Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 4.788
Filter
1.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(2): 119-128, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681570

ABSTRACT

Tobacco smoking is recognised as a priority in diabetes management, yet many individuals with diabetes continue to smoke beyond diagnosis. This paper identifies the most promising smoking cessation strategies by reviewing the literature reporting interventions carried out amongst this study population, and the challenges and barriers to smoking cessation. Stand-alone smoking cessation interventions which included pharmacotherapy were found to be more successful in achieving abstinence than interventions which included smoking cessation as part of a broader intervention for improving diabetes management. Misconceptions about smoking and diabetes management were frequently reported, undervaluing smoking cessation. This emphasizes further the need to inform smokers with diabetes about the link between tobacco use and diabetes complications.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Smokers , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data
2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(5): 889-897, 2023 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250476

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Smoking commercial tobacco products is highly prevalent in American Indian and Alaska Native (Indigenous) pregnancies. This disparity directly contributes to maternal and fetal mortality. Our objective was to describe cigarette smoking prevalence, cessation intervention uptake, and cessation behaviors of pregnant Indigenous people compared to sex and age-matched regional cohort. AIMS AND METHODS: Pregnancies from an Indigenous cohort in Olmsted County, Minnesota, identified in the Rochester Epidemiology Project, were compared to pregnancies identified in a sex and age-matched non-Indigenous cohort from 2006 to 2019. Smoking status was defined as current, former, or never. All pregnancies were reviewed to identify cessation interventions and cessation events. The primary outcome was smoking prevalence during pregnancy, with secondary outcomes measuring uptake of smoking cessation interventions and cessation. RESULTS: The Indigenous cohort included 57 people with 81 pregnancies, compared to 226 non-Indigenous people with 358 pregnancies. Smoking was identified during 45.7% of Indigenous pregnancies versus 11.2% of non-Indigenous pregnancies (RR: 3.25, 95% CI = 1.98-5.31, p ≤ .0001). Although there was no difference in uptake of cessation interventions between cohorts, smoking cessation was significantly less likely during Indigenous pregnancies compared to non-Indigenous pregnancies (OR: 0.23, 95% CI = 0.07-0.72, p = .012). CONCLUSIONS: Indigenous pregnant people in Olmsted County, Minnesota were more than three times as likely to smoke cigarettes during pregnancy compared to the non-indigenous cohort. Despite equivalent uptake of cessation interventions, Indigenous people were less likely to quit than non-Indigenous people. Understanding why conventional smoking cessation interventions were ineffective at promoting cessation during pregnancy among Indigenous women warrants further study. IMPLICATIONS: Indigenous pregnant people in Olmsted County, Minnesota, were greater than three times more likely to smoke during pregnancy compared to a regional age matched non-Indigenous cohort. Although Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant people had equivalent uptake of cessation interventions offered during pregnancy, Indigenous people were significantly less likely to quit smoking before fetal delivery. This disparity in the effectiveness of standard of care interventions highlights the need for further study to understand barriers to cessation in pregnant Indigenous people.


Subject(s)
American Indian or Alaska Native , Cigarette Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , American Indian or Alaska Native/statistics & numerical data , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/ethnology , Prenatal Care , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Minnesota/epidemiology , Prevalence
3.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(4): e007050, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1526396

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El consumo de tabaco representa un importante desafío para la salud pública debido a su alta incidencia y mortalidad, y es el principal factor de riesgo modificable para desarrollar enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. La Residencia de Medicina General y Familiar del Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Teodoro Álvarez desarrolló un programa de cesación tabáquica en el Centro de Salud y Acción Comunitaria N◦34, que forma parte desde 2012 del Programa de Prevención y Control del Tabaquismo del Ministerio de Salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Objetivo. Documentar los resultados de la eficacia de este programa y explorar las variables relacionadas con la probabilidad de éxito y recaída. Materiales y métodos. Estudio cuantitativo, de corte transversal analítico, con datos obtenidos de historias clínicas electrónicas entre 2017 y 2020. Fueron incluidos los pacientes que consultaron al menos en dos ocasiones al programa de cesación tabáquica y establecieron un día D al menos 30 días antes del abandono del consumo de tabaco. La eficacia terapéutica fue definida como haber permanecido al menos seis meses sin fumar, y la recaída, como el reinicio de consumo del tabaco luego de haber logrado 24 horas de abstinencia con fecha posterior al día D.Resultados.De 59 pacientes, 24 (40,7 %) lograron la eficacia terapéutica, de los cuales 5 (20,8 %) presentaron recaídas.De los 35 pacientes que no lograron alcanzar la etapa de mantenimiento, 30 (85,7 %) recayeron durante las primeras ocho semanas. El sexo masculino y el consumo de tabaco superior a 20 paquetes-año mostraron una mayor correlación con las recaídas. Conclusiones. El programa presentó una eficacia terapéutica del 40,7 % en el periodo evaluado. Se encontraron asociaciones entre una mayor eficacia terapéutica y ciertas características de los pacientes, pero se requieren más estudios para confirmar esta hipótesis. (AU)


Background. Tobacco consumption represents an important challenge for public health due to its high incidence and mortality and is the main modifiable risk factor for developing chronic non-communicable diseases. The General and Family Medicine Residence of the Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Teodoro Álvarez developed a smoking cessation program in Health and Community Action Centre N◦34. Since 2012 it has been part of the Program for the Prevention and Control of Smoking of the Ministry of Health of the Government of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Objective. To document the results of the effectiveness of the program and explore the variables related to the probability of success and relapse. Materials and methods. Quantitative, analytical cross-sectional study, with data obtained from electronic medical records between 2017 and 2020. Patients who consulted the smoking cessation program at least twice and established a D-day 30 days before quitting tobacco consumption were included. Therapeutic efficacy was defined as having remained at least six months without smoking, and relapse, as the resumption of tobacco consumption after having achieved 24 hours of abstinence with a date after day D. Results. Of 59 patients, 24 (40.7 %) achieved therapeutic efficacy, of which 5 (20.8 %) presented relapses. Among the35 patients who failed to reach the maintenance stage, 30 (85.7 %) relapsed during the first eight weeks. Male sex and tobacco consumption of more than 20 pack per year showed a greater correlation with relapses. Conclusions.The program presented a therapeutic efficacy of 40.7 % in the evaluated period. Associations were found between greater therapeutic efficacy and certain patient characteristics but more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Recurrence , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Evaluation of Results of Therapeutic Interventions , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Control
4.
Br J Anaesth ; 129(4): 497-505, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a leading preventable cause of death and increases perioperative risk. Determinants of smoking abstinence after noncardiac surgery and the association between smoking and 1-yr vascular outcomes are not fully elucidated. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study of 40 004 patients, aged ≥45 yr, enrolled between August 2007 and November 2013, and followed for 1 yr after surgery. Patients were categorised as never smokers, ex-smokers (quit >4 weeks preoperatively), and current smokers (smoking ≤4 weeks preoperatively). Primary outcome was abstinence at 1 yr. Secondary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke at 1 yr. RESULTS: Of 4658 current smokers, 1838 (39.5%) were abstinent 1 yr after surgery. Median (inter-quartile range) time to resumption was 7 (3-23) days post-surgery. Perioperatively, 7.2% of current smokers obtained smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. Older age (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.32); having recent coronary artery disease (aRR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.29-1.55); cancer (aRR 1.37; 95% CI: 1.18-1.59); and undergoing major vascular (aRR 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02-1.41), urgent/emergent (aRR 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05-1.23), or thoracic (aRR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.26-1.56) surgeries increased abstinence. One-year abstinence was less likely when patients stopped smoking 0-1 day (aRR 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43-0.66) and 2-14 days (aRR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.71-0.82) before surgery compared with >14 days before surgery. Current smokers (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.29) and ex-smokers (aHR 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.21) had higher risk of the 1-yr vascular outcome compared with never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term tobacco abstinence is more likely after major surgery in those with serious medical comorbidities. Interventions to prevent smoking resumption after surgery remain a priority. Clinical trial registration NCT00512109.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Smoking , Humans , Middle Aged , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking/prevention & control
5.
Wiad Lek ; 75(5 pt 1): 1180-1184, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The prevalence analysis of three ways of tobacco use among young adults: traditional (smoking of cigarillos or cigars) and alternative (hookah smoking and use of E-cigarettes) as well as the development of ways of tobacco smoking prevention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Cross-section anonymous survey among young adults 18-44 years of age (n=410) has been conducted. The obtained results were compared with the data of the similar studies from different countries. The statistical methods (analysis of the mean and relative values), structural and logical analysis and systemic approach. RESULTS: Results: Among those who were interviewed, aged 18-44 years, there are 24.15±2.11 % of respondents - hookah smokers, 9.02±1.42 % persons prefer the traditional method of tobacco use (smoking of cigarillos or cigars), while 6.34±1.20 % ones use E-cigarettes. Such forms of smoking are more common among males. The smokers of cigarillos, cigars and hookahs have appreciated their high availability when buying - 9 (7;10) points out of 10 possible. The study has found that 11.54±1.58 % of smokers of E-cigarettes and 8.08±1.35 % of hookah smokers consider them safe types of smoking and harmless to their health. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The prevention methods of smoking prevalence among young people must be based on the tougher rules of tobacco market and latest devices for smoking at the legislative level.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , Adult , Cigar Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internationality , Male , Prevalence , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Products/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco, Waterpipe/statistics & numerical data , Vaping/epidemiology , Water Pipe Smoking/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 1362913, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178111

ABSTRACT

Semiparametric joint models of longitudinal and competing risk data are computationally costly, and their current implementations do not scale well to massive biobank data. This paper identifies and addresses some key computational barriers in a semiparametric joint model for longitudinal and competing risk survival data. By developing and implementing customized linear scan algorithms, we reduce the computational complexities from O(n 2) or O(n 3) to O(n) in various steps including numerical integration, risk set calculation, and standard error estimation, where n is the number of subjects. Using both simulated and real-world biobank data, we demonstrate that these linear scan algorithms can speed up the existing methods by a factor of up to hundreds of thousands when n > 104, often reducing the runtime from days to minutes. We have developed an R package, FastJM, based on the proposed algorithms for joint modeling of longitudinal and competing risk time-to-event data and made it publicly available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Biological Specimen Banks/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Disease Progression , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Risk Assessment , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Software
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2144207, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044467

ABSTRACT

Importance: Nationally, Latino smokers are less likely than non-Latino White smokers to receive advice and assistance from health professionals to quit smoking. California's Medicaid expansion included the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's comprehensive tobacco cessation benefits; however, it is unknown whether expanded coverage helped resolve this disparity. Objective: To examine the association between race and ethnicity (Latino and non-Latino White) and health professional cessation advice and assistance among smokers with Medi-Cal insurance in the post-Affordable Care Act period. Design, Setting, and Participants: This repeated cross-sectional study was conducted with the 2014 and 2016-2018 California Health Interview Survey. A total of 1861 Latino and non-Latino White current smokers aged 18 to 64 years who had Medi-Cal insurance and consulted a health professional in the past 12 months were included. Data were analyzed between December 1, 2019, and April 30, 2021. Exposure: Race and ethnicity classified as Latino or non-Latino White. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcomes were receipt of health professional advice to quit smoking or assistance to quit in the past 12 months. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and ethnicity and each outcome, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, smoking behavior, health care factors, and acculturation measures. All estimates were weighted to adjust for the complex survey design. Results: Among 1861 participants, 44.8% were Latino, 53.8% were aged 40 years or older (mean [SE], 39.7 [0.79] years), 54.1% were male, and 59.9% had less than a high school education. Latino smokers were less likely than non-Latino White smokers to receive health professional advice (38.3% Latino smokers vs 55.3% non-Latino White smokers) or assistance (21.8% Latino smokers vs 35.7% non-Latino White smokers). In the unadjusted model, compared with non-Latino White smokers, Latino smokers were less likely to receive advice (odds ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.86) and also less likely to receive assistance (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.25-1.00). However, in the adjusted model, race was no longer significant. Smokers with more office visits (adjusted OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.61-3.70) and those with at least 1 chronic disease (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.15-3.43) were more likely to receive advice from a health professional. Additionally, daily smokers compared with nondaily smokers (adjusted OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.03-5.13) were more likely to receive assistance. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, more office visits, having a chronic disease, and daily smoking were associated with an increased likelihood of receiving smoking cessation advice or assistance. Use of strategies to engage tobacco users outside of the clinic, such as proactive outreach and community-based engagement, may help address this disparity.


Subject(s)
Health Behavior/ethnology , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Cessation/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , California , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Medicaid , Middle Aged , Smoking , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has been associated with suicide, impulsivity and depression in non-clinical populations with differences across sexes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of tobacco smoking in Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD) according to sex in a precision-medicine approach. METHOD: The FACE-TRD cohort is a national cohort of TRD patients recruited in 13 resistant depression expert centers between 2014 and 2021 and followed-up at 6 months. A standardized one-day long comprehensive battery was carried out, including trained-clinician and patient-reported outcomes, and patients were reevaluated at 6 months on their smoking and psychiatric hospitalization outcomes. RESULTS: 355 TRD participants were included (222 women). The smoking rate was much higher in TRD women compared to the French general population (34% vs 24%) while it was comparable for men (approximately 29%). In multivariate analyses, compared to non-smoking women, female smokers had significantly increased number of lifetime psychiatric hospitalizations (standardized beta B = 0.232, p = 0.014) and electro-convulsive therapy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.748, p = 0.005), increased suicidal ideations (aOR = 4.047, p = 0.031), history of suicide attempt (aOR = 1.994, p = 0.033), and increased impulsivity (B = 0.210, p = 0.006) and were more frequently treated by benzodiazepines (aOR = 1.848, p = 0.035) and third- or fourth-line TRD treatments (antipsychotics aOR = 2.270, p = 0.006, mood stabilizers aOR = 2.067 p = 0.044). Tobacco smoking at baseline was predictive of psychiatric hospitalization within 6 months in persistent smoking women (aOR = 2.636, p = 0.031). These results were not replicated in men, for whom tobacco smoking was only associated with increased clinician-rated and self-reported depressive symptoms (respectively B = 0.207, p = 0.022 and B = 0.184, p = 0.048). The smoking cessation rate at 6 months was higher in women than in men (12% vs. 7%). No patient was administered nicotine substitute or varenicline at the two timepoints. INTERPRETATION: Combining these results and those of the literature, we recommend that active tobacco cessation should be promoted in TRD to improve depression, suicide and impulsivity especially in women. Female smokers appear as a specific population with heavier mental health outcomes that should be specifically addressed.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant/drug therapy , Precision Medicine , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Smoking , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nicotine/adverse effects , Sex Factors , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Vasc Surg ; 75(1): 262-269, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Tobacco use is common among vascular surgery patients and negatively impacts outcomes and longevity. In the second quarter of 2018, a statewide vascular quality collaborative launched an initiative across its 35 participating hospitals to promote smoking cessation at the time of surgery. This intervention was based on the Vascular Physician Offer and Report (VAPOR) trial and consisted of 3 components: brief physician-delivered advice, referral to telephone-based counseling, and nicotine replacement therapy. The goal of this study is to evaluate the results of this intervention. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing vascular surgery between 2018 and 2020. Procedures included open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, endovascular aneurysm repair, open vascular bypass, open thrombectomy, carotid endarterectomy, and carotid stenting. The primary explanatory variables were receipt of tobacco cessation interventions as documented in the medical record. The primary outcome was tobacco cessation, captured during 30-day and 1-year chart review and/or patient follow-up. A multivariable logistic regression model was calculated to estimate the association of covariates with smoking cessation while adjusting for patient and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 13,890 patients underwent surgery during the study period. The mean age was 69.4 ± 10 years; 4687 patients (34%) were female, and 5158 patients (37%) were current smokers. At least one smoking cessation component was delivered to 2245 patients (44% of smokers). The quit rate was 35% among 4671 patients with 30-day follow-up and 43% among 2936 patients with 1-year follow up. On multivariable regression, at 30 days, receiving two intervention components was associated with 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.55) higher odds of quitting. At both time points, smoking cessation was also associated with undergoing an emergent procedure (30-day odds ratio [OR], 1.52; 95% CI, 1.16-1.99; 1-year OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.97) and undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (30-day OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.20-2.43; 1-year OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.11-2.78). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of vascular surgical patients where tobacco use was common, nearly one-half of patients quit smoking 1 year after surgery. Receiving two smoking cessation intervention components was associated with quitting at 30 days. Overall, these results demonstrate encouraging quit rates and identify an opportunity for longer-term intervention to maintain even greater 1-year tobacco cessation.


Subject(s)
Perioperative Care/methods , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Smoking/adverse effects , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Counseling/organization & administration , Counseling/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Perioperative Care/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Reduction Behavior , Smoking/therapy , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
12.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(spe1): e2021388, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384905

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever os indicadores de abandono do uso de tabaco, em 2013 e 2019, para o Brasil e as Unidades da Federação, segundo variáveis sociodemográficas, coletadas na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). Métodos: Estudo transversal, populacional e descritivo realizado com dados da PNS 2013 e 2019, uma pesquisa domiciliar coletada por entrevistadores treinados. Foram calculadas a prevalência de ex-fumantes e a proporção de fumantes que tentaram parar de fumar nos últimos 12 meses imediatamente anteriores à data da entrevista, e os respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC95%), segundo as variáveis sociodemográficas. Ademais, calculou-se a variação percentual entre os anos estudados. Resultados: Em 2013, a prevalência de ex-fumantes foi 17,5% (IC95% 16,9;18,0) e, em 2019, 26,6% (IC95% 26,1;27,2). Tentaram parar de fumar 51,1% (IC95% 49,3;52,9), em 2013, e 46,6% (IC95% 45,0;48,3) em 2019. Conclusão: É importante o fortalecimento e manutenção de estratégias para enfrentamento do uso de tabaco no país, de forma a aumentar a disposição e a capacidade do fumante atual de parar de fumar.


Objetivo: Describir los indicadores de abandono del hábito tabáquico en 2013 y 2019 para Brasil y Unidades Federadas, según variables sociodemográficas, recogidas en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (PNS). Métodos: Estudio transversal, poblacional y descriptivo con datos de las PNS, 2013 y 2019, una encuesta de hogares recolectada por entrevistadores capacitados. Se calculó la prevalencia de exfumadores y proporción de fumadores que intentaron dejar de fumar en los últimos 12 meses y respectivos intervalos de confianza (IC95%), según variables sociodemográficas. Además, se calculó la variación porcentual entre los años. Resultados: En 2013, la prevalencia de exfumadores fue de 17,5% (IC95% 16,9;18,0), en 2019, 26,6% (IC95% 26,1;27,2). En 2013, el 51,1% intentó dejar de fumar (IC95% 49,3;52,9), y, en 2019, el 46,6% (IC95% 45,0;48,3). Conclusión: Es importante fortalecer y mantener las estrategias de afrontamiento del tabaquismo, para incrementar la disposición y capacidad del fumador actual para dejar de fumar.


Objective: To describe the indicators of smoking cessation in 2013 and 2019 for Brazil and federative units, according to sociodemographic variables, collected in the National Health Survey (PNS). Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based and descriptive study with data from the 2013 and 2019 PNS, a household survey collected by trained interviewers. The prevalence of ex-smokers and the proportion of smokers who tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the interview, and respective confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated, according to sociodemographic variables. Additionally, the percentage variation between the years was calculated. Results: In 2013, the prevalence of ex-smokers was 17.5% (95%CI 16.9;18.0) and, in 2019, 26.6% (95%CI 26.1;27.2). In 2013, 51.1% tried to quit smoking (95%CI 49.3;52.9) and, in 2019, 46.6% (95%CI 45.0;48.3). Conclusion: It is important to strengthen and maintain strategies for coping with tobacco use in Brazil, to increase the current smoker's willingness and ability to quit smoking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Ex-Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Surveys
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260415, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905542

ABSTRACT

Vietnam is one of countries with the highest number of smokers in the world and the high smoking prevalence among men in the region. Although the real cigarette prices increased by around 4% during the 2010-2015 period, the prevalence of daily cigarette smoking among men decreased slightly from 31.3% to 30.7% during this period. This raises the question of whether cigarette consumption is sensitive to price. In this study, we estimated the effect of cigarette prices on smoking participation and tobacco expenditure in Vietnam. We found that a one-percent increase in the real cigarette price reduced the probability of cigarette smoking among males by 0.08 percentage points (95% CI from -0.06 to -0.10), equivalent to the price elasticity of the smoking prevalence at -0.26 (95% CI from -0.16% to -0.33%). Using this estimate, we predict that if the cigarette price is increased by 10%, the daily cigarette smoking prevalence among men would decrease from 30.7% to 29.9% and the number of male smokers would decline by around 270 thousand. Higher cigarette prices also reduced per capita tobacco expenditure of households. A one-percent increase in the cigarette price decreased per capita expenditure on tobacco consumption expenditure of households by 0.43 percent (the 95% CI from -0.029 to 0.822). This finding suggests that raising tobacco taxes and prices can be an effective measure to reduce tobacco use.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking/economics , Commerce/economics , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Taxes , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Prevalence , Smoking Cessation/economics , Vietnam/epidemiology
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20202, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642382

ABSTRACT

This study uses protection motivation theory (PMT) to examine the quitting intentions and behaviours of smokers who have varying levels of nicotine dependence. Our goals are to identify the psychological factors that influence smoking cessation and to provide valuable evidence to promote theory-guided interventions. This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted from July to August 2020. Participants were randomly selected on the streets of 26 provinces on mainland China. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Our analysis was conducted in three steps. First, we employed descriptive statistics to present the overall characteristics of our sample. Second, we analysed the association between PMT constructs and quitting intentions stratified by nicotine dependence. Third, we tested how quitting intentions were associated with quitting behaviours in each subgroup using logistic regression models. For intention, almost all the PMT constructs were significantly associated with quitting intention in the low-dependence group. For the moderate- and high-dependence groups, only perceived vulnerability (coefficient = 0.35, P = 0.04) was positively associated with quitting intention. For behaviour, we found a stronger association between quitting intention and behaviour in the low-dependence group (Coef. = 1.67, P = 0.00) than for the other groups. We found a significant association between e-cigarette use and quitting behaviour only in the low-dependence group (Coef. = 1.34, P = 0.00). Coefficients for the moderate- and high-dependence groups were not statistically significant. Smokers at various levels of nicotine dependence have different psychological factors that influence their intentions to stop smoking. Quitting intention was more significantly associated with quitting behaviour for the low nicotine-dependence group than for the other groups. More convincing research is necessary to determine how e-cigarette use affects quitting behaviour in the long term.


Subject(s)
Intention , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Theory , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use Disorder/psychology , Young Adult
15.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(5)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611582

ABSTRACT

Background: Smoking cessation reduces lung cancer mortality. However, little is known about whether diagnosis of lung cancer impacts changes in smoking behaviors. Furthermore, the effects of smoking cessation on the risk of second primary lung cancer (SPLC) have not been established yet. This study aims to examine smoking behavior changes after initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) diagnosis and estimate the effect of smoking cessation on SPLC risk following IPLC diagnosis. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 986 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study who were free of lung cancer and active smokers at baseline (1993-1996), provided 10-year follow-up smoking data (2003-2008), and were diagnosed with IPLC in 1993-2017. The primary outcome was a change in smoking status from "current" at baseline to "former" at 10-year follow-up (ie, smoking cessation), analyzed using logistic regression. The second outcome was SPLC incidence after smoking cessation, estimated using cause-specific Cox regression. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: Among 986 current smokers at baseline, 51.1% reported smoking cessation at 10-year follow-up. The smoking cessation rate was statistically significantly higher (80.6%) for those diagnosed with IPLC between baseline and 10-year follow-up vs those without IPLC diagnosis (45.4%) during the 10-year period (adjusted odds ratio = 5.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.38 to 7.98; P < .001). Incidence of SPLC was statistically significantly lower among the 504 participants who reported smoking cessation at follow-up compared with those without smoking cessation (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.67; P = .003). Conclusion: Lung cancer diagnosis has a statistically significant impact on smoking cessation. Quitting smoking after IPLC diagnosis may reduce the risk of developing a subsequent malignancy in the lungs.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Second Primary/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Smoking/psychology , Aged , Cohort Studies , Ex-Smokers/psychology , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Lung Neoplasms/ethnology , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Second Primary/ethnology , Odds Ratio , Racial Groups/classification , Risk , Smokers/psychology , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/ethnology , Time Factors
16.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E957-E965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the harms associated with tobacco use, continuing the provision of smoking cessation treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic is critical. The aim of this study was to examine pandemic-related changes in enrolment, total treatment use and participant characteristics in a large, publicly funded smoking cessation program in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of patients who enrolled in the program between Jan. 1, 2018, and Dec. 7, 2020. We used descriptive statistics to examine changes in treatment use. To test for differences in sociodemographic and health variables, we used segmented mixed-effects regression with a break point on Mar. 17, 2020, when Ontario declared a state of emergency. We tested 25 variables, using Holm's correction for multiplicity. RESULTS: We analyzed 60 373 enrolments. In the month after the break point, enrolments fell 69% and total visits fell 42% relative to previous years. After Mar. 17, 2020, those who enrolled were less likely to report employment in the previous week (absolute expected difference -12.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -15.0% to -9.8%); were more likely to be occasional (1.3%, 95% CI 0.6% to 1.9%) or noncurrent smokers (1.7%, 95% CI 0.8% to 2.6%); were less likely to have set a target quit date (-4.8%, 95% CI -7.0% to -2.6%); and were more likely to have a physical health (6.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 9.2%), mental health (4.6%, 95% CI 1.9% to 7.2%) or substance use diagnosis (3.5%, 95% CI 1.3% to 5.6%). INTERPRETATION: Sharp decreases in new enrolments and subsequent visits to smoking cessation programs were seen when pandemic restrictions were implemented in Ontario, but the characteristics of the people who accessed the programs did not change markedly. Incorporating an equity perspective is essential when new models of care for smoking cessation are developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Prevention/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/prevention & control
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128810, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665239

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although e-cigarettes are not approved as a cessation device, many who smoke believe that e-cigarettes will help them quit cigarette smoking successfully. Objective: To assess whether people who recently quit smoking and who had switched to e-cigarettes or another tobacco product were less likely to relapse to cigarette smoking compared with those who remained tobacco free. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed a nationally representative sample of US households that participated in 4 waves of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (conducted 2013 through 2017), combining 2 independent cohorts each with 3 annual surveys. Eligible participants were individuals who smoked at baseline, had recently quit at the first follow-up, and completed the second follow-up survey. Exposures: Use of e-cigarettes or alternate tobacco products at follow-up 1 after recently quitting smoking. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weighted percentage of participants with over 12 months abstinence by follow-up 2. Results: Of a total of 13 604 participants who smoked cigarettes at baseline, 9.4% (95% CI, 8.7%-10.0%) recently had quit smoking (mean age, 41.9; 95% CI, 39.7-46.6 years; 641 [43.2%] women) Of these, 22.8% (95% CI, 19.7%-26.0%) had switched to e-cigarettes, with 17.6% (95% CI, 14.8%-20.5%) using them daily. A total of 37.1% (95% CI, 33.7%-40.4%) used a noncigarette tobacco product and 62.9% (95% CI, 59.6%-66.3%) were tobacco free. Rates of switching to e-cigarettes were highest for those who were in the top tertile of tobacco dependence (31.3%; 95% CI, 25.0%-37.7%), were non-Hispanic White (26.4%; 95% CI, 22.3%-30.4%), and had higher incomes (annual income ≥$35 000, 27.5%; 95% CI, 22.5%-32.4% vs <$35 000, 19.3%; 95% CI, 16.3%-22.3%). At follow-up 2, unadjusted relapse rates were similar among those who switched to different tobacco products (for any tobacco product: successfully quit, 41.5%; 95% CI, 36.2%-46.9%; relapsed with significant requit, 17.0%; 95% CI, 12.4%-21.6%; currently smoking, 36.2%; 95% CI, 30.9%-41.4%). Controlled for potential confounders, switching to any tobacco product was associated with higher relapse rate than being tobacco free (adjusted risk difference, 8.5%; 95% CI, 0.3%-16.6%). Estimates for those who switched to e-cigarettes, whether daily or not, were not significant. While individuals who switched from cigarettes to e-cigarettes were more likely to relapse, they appeared more likely to requit and be abstinent for 3 months at follow-up 2 (17.0%; 95% CI, 12.4%-21.6% vs 10.4%; 95% CI, 8.0%-12.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: This large US nationally representative study does not support the hypothesis that switching to e-cigarettes will prevent relapse to cigarette smoking.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/statistics & numerical data , Recurrence , Smoking Cessation/methods , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/standards , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/prevention & control , Tobacco Use/psychology , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices/standards , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices/statistics & numerical data
18.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021048, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine whether the regional density of tobacco outlets in Korea was associated with the likelihood of attempting to quit among smokers. METHODS: This study was designed as a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study. Data from the 2015 Korean Community Health Survey and tobacco outlet registrations in 17 metropolitan cities and provinces with 254 communities in Korea were used for the analysis. In total, 41,013 current smokers (≥19 years of age) were included. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate regional differences associated with smokers' attempts to quit and to evaluate the effects of individual and regional characteristics on quit attempts. RESULTS: Higher tobacco outlet density was associated with lower odds of attempting to quit. Smokers who resided in districts with the highest tobacco outlet density were 18% less likely to attempt quitting (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98) than smokers who resided in the regions with the lowest tobacco outlet density (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that quit attempts were related to community-level factors, such as tobacco outlet density, as well as other individual factors. These findings support the implementation of national policies restricting the number of tobacco outlets within communities or zones and limiting tobacco marketing in tobacco outlets.


Subject(s)
Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Smokers/psychology , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Products/supply & distribution , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multilevel Analysis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Smoking/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 95, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic in England led to major changes in the delivery of support via stop smoking services (SSS) and to the widespread temporary closure of bricks and mortar e-cigarette retailers (vape shops herein). The impact of disruptions across the smoking cessation support landscape has not been fully documented. The purpose of this study was to capture how SSS and vape shops in England were affected and adapted their 'business as usual' during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and July 2020. Surveys were disseminated through online networks, professional forums and contacts. Open-ended qualitative responses were coded using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Responses from 46 SSS and 59 vape shops were included. SSS were able to adapt during this period, e.g. offering a remote service. A high percentage (74.6%) of vape shops had to close and were unable to make changes; 71.2% reported business declining. For both vape shops and SSS qualitative data revealed practical challenges to adapting, but also new pathways to support and co-working. CONCLUSION: The closure of vape shops appears to have most impacted smaller bricks and mortar shops affecting businesses by decline in customers and impacting staff (furlough). For those services that could stay open there may be lessons learned in how to support vulnerable and disadvantaged people who smoke by considering new pathways to support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smokers/psychology , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Vaping , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...