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2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1041, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread prevalence of adolescent smoking in Gambia, a West African country, there is limited research exploring the relationships between exposure to pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco media messages and events and smoking behaviour among young people. This study investigates the interplay of these exposures and smoking behaviour among 11-17-year-old adolescents in Gambia. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2017 Gambia Global Youth and Tobacco Survey (GYTS), which included a total of 9,127 respondents. Descriptive and inferential analyses, including proportions, Pearson's chi-squared tests, and multivariable logistic regression models, were employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The final model revealed significant associations between exposure to anti-tobacco media messages and events and smoking behaviour. Adolescents exposed to anti-tobacco media messages had a 29% increased odds of smoking (aOR 1.29,CI = 1.08,1.53) compared to those unexposed, while exposure to anti-tobacco media events showed a 31% increased odds (aOR 1.31,CI = 1.09,1.59) compared to those unexposed. Exposure to pro-tobacco messages, such as witnessing tobacco use on TV (aOR 1.41, CI = 1.17,1.69) and owning objects with tobacco brand logos (aOR 1.49,CI = 1.19,1.86), was associated with higher odds of smoking. Covariates, including sex, age, and exposure to smoking behaviour by significant others, also demonstrated associations with smoking behaviour. Notably, male respondents showed significantly higher odds of smoking (aOR = 4.01,CI = 3.28,4.89) compared to females. Respondents aged 15 years and older had increased odds of smoking (aOR = 1.47,CI = 1.22,1.76) compared to those below 15 years old. Those whose fathers smoke displayed higher odds of smoking (aOR = 1.35, CI = 1.04,1.76) compared to individuals with non-smoking parents. Additionally, those whose closest friends smoke showed remarkably higher odds of smoking (aOR = 2.87,CI = 2.37, 3.48) compared to those without such influence. CONCLUSION: This study underscores the significant impact of exposure to both anti-tobacco and pro-tobacco media messages and events on smoking behaviour among adolescents in Gambia. However, pro-tobacco messages had a greater influence on smoking prevalence than anti-tobacco messages and events. Understanding these associations is crucial for devising effective public health interventions aimed at reducing tobacco use in this population.


Subject(s)
Tobacco , Smoking , Female , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Child , Gambia/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smoking Prevention
3.
Sante Publique ; 36(1): 33-44, 2024 04 05.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A multi-center observational study was carried out in ten ESMS, using a mixed methodology (site visits, questionnaire survey, semi-directive group interviews with professionals and individual interviews with users). PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: The aim of this article is to describe the management and prevention of smoking in ESMS for people with mental health disorders, and to characterize and identify the smoking behaviors and representations of ESMS users and the professionals working there. RESULTS: The study made it possible to distinguish between ESMS in terms of the organization of smoking areas and tobacco prevention initiatives. It also revealed that 37 percent of respondents among the professionals said they smoked tobacco, with some of them explaining that they smoked with users and sometimes gave them cigarettes. With regard to prevention, there was a consensus among professionals that they should help users who wanted to stop smoking. Professionals were divided, however, on the need for more active prevention, citing the users' freedom and the fact that ESMS are places where people live. Among the users, 47 percent said they were smokers. Of the users who smoked, 55 percent said they wanted to stop. Interviews with the users revealed that twelve of them wanted to quit, with some asking for help and more assistance from professionals. CONCLUSIONS: This report suggests that intervention research could be developed in ESMS for people with mental health disorders, who could benefit from the smoking prevention actions identified in the facilities and services investigated.


Introduction: Une étude observationnelle multicentrique a été réalisée dans dix ESMS et mobilisait une méthodologie mixte (visite des structures, enquête par questionnaires, entretiens semi-directifs collectifs avec des professionnels et individuels avec des usagers). But de l'étude: Cet article vise à décrire la gestion et la prévention du tabagisme dans des établissements et services médico-sociaux (ESMS) accueillant des personnes avec un trouble psychique, et à caractériser et identifier les comportements tabagiques et les représentations de leurs usagers et professionnels. Résultats: L'étude a permis de distinguer les ESMS au regard de l'organisation des espaces du tabagisme et des actions de prévention du tabac. Elle a permis également de constater que 37 % des professionnels qui ont répondu déclaraient fumer du tabac, une partie d'entre eux expliquant fumer avec les usagers et leur donner parfois des cigarettes. Concernant la prévention, un consensus se dégageait chez les professionnels sur le fait d'aider les usagers qui souhaitaient arrêter. Les professionnels étaient cependant divisés à l'égard d'une prévention plus active, invoquant la liberté de l'usager et le fait que les ESMS sont des lieux de vie. 47 % des usagers se disaient fumeurs. 55 % des usagers fumeurs déclaraient vouloir arrêter. Les entretiens avec les usagers ont permis de constater que douze d'entre eux souhaitaient arrêter, une partie réclamant de l'aide et d'être davantage aidés par les professionnels. Conclusions: Cet état des lieux invite à développer des recherches interventionnelles dans les ESMS accueillant des personnes avec un trouble psychique qui pourraient tirer profit des actions de prévention du tabac repérées dans des structures enquêtées.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoking/psychology , Tobacco Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smoking Prevention
5.
Public Health Nurs ; 41(3): 525-534, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of a media literacy-based smoking prevention program based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior in female adolescents. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted with female high school students aged 16-17 years in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The program provided eight sessions over 4 weeks. Quantitative data were collected before and after online surveys in an intervention (n = 21) and control (n = 21) groups, and analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Qualitative data on participation experiences was collected by requesting the participants to answer open-ended questions once a week during the intervention and performing co-occurrence analysis of specific terms in the responses was conducted through text mining. RESULTS: Although the program decreased smoking intention and increased smoking media literacy in the intervention group, there were no significant differences between the groups. Qualitative results obtained from the intervention group showed cognitive and behavioral changes in the perception of the harmfulness of e-cigarettes in the media and the expression of a willingness to overcome the temptation to smoke. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that the enhancement of smoking media literacy, specifically by correcting misconceptions regarding e-cigarettes promoted by the new media, contributes smoking prevention in female adolescents. It supports calls for an expanded role of public health professionals in health education at the school level.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Prevention , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Literacy , Health Education , Schools
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 169, 2024 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has increased tremendously at a global level among all age groups, particularly young people. Previous studies have examined the impact of waterpipe tobacco pictorial health warnings on adults but scarce studies were done on adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the association of textual versus pictorial warnings on tumbac boxes and the motivation to quit waterpipe smoking among adolescents located in two Eastern Mediterranean countries Lebanon and Iraq. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and November 2022, involving 294 adolescents waterpipe smokers from Lebanon and Iraq. The questionnaire included the Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Smoking-11, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Waterpipe Harm Perception Scale, Waterpipe Knowledge Scale, Waterpipe Attitude Scale, the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, and the Motivation to Stop Scale. RESULTS: When adjusting the results over confounding variables, the results showed that compared to finding the warnings to stop smoking not efficacious at all, adolescents who find the warnings moderately (aOR = 2.83) and very (aOR = 6.64) efficacious had higher motivation to quit. Compared to finding the warnings not increasing their curiosity for information about how to stop waterpipe smoking at all, participants who confessed that warnings increased their curiosity a little (aOR = 2.59), moderately (aOR = 3.34) and very (aOR = 3.58) had higher motivation to quit. Compared to not considering changing the tumbac brand if the company uses pictorial warnings, adolescents who would consider changing the tumbac brand (aOR = 2.15) had higher motivation to quit. CONCLUSION: Pictorial and textual warnings on waterpipe packs were associated with higher motivation to stop waterpipe smoking. Public health education programs for this purpose seem warranted.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Tobacco, Waterpipe , Water Pipe Smoking , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Motivation , Smoking Cessation/methods , Iraq , Cross-Sectional Studies , Product Labeling/methods , Smoking Prevention
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541261

ABSTRACT

Health communication has been highlighted as a cost-effective preventive intervention in Africa, where the prevalence of tobacco use is still relatively low compared to other World Health Organization (WHO) regions. This scoping review aimed to examine tobacco control health communication interventions in Africa. The review was guided by the PRISMA-ScR checklist. Data was extracted from 20 peer-reviewed papers, WHO Global Health Observatory on anti-tobacco mass-media campaigns for 54 African countries, and 6 WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control reports on Article 12. Data extraction informed by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) data-extraction questions was used for peer-reviewed studies while a pre-determined template was used for the other sources. Narrative data synthesis informed by the JBI manual for evidence synthesis was employed. A lack of research that comprehensively addresses all areas of health communication and inconsistent use of health communication campaigns were identified. Only an average of 6 countries had ever implemented high-quality national mass-media campaigns in a decade, while an average of 33 countries consistently failed to conduct campaigns that lasted more than 3 weeks. Although the involvement of key populations was clearly vital to ensure content relevance and message clarity, a lack of health communication informed by young people was observed, as they rarely participated in key decision-making despite reportedly being the targets of interventions. Clear health communication for tobacco-use prevention informed by young people is lacking in African countries. Active participation of young people in developing targeted campaigns is needed to facilitate content relevance and comprehension to ultimately contribute to tobacco-use prevention.


Subject(s)
Health Communication , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Adolescent , Smoking Prevention , Tobacco Control , Africa
8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to document how Ethiopia adopted a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-based tobacco control law. METHODS: We analyzed publicly available documents, including news media articles, advocacy reports, and government documents. We triangulated these findings by interviewing nine key stakeholders. Data were analyzed to construct a historical and thematic narrative and analyzed through a retrospective policy analysis. RESULTS: Local and international health advocacy efforts helped introduce and support WHO FCTC-based legislation by (1) educating policymakers about the WHO FCTC, (2) providing legal assistance in drafting legislation, (3) generating local data to counter industry claims, and (4) producing media advocacy to expose industry activity. Health advocates worked closely with government officials to create a multi-sectoral tobacco committee to institutionalize efforts and insulate tobacco companies from the policymaking process. Japan Tobacco International bought majority shares of the government-owned tobacco company and attempted to participate in the process, using standard industry tactics to undermine legislative efforts. However, with health advocacy assistance, government officials were able to reject these attempts and adopt a WHO FCTC-based law in 2019 that included 100% smoke-free indoor places, a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, and large pictorial health warning labels, among other provisions. CONCLUSION: Sustained local health advocacy efforts supported by international technical and financial assistance can help establish WHO FCTC-based tobacco control laws. Applying a standardized multi-sectoral approach can establish coordinating mechanisms to further institutionalize the WHO FCTC as a legal tool to build support with other government sectors and insulate the tobacco industry from the policymaking process.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Industry , Tobacco Products , Ethiopia , Retrospective Studies , Smoking Prevention , Tobacco Control , World Health Organization
9.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299728, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466736

ABSTRACT

Understanding the factors that influence smoking cessation among young people is crucial for planning targeted cessation approaches. The objective of this review was to comprehensively summarize evidence for predictors of different smoking cessation related behaviors among young people from currently available systematic reviews. We searched six databases and reference lists of the included articles for studies published up to October 20, 2023. All systematic reviews summarizing predictors of intention to quit smoking, quit attempts, or smoking abstinence among people aged 10-35 years were included. We excluded reviews on effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention; smoking prevention and other smoking behaviors; cessation of other tobacco products use, dual use, and polysubstance use. We categorized the identified predictors into 5 different categories for 3 overlapping age groups. JBI critical appraisal tool and GRADE-CERqual approach were used for quality and certainty assessment respectively. A total of 11 systematic reviews were included in this study; all summarized predictors of smoking abstinence/quit attempts and two also identified predictors of intention to quit smoking. Seven reviews had satisfactory critical appraisal score and there was minimal overlapping between the reviews. We found 4 'possible' predictors of intention to quit smoking and 119 predictors of smoking abstinence/quit attempts. Most of these 119 predictors were applicable for ~10-29 years age group. We had moderate confidence on the 'probable', 'possible', 'insufficient evidence', and 'inconsistent direction' predictors and low confidence on the 'probably unrelated' factors. The 'probable' predictors include a wide variety of socio-demographic factors, nicotine dependence, mental health, attitudes, behavioral and psychological factors, peer and family related factors, and jurisdictional policies. These predictors can guide improvement of existing smoking cessation interventions or planning of new targeted intervention programs. Other predictors as well as predictors of intention to quit smoking need to be further investigated among adolescents and young adults separately.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , Child , Adult , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Smoking , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoking , Smoking Prevention
10.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(2): 163-166, 2024 Feb 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309968

ABSTRACT

Smoking is one of the major risk factors for several chronic non-infectious diseases, including chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes, which has become a major public health issue in China. Tobacco control is proven to be the most effective and cost-effective strategy to reduce the risk of smoking-related disease and premature death. From October 2022 to September 2023, several high quality studies on tobacco medicine have been published. This review systematically summarizes the representative studies in terms of epidemiological study, clinical study, mechanism study, and tobacco control progress. These studies further highlight the concept that "tobacco smoking is the main evil for disease and tobacco control is the main good for disease prevention", which will promote the development of tobacco medicine in China.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Smoking/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Smoking Prevention
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 26(Supplement_1): S19-S26, 2024 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366338

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Over the past decade, youth e-cigarette use has risen exponentially. At the same time, digital media use increased markedly while the use of traditional broadcast TV declined. In response, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's The Real Cost public education campaign shifted to communicating the harms of e-cigarette via primarily digital and social platforms. This study evaluated longitudinal associations between exposure to campaign advertisements and changes in campaign-specific beliefs among US youth. METHODS: A nationally representative longitudinal cohort of youth (aged 11-16 years at baseline) was surveyed five times. Building on earlier work, we analyzed data from the last three waves (April-July 2020; January-April 2021; and August-October 2021; N = 2625). We assessed self-reported exposure to six ads and agreement with 11 beliefs that were each targeted by one or more ads. Eleven weighted panel regression models assessed whether ad exposure predicted changes in campaign-specific beliefs over time. RESULTS: We observed significant associations between ad exposure and increases in at least one campaign-specific belief for five of the six ads. Across the 11 beliefs, we observed associations between increased exposure and increases in 6 beliefs related to e-cigarettes and toxic metals, lung damage, dangerous ingredients, anxiety, cigarette use, and disappointing important people. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that self-reported exposure to this digital and social media campaign was successful at influencing youth, providing support for the effectiveness of the campaign's adaption to address youth's changes in tobacco and media use habits. IMPLICATIONS: The Food and Drug Administration's The Real Cost public education campaign educates youth about the dangers of e-cigarette use. This study evaluates longitudinal associations between exposure to The Real Cost's advertisements and changes in campaign-specific beliefs among youth. Considering evolving trends in youth media consumption, the campaign adapted its media approach to increase delivery across digital and social media platforms. Our findings indicate that the campaign reached its intended audience and increased youth beliefs around the harm of e-cigarettes and the consequences of e-cigarette use, offering evidence for the effectiveness of digital and social media youth prevention efforts within a fragmented digital environment.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Social Media , Adolescent , Humans , Health Promotion , Internet , Smoking Prevention
12.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 33, 2024 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to a recently published study, approximately half of those who currently smoke in Norway have little or no desire to quit despite a hostile regulatory and socio-cultural climate for smoking. On this background, we discuss some challenges that regulators will face in a further tightening of structural measures to curb smoking. MAIN BODY: Central to our discussion is the research literature concerned with the concept of state-paternalism in tobacco control-the line between an ethically justified interference with the freedom of those who smoke and an exaggerated infringement disproportionate to the same people's right to live as they choose. In countries with an already advanced infrastructure for tobacco control, this dilemma might become quite intrusive for regulators. We ask that if people, who smoke are aware of and have accepted the risks, are willing to pay the price, smoke exclusively in designated areas, and make decisions uninfluenced by persuasive messages from manufacturers-is a further tightening of anti-smoking measures still legitimate? Strengthening of the infrastructure for tobacco control can be seen as a "help" to people who-due to some sort of "decision failure"-continue to smoke against their own will. However, for those who want to continue smoking for reasons that for them appear rational, such measures may appear unwanted, punitive, and coercive. Is it within the rights of regulators to ignore peoples' self-determination for the sake of their own good? We problematize the "help" argument and discuss the authorities' right to elevate the zero-vision of smoking as universally applicable while at the same time setting up barriers to switching to alternative nicotine products with reduced risk. CONCLUSION: We recommend that a further intensification of smoking control in countries that already have a well-developed policy in this area requires that regulators start to exploit the opportunity that lies in the ongoing diversification of the recreational nicotine market.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Nicotine , Smoking Prevention , Norway , Tobacco Products
13.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297045, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the association between the 10-year implementation of tobacco control policies, cigarette affordability index and changes in tobacco smoking prevalence across Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ecologic study was conducted using EMR countries as the analytical unit. Data from three sources were utilized: the MPOWER scale to measure tobacco control policy implementation (2010-2020), the tobacco affordability index (expressed as a percentage of GDP per capita required to purchase 2000 cigarettes, from 2010 to 2020), and national tobacco smoking prevalence data for EMR countries (2010-2023). Linear Fixed-effect regression was employed to investigate associations between changes in MPOWER scores, the cigarette affordability index, and alterations in tobacco prevalence over a decade. RESULTS: Statistically significant inverse associations were observed between changes in MPOWER scores and tobacco smoking prevalence among both men and women in EMR countries (P-value<0.05). Each unit increase in MPOWER score corresponded to a 0.26% reduction in tobacco prevalence among men and a 0.12% reduction among women. The regression model revealed that each unit increase in the cigarette affordability index was linked to a 0.9% decrease in tobacco smoking prevalence across EMR countries (P-value<0.05). Furthermore, even after adjusting for multiple confounders, significant inverse associations were noted between tobacco monitoring (ß = -0.41), health warning (ß = -0.45), and changes in tobacco smoking prevalence (P-value<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study underscored the effectiveness of enhancing the implementation of tobacco control policies and increasing the cigarette affordability index as preventive measures to reduce tobacco smoking prevalence in EMR countries over the past decade.


Subject(s)
Smoking , Tobacco Products , Male , Humans , Female , Prevalence , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco Control , Smoking Prevention
14.
Nat Med ; 30(3): 683-689, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321222

ABSTRACT

Smoking globally kills over half of long-term smokers and causes about 7 million annual deaths. The World Health Organization Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the main global policy strategy to combat smoking, but its effectiveness is uncertain. Our interrupted time series analyses compared before- and after-FCTC trends in the numbers and prevalence of smokers below the age of 25 years (when smoking initiation occurs and during which response to interventions is greatest) and on cessation at 45-59 years (when quitting probably occurs) in 170 countries, excluding China. Contrasting the 10 years after FCTC ratification with the income-specific before-FCTC trends, we observed cumulative decreases of 15.5% (95% confidence interval = -33.2 to -0.7) for the numbers of current smokers and decreases of -7.5% (95% CI = -10.6 to -4.5) for the prevalence of smoking below age 25 years. The quit ratio (comparing the numbers of former and ever smokers) at 45-59 years increased by 1.8% (1.2 to 2.3) 10 years after FCTC ratification. Countries raising taxes by at least 10 percentage points concurrent with ratification observed steeper decreases in all three outcomes than countries that did not. Over a decade across 170 countries, the FCTC was associated with 24 million fewer young smokers and 2 million more quitters.


Subject(s)
Smoking Prevention , Smoking , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , World Health Organization , Tobacco Control , Health Policy
15.
Br J Nurs ; 33(4): 165, 2024 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386523
17.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 19(1): 13, 2024 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance abuse, particularly tobacco smoking, is a significant global public health concern. Efforts have been made to reduce smoking prevalence and promote cessation, but challenges, such as nicotine addiction, marketing tactics by tobacco industry, and cultural acceptability hinder progress. Technology has emerged as a potential tool to address these challenges by providing innovative scalable interventions. The objective of the study was to analyze and map scientific literature on technology-based intervention for tobacco prevention and treatment. METHODS: A bibliometric methodology was conducted. Scopus database was used to retrieve relevant research articles published between 2003 and 2022. The analysis included publication trends, key contributors, research hotspots, research themes, the most impactful articles, and emerging research topics. RESULTS: A total of 639 articles were found, with a slow and fluctuating growth pattern observed after 2011. The Journal of Medical Internet Research was the most prominent journal in the field. The United States was the leading country in the field, followed up by the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Research hotspots included smoking cessation, randomized controlled trials, and technology-based methods such as internet, mHealth, smartphone apps, text messages, and social media. Four primary research themes were identified: development of smartphone applications, efficacy of text messaging interventions, acceptance and effectiveness of smartphone applications, and interventions targeting young adults and students using mobile phone and social media platforms. The top 10 cited articles demonstrated effectiveness of digital interventions in promoting smoking cessation rates and reducing relapse rates. Emerging research topics included the use of virtual reality interventions, interventions for specific populations through personalized tools, and technology-based interventions in non-Western countries. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study highlight the potential of technology to address the challenges associated with tobacco smoking. Further future research in this area is warranted to continue advancing the field and developing effective and evidence-based interventions to combat tobacco smoking.


Subject(s)
Cell Phone , Smoking Cessation , Text Messaging , Humans , Smoking , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoking Prevention , Bibliometrics , Social Media
18.
Sante Publique ; 35(5): 39-49, 2024 01 03.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172047

ABSTRACT

This article offers an analytical synthesis of international trends in public policies to regulate tobacco in the first quarter of the twenty-first century. It begins with a review of the densification of the repertoire of public action and the affirmation of a strategy that consists of encircling tobacco (designated as an enemy) and attacking it through a variety of material and symbolic tactics. Tobacco regulation is a constantly dynamic process, due to the intensity of the exchanges of blows between protagonists: these agonistic interactions are reflected in framing struggles that lead to a diversification of tobacco qualifications. Tobacco is thus framed as a health issue, but also as an environmental problem and a challenge for social justice. Finally, the article shows how, at the end of a quarter-century of diverse mobilizations, the gradual formulation of a paradigm shift is taking shape, in which the objective of public action is no longer simply to control tobacco, but to eliminate it as a commodity.


Cet article propose une synthèse analytique des tendances ­internationales observables dans les politiques publiques de régulation du tabac dans ce premier quart du XXIe siècle. Il revient d'abord sur la densification du répertoire d'actions publiques et l'affirmation d'une stratégie consistant à encercler le tabac (désigné comme un ennemi) et à l'attaquer par le biais de différentes tactiques matérielles et symboliques. La régulation du tabac est un processus en mouvement permanent, du fait de l'intensité des échanges de coups entre protagonistes : ces interactions agonistiques se traduisent dans des luttes de cadrage qui entraînent une diversification des qualifications du tabac, comme problème sanitaire mais aussi environnemental et social. Enfin, l'article montre comment, à l'issue de ce quart de siècle de mobilisations diverses, s'esquisse la formulation progressive d'un changement de paradigme, où l'objectif de l'action publique ne serait plus seulement le contrôle du tabac mais sa disparition comme bien courant.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Tobacco Control , Humans , Smoking Prevention
19.
Sante Publique ; 35(5): 51-60, 2024 01 03.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172049

ABSTRACT

This article examines the "denormalization" approach, which has gradually gained ground in the field of tobacco control. This process encompasses a wide range of practices and aims to renew tobacco control by extending its scope beyond the usual individual and health considerations; it also considers smoking as a societal problem. This contribution illustrates the implementation of this approach, as embodied in France by the Alliance Contre le Tabac denormalization program launched in 2019, through campaigns addressing a diverse range of themes. The latest campaign, carried out in January 2023, demonstrates that smoking also exacerbates the social and economic difficulties of the most disadvantaged members of society. Its presentation illustrates the deployment of such a campaign, the methodology used, the tools mobilized, and the results obtained by carrying out a post-test.


Cet article présente l'approche dite de dénormalisation, qui s'est progressivement imposée dans le champ de la lutte contre le tabac. Cette démarche regroupe un ensemble varié de pratiques et entend renouveler les méthodes de la lutte contre le tabac en élargissant sa portée au-delà des considérations individuelles et sanitaires habituelles ; elle envisage le tabagisme en tant que problématique sociétale. Cette contribution illustre la mise en œuvre de cette approche, incarnée en France par les campagnes de dénormalisation de l'Alliance Contre le Tabac depuis 2019. La dernière campagne réalisée en janvier 2023 démontre que le tabagisme, au-delà de son impact sanitaire, aggrave aussi les difficultés financières quotidiennes des personnes les plus modestes. La présentation de ce dispositif permet d'illustrer le déploiement de ce type de campagne, la méthodologie utilisée, les outils mobilisés et les résultats obtenus, grâce à la réalisation d'un post-test.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Industry , Humans , Smoking , Tobacco Smoking , France , Smoking Prevention
20.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 149, 2024 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291373

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Physician-brief advice has been utilized in high-income countries to promote smoking cessation among cancer patients. Empirical evidence on its effectiveness among cancer patients in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) is lacking. The gap could be due to inadequate training, and competing healthcare priorities, leading to insufficient implementation of targeted smoking cessation interventions in oncology settings. We undertook this scoping review to determine if physician-brief advice is effective in promoting smoking cessation among cancer patients in LMICs. METHODS: We conducted a literature search of all relevant articles across five databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Library (Tobacco Addiction Group trials), World Conference on Lung Cancer proceedings, PubMed, and Google Scholar up to November 2023, using pre-defined inclusion criteria and keywords. The study population was cancer survivors in LMICs, the intervention was smoking cessation advice by a physician in a clinic or oncology center during a consultation, and the outcome was the effect of smoking cessation programs in discontinuing smoking among cancer survivors in LMICs. RESULTS: Overall, out of every 10 cancer patients in LMICs, about seven were smokers, and one-half had received physician-brief advice for smoking cessation. Physician-brief advice was more likely to be delivered to patients with smoking-related cancer (Cohen's d = 0.396). This means that there is a noticeable difference between patients with smoking-related cancer compared to those with cancer unrelated to smoking. Smoking cessation failure was due to the inability to cope with the symptoms of withdrawal, missed smoking cessation clinic visits, mental health disorders, limited time and resources, and minimal patient-physician contact. CONCLUSION: There is very little literature on the frequency of use or the efficacy of physician-brief advice on smoking cessation in LMICs. The literature suggests that cancer patients in LMICs have low self-efficacy to quit smoking, and smoking cessation is rarely part of cancer care in LMICs. Physicians in LMICs should be trained to use motivational messages and good counseling techniques to improve smoking cessation among cancer patients. Policymakers should allocate the resources to implement physician-brief advice and design training programs for physicians focusing on physician-brief advice tailored to cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Physicians , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Smoking , Developing Countries , Crisis Intervention , Smoking Prevention , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy
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