended theory of planned behavior (ETPB) on waterpipe (WT) smoking cessation in women. METHODS: The present quasi-experimental had a pre-test, post-test design with 3, 6 and 12 months follow-ups was conducted in Bandar Abbas city, south of Iran in December 2021-March 2023. A total of 448 women over the age of 15 (224 in the intervention group (IG), 224 in the control group (CG)), using a two-stage cluster sampling method participated. The educational intervention focused on WT smoking cessation implemented in 14 sessions. The educational methods in the training sessions were lectures, collaborative discussions, Q&As, brainstorming, role plays, and peer education. The main outcome was WT cessation behavior. Repeated measures ANOVA tests and post hoc were run to compare the IG and CG at baseline in terms of demographic variables, t-test and chi square test, and in the four points of time of data collection. The data were analyzed in Stata14. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean and standard deviation of WT cessation behavior and all ETPB constructs in the IG was significantly higher than the CG. After the educational intervention, in the IG, the perceived behavioral control, attitude, subjective norm, intention and knowledge increased, and the weekly smoking and WT smoking habit decreased (P < 0.001). The CG did not have any significant change in other variables except for the increased knowledge score. During the 12-month follow-up, the cessation rate was 43.81% (P = 0.645) in the IG and 7.45% in the CG (P = 0.081). CONCLUSIONS: The educational intervention positively affected WT smoking reduction and cessation in women through influencing the ETPB constructs. It is strongly recommended to design theory-based interventions beyond the individual level with an emphasis on interpersonal relationships to facilitate WT cessation as far as possible.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Water Pipe Smoking , Humans , Female , Smoking Cessation/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Iran , Health Education/methods
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 169, 2024 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has increased tremendously at a global level among all age groups, particularly young people. Previous studies have examined the impact of waterpipe tobacco pictorial health warnings on adults but scarce studies were done on adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the association of textual versus pictorial warnings on tumbac boxes and the motivation to quit waterpipe smoking among adolescents located in two Eastern Mediterranean countries Lebanon and Iraq. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and November 2022, involving 294 adolescents waterpipe smokers from Lebanon and Iraq. The questionnaire included the Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Smoking-11, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Waterpipe Harm Perception Scale, Waterpipe Knowledge Scale, Waterpipe Attitude Scale, the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, and the Motivation to Stop Scale. RESULTS: When adjusting the results over confounding variables, the results showed that compared to finding the warnings to stop smoking not efficacious at all, adolescents who find the warnings moderately (aOR = 2.83) and very (aOR = 6.64) efficacious had higher motivation to quit. Compared to finding the warnings not increasing their curiosity for information about how to stop waterpipe smoking at all, participants who confessed that warnings increased their curiosity a little (aOR = 2.59), moderately (aOR = 3.34) and very (aOR = 3.58) had higher motivation to quit. Compared to not considering changing the tumbac brand if the company uses pictorial warnings, adolescents who would consider changing the tumbac brand (aOR = 2.15) had higher motivation to quit. CONCLUSION: Pictorial and textual warnings on waterpipe packs were associated with higher motivation to stop waterpipe smoking. Public health education programs for this purpose seem warranted.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Tobacco, Waterpipe , Water Pipe Smoking , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Motivation , Smoking Cessation/methods , Iraq , Cross-Sectional Studies , Product Labeling/methods , Smoking Prevention
15.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 139, 2024 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The National Health Service in England aims to implement tobacco dependency treatment services in all hospitals by 2024. We aimed to assess the uptake of a new service, adapted from the Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation, and its impact on 6-month quit rates and readmission or death at 1-year follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic service evaluation of a tobacco dependency service implemented among 2067 patients who smoked who were admitted to 2 acute hospitals in London, England, over a 12-month period from July 2020. The intervention consisted of the systematic identification of smoking status, automatic referral to tobacco dependence specialists, provision of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support throughout the hospital stay, and telephone support for 6 months after discharge. The outcomes were (i) patient acceptance of the intervention during admission, (ii) quit success at 6 months after discharge, (iii) death, or (iv) readmission up to 1 year following discharge. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of a range of clinical and demographic variables on these outcomes. RESULTS: The majority (79.4%) of patients accepted support at the first assessment. Six months after discharge, 35.1% of successfully contacted patients reported having quit smoking. After adjustment, odds of accepting support were 51-61% higher among patients of all non-White ethnicity groups, relative to White patients, but patients of Mixed, Asian, or Other ethnicities had decreased odds of quit success (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.32, 95%CI = 0.15-0.66). Decreased odds of accepting support were associated with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or diabetes; however, diabetes was associated with increased odds of quit success (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.17-3.04). Intention to make a quit attempt was associated with a threefold increase in odds of quit success, and 60% lower odds of death, compared to patients who did not intend to quit. A mental health diagnosis was associated with an 84% increase in the odds of dying within 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The overall quit rates were similar to results from Ottawa models implemented elsewhere, although outcomes varied by site. Outcomes also varied according to patient demographics and diagnoses, suggesting personalised and culturally tailored interventions may be needed to optimise quit success.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Patient Readmission , State Medicine , Hospitals
16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541309

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of smoking cessation outcomes and reasons for relapse following smoking cessation treatment. Using a mixed-method design, 179 patients were recruited from the Smoking Cessation outpatient clinic of Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital between May 2016 and May 2017. Quantitative data were collected via questionnaires or from patient files and qualitative data were obtained via 5 focus group interviews with 28 patients who relapsed to smoking following treatment. The success rate of the smoking cessation clinic at the end of one year was 26%. The number of applications to the clinic was significantly higher in the group who quit smoking. Treatment success was found to be higher in the group that applied behavioral recommendations. In focus group interviews with patients who relapsed, the most common causes were stressful events, especially workplace problems and serious health problems experienced by relatives. The presence of smokers in the immediate vicinity increased the risk of relapse. It was concluded that not stopping treatment before the recommended period, continuity in follow-up appointments, support of the environment, support of pharmacotherapy with cognitive behavioral therapy and improving patients' coping skills were important.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Turkey , Smoking/psychology , Recurrence , Ambulatory Care Facilities
17.
N Engl J Med ; 390(7): 601-610, 2024 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine-delivery systems - also called e-cigarettes - are used by some tobacco smokers to assist with quitting. Evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of these systems is needed. METHODS: In this open-label, controlled trial, we randomly assigned adults who were smoking at least five tobacco cigarettes per day and who wanted to set a quit date to an intervention group, which received free e-cigarettes and e-liquids, standard-of-care smoking-cessation counseling, and optional (not free) nicotine-replacement therapy, or to a control group, which received standard counseling and a voucher, which they could use for any purpose, including nicotine-replacement therapy. The primary outcome was biochemically validated, continuous abstinence from smoking at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included participant-reported abstinence from tobacco and from any nicotine (including smoking, e-cigarettes, and nicotine-replacement therapy) at 6 months, respiratory symptoms, and serious adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 1246 participants underwent randomization; 622 participants were assigned to the intervention group, and 624 to the control group. The percentage of participants with validated continuous abstinence from tobacco smoking was 28.9% in the intervention group and 16.3% in the control group (relative risk, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.43 to 2.20). The percentage of participants who abstained from smoking in the 7 days before the 6-month visit was 59.6% in the intervention group and 38.5% in the control group, but the percentage who abstained from any nicotine use was 20.1% in the intervention group and 33.7% in the control group. Serious adverse events occurred in 25 participants (4.0%) in the intervention group and in 31 (5.0%) in the control group; adverse events occurred in 272 participants (43.7%) and 229 participants (36.7%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of e-cigarettes to standard smoking-cessation counseling resulted in greater abstinence from tobacco use among smokers than smoking-cessation counseling alone. (Funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation and others; ESTxENDS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03589989.).


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Adult , Humans , Nicotine/administration & dosage , Nicotine/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices/adverse effects
19.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1335937, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375336

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tobacco use is responsible for over 7 million deaths annually, making smoking the leading cause of preventable mortality globally. Over the last two decades in Italy, the prevalence of smoking among physicians has consistently decreased, while it remains higher and is gradually decreasing among non-physician healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, and knowledge on counteractive strategies among employees in the Primary Healthcare Facilities in the Province of Palermo, Italy. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June 2020 and December 2020 through a previously validated anonymous questionnaire structured in four sections including 34 items. Data were analyzed using Stata/MP 12.1 statistical software. Results: Overall, 2,645 participants answered the questionnaire. The prevalence of either current or former smokers was 18.6%. Based on the multivariable analysis conducted, a significantly higher frequency of current smokers was observed among male participants (AdjOR: 1.29; CI95%: 1.02-1.64) and those belonging to the Surgical Unit (AdjOR: 1.92; CI95%: 1.27-2.90). Conversely, the prevalence of current smokers was significantly lower among those with at least one child (AdjOR: 0.67; CI95%: 0.49-0.91), with an educational qualification equal to or greater than a graduation degree (AdjOR: 0.56; CI95%: 0.43-0.73), those who considered second-hand smoke harmful (AdjOR: 0.06; CI95%: 0.008-0.60), those who had observed smoking or detected the smell of smoke in their workplace (AdjOR: 0.64; CI95%: 0.45-0.91). Furthermore, the prevalence of current smokers was significantly lower among participants who believed that healthcare professionals could play a crucial role in influencing their patients' lifestyles (AdjOR: 0.67; CI95%: 0.50-0.90) and among those who recommend their patients to quit smoking (AdjOR: 0.35; CI95%: 0.24-0.51). Discussion: The results of the current research demonstrate that, despite the decline in smoking prevalence among physicians, the rate of smokers among healthcare facility employees remains unacceptably high. This underscores the need to re-evaluate current anti-tobacco strategies in the workplace.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Child , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smoking Cessation/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Smoking/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology
20.
Radiol Med ; 129(3): 411-419, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319494

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lung cancer screening (LCS) by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) demonstrated a 20-40% reduction in lung cancer mortality. National stakeholders and international scientific societies are increasingly endorsing LCS programs, but translating their benefits into practice is rather challenging. The "Model for Optimized Implementation of Early Lung Cancer Detection: Prospective Evaluation Of Preventive Lung HEalth" (PEOPLHE) is an Italian multicentric LCS program aiming at testing LCS feasibility and implementation within the national healthcare system. PEOPLHE is intended to assess (i) strategies to optimize LCS workflow, (ii) radiological quality assurance, and (iii) the need for dedicated resources, including smoking cessation facilities. METHODS: PEOPLHE aims to recruit 1.500 high-risk individuals across three tertiary general hospitals in three different Italian regions that provide comprehensive services to large populations to explore geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic diversities. Screening by LDCT will target current or former (quitting < 10 years) smokers (> 15 cigarettes/day for > 25 years, or > 10 cigarettes/day for > 30 years) aged 50-75 years. Lung nodules will be volumetric measured and classified by a modified PEOPLHE Lung-RADS 1.1 system. Current smokers will be offered smoking cessation support. CONCLUSION: The PEOPLHE program will provide information on strategies for screening enrollment and smoking cessation interventions; administrative, organizational, and radiological needs for performing a state-of-the-art LCS; collateral and incidental findings (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary), contributing to the LCS implementation within national healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Smoking Cessation/methods , Lung , Mass Screening/methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...