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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 278, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social media bring not only benefits but also downsides, such as addictive behavior. While an ambivalent closed insecure attachment style has been prominently linked with internet and smartphone addiction, a similar analysis for social media addiction is still pending. This study aims to explore social media addiction, focusing on variations in attachment style, mental distress, and personality between students with and without problematic social media use. Additionally, it investigates whether a specific attachment style is connected to social media addiction. METHODS: Data were collected from 571 college students (mean age = 23.61, SD = 5.00, 65.5% female; response rate = 20.06%) via an online survey administered to all enrolled students of Sigmund Freud PrivatUniversity Vienna. The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) differentiated between students addicted and not addicted to social media. Attachment style was gauged using the Bielefeld Partnership Expectations Questionnaire (BFPE), mental distress by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), and personality by the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). RESULTS: Of the total sample, 22.7% of students were identified as addicted to social media. For personality, it was demonstrated that socially media addicted (SMA) students reported significantly higher values on the neuroticism dimension compared to not socially media addicted (NSMA) students. SMA also scored higher across all mental health dimensions-depressiveness, anxiety, and somatization. SMA more frequently exhibited an insecure attachment style than NSMA, specifically, an ambivalent closed attachment style. A two-step cluster analysis validated the initial findings, uncovering three clusters: (1) secure attachment, primarily linked with fewer occurrences of social media addiction and a lower incidence of mental health problems; (2) ambivalent closed attachment, generally associated with a higher rate of social media addiction and increased levels of mental health problems; and (3) ambivalent clingy attachment, manifesting a medium prevalence of social media addiction and a relatively equitable mental health profile. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes are aligned with previous research on internet and smartphone addiction, pointing out the relevance of an ambivalent closed attachment style in all three contexts. Therapeutic interventions for social media addiction should be developed and implemented considering these findings.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Social Media , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Male , Internet Addiction Disorder , Personality , Personality Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology
2.
Appetite ; 197: 107338, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579981

ABSTRACT

Unhealthy food marketing is contributing to the obesity epidemic, but real-time insights into the mechanisms of this relationship are under-studied. Digital marketing is growing and following food and beverage (F&B) brands on social media is common, but measurement of exposure and impact of such marketing presents novel challenges. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of collecting data on exposure and impact of digital F&B marketing (DFM) using a smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology. We hypothesized that DFM-induced food cravings would vary based on whether (or not) participants engaged with F&B brands online. Participants were Singapore residents (n = 95, 21-40 years), recruited via telephone from an existing cohort. Participants were asked to upload screenshots of all sightings of online F&B marketing messages for seven days, and answer in-app contextual questions about sightings including whether any cravings were induced. Participants provided a total of 1310 uploads (median 9 per participant, Q1-Q3: 4-21) of F&B marketing messages, 27% of which were provided on Day 1, significantly more than on other days (P < 0.001). Followers of food/beverage brands on social media encountered 25.6 percentage points (95% CI 11.4, 39.7) more marketing messages that induced cravings than participants who were not followers. University education was also associated with more (18.1 percentage points; 95% CI 3.1, 33.1) encounters with marketing messages that induced cravings. It was practical and acceptable to participants to gather insights into digital F&B marketing exposure and impact using EMA in young adults, although a shorter study period is recommended in future studies. Followers of food and beverage brands on social media appear to be more prone to experience cravings after exposure to digital F&B marketing.


Subject(s)
Ecological Momentary Assessment , Social Media , Humans , Young Adult , Feasibility Studies , Marketing/methods , Beverages , Food
3.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120799, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581895

ABSTRACT

Policies and management decisions in the marine environment are driven in part by public sentiment which can grow more intense during hazard events like Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs). The public conversations on social media sites like Twitter (before X) reveal the polarized nature of HABs through nuanced language and sentiment. This article uses mixed methods of machine learned topic modeling and inductive qualitative coding to describe the ways the long-term 2017-2019 Karenia brevis "red tide" bloom were politicized across Florida's South West coast. It finds that there are topical differences in keywords related to place (e.g. beach, Florida, coast), agent (individual or organization), and epistemic values (reliance on scientific and/or media reports). These topical differences demonstrate different levels of politicization and partisanship in qualitative analysis. Conceptually, this research demonstrates the ways different dimensions of a long-duration marine hazard can be polarized. Regarding management, this research provides insights to political and organizational stakeholders and the gaps in the discourse shaping marine hazards which can be used to strategically guide future social media engagement to manage politicization. What if all the careful work that resource and environmental managers do can be undone by simple, seemingly uncontroversial words? In an era of increased environmental and marine distress-coupled with short format communication-the ways environmental managers choose their words is crucial, even between ostensibly inconsequential nouns like "red tide" or "algae bloom." Policies and management decisions in the marine environment are driven in part by public sentiment which can grow more intense during hazard events like Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs). The public conversations on social media sites like Twitter (before X) reveal the polarized nature of HABs through nuanced language and sentiment. This article relies on mining social media posts, and uses mixed methods of machine-learned topic modeling and human-driven inductive qualitative coding to describe the ways the long-term 2017-2019 Karenia brevis "red tide" blooms were politicized across Florida's South West coast. It finds that there are topical differences in keywords related to place (e.g. beach, Florida, coast), agent (individual or organization), and epistemic values (reliance on scientific and/or media reports). These topical differences demonstrate different levels of politicization and partisanship in qualitative analysis. Conceptually, this research demonstrates the ways different dimensions of a long-duration marine hazard can be polarized. Regarding management, this research provides insights to political and organizational stakeholders and the gaps in the discourse shaping marine hazards which can be used to strategically guide future social media engagement to manage politicization.


Subject(s)
Dinoflagellida , Social Media , Humans , Harmful Algal Bloom , Marine Toxins/analysis , Florida
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2310417121, 2024 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557173

ABSTRACT

Visitation to National Parks in the United States increased by more than 25% since 2010, rising from roughly 70 to 90 million annual visitors. Anecdotes suggest that this increase was driven by the advent of social media in the early-to-mid 2010s, generating a new form of exposure for parks, and has led to concerns about overcrowding and degradation of environmental quality. However, there is little empirical evidence on the role of social media in influencing recreation decisions. Here, I construct a dataset on social media exposure (SME) for each National Park and relate that exposure to changes in visitation over the last two decades. High SME parks see visitation increase by 16 to 22% relative to parks with less exposure, which comes with a concomitant increase in revenue. Low SME parks have no, or negative, changes in visitation. These estimates account for unobserved park heterogeneity and are based on an instrumental variables strategy that predicts exposure with a park's online popularity prior to the social media era. Additional analysis suggests that recent social media posts that include media attachments increase visitation, while posts with negative sentiment reduce visitation. These results provide insight for the National Park Service-which faces more than $22 billion in deferred maintenance costs and is considering policy options to manage demand-as well as for management of recreation on other public lands.


Subject(s)
Recreation , Social Media , Humans , United States , Parks, Recreational
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e081066, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore how people living with obesity who use obesity services perceive healthcare professionals' (HCPs) online representation of the disease on social media. By exploring their perspective, we aimed to develop a framework to inform good practice around social media use for HCPs. DESIGN: This was a qualitative study using a phenomenological framework. Following in-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis was undertaken to identify superordinate themes relating to how HCPs portray living with obesity online. SETTING: Patient advocacy organisation (The Irish Coalition for People Living with Obesity) and three clinical sites offering obesity treatment in Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 15 adult participants comprising of 12 women and 3 men who use social media and are living with obesity and who use obesity services. RESULTS: Three key themes of how people living with obesity who use obesity services perceive HCP's online representation of the disease. (1) Negative experiences of HCPs-participants describe encountering weight stigma and bias on social media from HCPs that they characterised as simplistic and outdated conceptualisations. These engender shame, fear and anger. (2) Positive experience of HCPs-participants report social media allows HCPs to educate and inform public perception of obesity. Positive online experiences lead to feelings of inclusion, understanding and encouragement. (3) Expectations of HCPs-qualifications, professional titles and academic association affected the perceived trustworthiness of information and its impact on readers. Participants feel there is a duty of care for HCPs in obesity medicine to advocate and be active online to provide accurate medical information. CONCLUSION: HCP's use of social media has a powerful impact on people with obesity who use healthcare and obesity services. Social media is a key tool in obesity awareness and education. We propose the '3E' framework-Empower, Evidence-Based and Educate and be educated to guide HCPs' social media use.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Obesity/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Fear , Qualitative Research , Health Personnel
6.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1682024 Apr 18.
Article in Dutch | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of social media on youths with severe anorexia nervosa. DESIGN: Qualitative study. METHOD: Through semi-structured interviews with eleven youths diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, opinions and experiences surrounding the impact of social media on anorexia nervosa were collected, coded and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Social media are often used to compensate for social isolation or misunderstandings about anorexia nervosa from friends and family. Motivated youths experience recovery communities as helpful against social isolation and a good place to find motivation for recovery. Negative aspects of social media include the idealization of unhealthy body types, the competition to have the most severe anorexia and the ease with which pro-ana content is found online and imposes itself. CONCLUSION: Preventive measures, including education about the dangers of social media can protect youths with anorexia nervosa in their social media use. Isolation from social media may lead to further social isolation.


Subject(s)
Anorexia Nervosa , Social Media , Humans , Adolescent , Educational Status , Friends , Motivation
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e50139, 2024 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant global impact, with millions of cases and deaths. Research highlights the persistence of symptoms over time (post-COVID-19 condition), a situation of particular concern in children and young people with symptoms. Social media such as Twitter (subsequently rebranded as X) could provide valuable information on the impact of the post-COVID-19 condition on this demographic. OBJECTIVE: With a social media analysis of the discourse surrounding the prevalence of post-COVID-19 condition in children and young people, we aimed to explore the perceptions of health care workers (HCWs) concerning post-COVID-19 condition in children and young people in the United Kingdom between January 2021 and January 2022. This will allow us to contribute to the emerging knowledge on post-COVID-19 condition and identify critical areas and future directions for researchers and policy makers. METHODS: From a pragmatic paradigm, we used a mixed methods approach. Through discourse, keyword, sentiment, and image analyses, using Pulsar and InfraNodus, we analyzed the discourse about the experience of post-COVID-19 condition in children and young people in the United Kingdom shared on Twitter between January 1, 2021, and January 31, 2022, from a sample of HCWs with Twitter accounts whose biography identifies them as HCWs. RESULTS: We obtained 300,000 tweets, out of which (after filtering for relevant tweets) we performed an in-depth qualitative sample analysis of 2588 tweets. The HCWs were responsive to announcements issued by the authorities regarding the management of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. The most frequent sentiment expressed was negative. The main themes were uncertainty about the future, policies and regulations, managing and addressing the COVID-19 pandemic and post-COVID-19 condition in children and young people, vaccination, using Twitter to share scientific literature and management strategies, and clinical and personal experiences. CONCLUSIONS: The perceptions described on Twitter by HCWs concerning the presence of the post-COVID-19 condition in children and young people appear to be a relevant and timely issue and responsive to the declarations and guidelines issued by health authorities over time. We recommend further support and training strategies for health workers and school staff regarding the manifestations and treatment of children and young people with post-COVID-19 condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Pandemics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Chronic Disease , Health Personnel
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8185, 2024 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589428

ABSTRACT

People regularly form one-sided, "parasocial" relationships (PSRs) with targets incapable of returning the sentiment. Past work has shown that people engage with PSRs to support complex psychological needs (e.g., feeling less lonely after watching a favorite movie). However, we do not know how people rate these relationships relative to traditional two-sided relationships in terms of their effectiveness in supporting psychological needs. The current research (Ntotal = 3085) examined how PSRs help people fulfil emotion regulation needs. In Studies 1 and 2, participants felt that both their YouTube creator and non-YouTube creator PSRs were more effective at fulfilling their emotional needs than in-person acquaintances, albeit less effective than close others. In Study 3, people with high self-esteem thought PSRs would be responsive to their needs when their sociometer was activated, just as they do with two-sided relationships.


Subject(s)
Emotional Regulation , Social Media , Humans , Emotions , Loneliness , Friends
9.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301818, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593132

ABSTRACT

The widespread dissemination of misinformation on social media is a serious threat to global health. To a large extent, it is still unclear who actually shares health-related misinformation deliberately and accidentally. We conducted a large-scale online survey among 5,307 Facebook users in six sub-Saharan African countries, in which we collected information on sharing of fake news and truth discernment. We estimate the magnitude and determinants of deliberate and accidental sharing of misinformation related to three vaccines (HPV, polio, and COVID-19). In an OLS framework we relate the actual sharing of fake news to several socioeconomic characteristics (age, gender, employment status, education), social media consumption, personality factors and vaccine-related characteristics while controlling for country and vaccine-specific effects. We first show that actual sharing rates of fake news articles are substantially higher than those reported from developed countries and that most of the sharing occurs accidentally. Second, we reveal that the determinants of deliberate vs. accidental sharing differ. While deliberate sharing is related to being older and risk-loving, accidental sharing is associated with being older, male, and high levels of trust in institutions. Lastly, we demonstrate that the determinants of sharing differ by the adopted measure (intentions vs. actual sharing) which underscores the limitations of commonly used intention-based measures to derive insights about actual fake news sharing behaviour.


Subject(s)
Infertility , Social Media , Vaccines , Humans , Male , Disinformation , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology
11.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 75(1): 59-65, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587030

ABSTRACT

Background: People live in a technological world, where social media is used very commonly. Social media has effects on eating behaviors, as in other aspects. For this reason, it is important to measure social media effect. Objective: This study aimed to adapt the Scale of Effects of Social Media on Eating Behaviour (SESMEB) that examines the effect of social media on eating behavior in Hungarian university students. Material and methods: The SESMEB was translated into the target language by taking various stages. The online questionnaire including general information, social media use, and the eighteen-item SESMEB was used to collect data. The scale was administered to the study group consisting of 213 Hungarian university students, and data from 203 of them were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test construct validity, and the Cronbach alpha coefficient was calculated for the reliability of the scale in Hungarian. Results: Total correlation value was higher than 0.50 for all items of the scale. The fit indices were at an acceptable level or had a perfect fit. The t-values were significant at the level of 0.1 and ranged between 2.927 and 5.706. The Spearman-Brown coefficient was calculated at 0.894. The reliability coefficient of the scale was calculated to be 0.866. SESMEB scores were different according to spending time daily, sharing content, and using filters or Photoshop on social media (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Higher than 0.80 Cronbach's alpha coefficient and other results show that Hungarian SESMEB is a valid and reliable tool. Therefore, Hungarian SESMEB will be useful for further studies to determine the impact of social media on eating behaviors.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Hungary , Universities , Language , Feeding Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Students , Psychometrics
12.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 33: 2714-2729, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557629

ABSTRACT

Billions of people share images from their daily lives on social media every day. However, their biometric information (e.g., fingerprints) could be easily stolen from these images. The threat of fingerprint leakage from social media has created a strong desire to anonymize shared images while maintaining image quality, since fingerprints act as a lifelong individual biometric password. To guard the fingerprint leakage, adversarial attack that involves adding imperceptible perturbations to fingerprint images have emerged as a feasible solution. However, existing works of this kind are either weak in black-box transferability or cause the images to have an unnatural appearance. Motivated by the visual perception hierarchy (i.e., high-level perception exploits model-shared semantics that transfer well across models while low-level perception extracts primitive stimuli that result in high visual sensitivity when a suspicious stimulus is provided), we propose FingerSafe, a hierarchical perceptual protective noise injection framework to address the above mentioned problems. For black-box transferability, we inject protective noises into the fingerprint orientation field to perturb the model-shared high-level semantics (i.e., fingerprint ridges). Considering visual naturalness, we suppress the low-level local contrast stimulus by regularizing the response of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus. Our proposed FingerSafe is the first to provide feasible fingerprint protection in both digital (up to 94.12%) and realistic scenarios (Twitter and Facebook, up to 68.75%). Our code can be found at https://github.com/nlsde-safety-team/FingerSafe.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Humans , Dermatoglyphics , Privacy , Visual Perception
13.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(2): 13, 2024 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575812

ABSTRACT

Controversies surrounding social media platforms have provided opportunities for institutional reflexivity amongst users and regulators on how to understand and govern platforms. Amidst contestation, platform companies have continued to enact projects that draw upon existing modes of privatized governance. We investigate how social media companies have attempted to achieve closure by continuing to set the terms around platform governance. We investigate two projects implemented by Facebook (Meta)-authenticity regulation and privacy controls-in response to the Russian Interference and Cambridge Analytica controversies surrounding the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election. Drawing on Goffman's metaphor of stage management, we analyze the techniques deployed by Facebook to reinforce a division between what is visible and invisible to the user experience. These platform governance projects propose to act upon front-stage data relations: information that users can see from other users-whether that is content that users can see from "bad actors", or information that other users can see about oneself. At the same time, these projects relegate back-stage data relations-information flows between users constituted by recommendation and targeted advertising systems-to invisibility and inaction. As such, Facebook renders the user experience actionable for governance, while foreclosing governance of back-stage data relations central to the economic value of the platform. As social media companies continue to perform platform governance projects following controversies, our paper invites reflection on the politics of these projects. By destabilizing the boundaries drawn by platform companies, we open space for continuous reflexivity on how platforms should be understood and governed.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Humans , Politics , Privacy
15.
PeerJ ; 12: e17215, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618560

ABSTRACT

Background: Inflammatory back pain is a chronic condition with localized pain, particularly in the axial spine and sacroiliac joints, that is associated with morning stiffness and improves with exercise. YouTube is the second most frequently used social media platform for accessing health information. This study sought to investigate the quality and reliability of YouTube videos on inflammatory back pain (IBP). Methods: The study design was planned as cross-sectional. A search was conducted using the term "inflammatory back pain," and the first 100 videos that met the inclusion criteria were selected on October 19, 2023. The data of the videos selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria in the study settings were examined. Videos with English language, with audiovisual content , had a duration >30 s, non-duplicated and primary content related to IBP were included in the study. A number of video parameters such as the number of likes, number of views, duration, and content categories were assessed. The videos were assessed for reliability using the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Benchmark criteria and the DISCERN tool. Quality was assessed using the Global Quality Score (GQS). Continuous variables were checked for normality of distribution using Shapiro-Wilk test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the continuous data depending on the number of groups. Categorical data were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Results: Reliability assessment based on JAMA scores showed 21% of the videos to have high reliability. Quality assessment based on GQS results showed 19% of the videos to have high quality. JAMA, DISCERN, and GQS scores differed significantly by source of video (p < 0.001, < 0.001, and = 0.002, respectively). Video duration had a moderate positive correlation with scores from the GQS (r = 0.418, p < 0.001), JAMA (r = 0.484, p < 0.001), and modified DISCERN (r = 0.418, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that YouTube offers videos of low reliability and low quality on inflammatory back pain. Health authorities have a responsibility to protect public health and should take proactive steps regarding health information shared on social media platforms.


Subject(s)
Social Media , United States , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , American Medical Association , Back Pain
16.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(3)2024 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619423

ABSTRACT

AIMS: A wide variety of social media platforms exist, each offering tailored solutions to attract specific target audiences based on their social media needs and interests. This diversity may pose a risk factor for the development or perpetuation of harmful behaviors. Research has established a connection between social media use and increased health risk behaviors. This six-wave exploratory longitudinal study investigated the associations between active social media use, hazardous alcohol use, and problem gambling among adult social media users. METHODS: Data were collected via surveys in 6-month intervals, starting in March-April 2021 (T1: N = 1530; Mage = 46.67; SD = 16.42; 50.33% male). Of the T1 respondents, 58.10% participated in T6 (n = 889). Measures included the frequency of use of different social media platforms, the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Hybrid multilevel regression models were used for analyses. RESULTS: We found positive within-person effects of weekly Facebook use and between-person effects of weekly use of Facebook, TikTok, and gambling-related online communities on drinking. These results suggest an increase in hazardous alcohol consumption over time among the platforms' active users. Weekly Instagram use had a negative between-person effect on hazardous alcohol use. Individuals using TikTok or gambling communities weekly were more prone to problem gambling compared to non-weekly users. CONCLUSIONS: There are risks involved in the active use of some social media services among adult users. Prevention work, including digital health interventions, should be targeted according to the appropriate user group.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Gambling , Social Media , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Gambling/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , 60713
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0294735, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603640

ABSTRACT

Using a novel dataset of 590M messages by 21M users, we present the first large-scale examination of the behavior of likely Bernie supporters on Twitter during the 2020 U.S. Democratic primaries and presidential election. We use these data to dispel empirically the notion of a unified, stereotypical Bernie supporter (e.g., the "Bernie Bro"). Instead, our work uncovers significant variation in the identities and ideologies of Bernie supporters who were active on Twitter. Our work makes three contributions to the literature on social media and social movements. Methodologically, we present a novel mixed methods approach to surface identity and ideological variation within a movement via use of patterns in who retweets whom (i.e. who retweets which other users) and who retweets what (i.e. who retweets which specific tweets). Substantively, documentation of these variations challenges a trend in the social movement literature to assume actors within a particular movement are unified in their ideology, identity, and values.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Humans , Politics , Documentation
18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 21(1): 37, 2024 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Marketing of unhealthy foods to children on digital media significantly impacts their dietary preferences and contributes to diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Canadian children spend a significant amount of time on digital devices and are frequently exposed to unhealthy food marketing on social media, including by influencers with celebrity status who endorse products. This study aimed to examine the frequency, healthfulness, and power of unhealthy food marketing in posts by influencers popular with Canadian children on YouTube, Instagram and TikTok. METHODS: The top 9 influencers popular amongst Canadian children aged 10-12 years were identified from the 2021 International Food Policy Study Youth Survey. A total of 2,232 Instagram, YouTube and TikTok posts made by these influencers between June 1st 2021 and May 31st 2022 were examined for instances of food marketing. Food products/brands were identified and frequencies were calculated for the number of posts promoting food products/brands, posts promoting products/brands classified as less healthy according to Health Canada's Nutrient Profile Model (2018) and marketing techniques utilized. RESULTS: YouTube had the highest average rate of food marketing instances per post, at a rate of 1 food marketing instance every 0.7 posts, while TikTok and Instagram had instances every 10.2 posts and 19.3 posts, respectively. Overall, fast food restaurants was the most promoted food category (21%), followed by regular soft drinks (13%), snacks (11%), candy and chocolate (11%) and water (8%). The most frequently used marketing techniques were appeals to fun/cool (37%), the use of songs or music (28%) and the product being consumed (25%). In terms of healthfulness, 83% of the products/brands (87% of brands and 82% of products) promoted were classified as less healthy. CONCLUSIONS: Social media influencers play a substantial role in promoting unhealthy food products to children, primarily fast food items. Given the significant impact of such marketing on children, there is a need for ongoing government-led monitoring, and it is crucial to include social media and influencer marketing in marketing restrictions targeting children in Canada to safeguard this vulnerable demographic.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Internet , Canada , Food , Beverages , Marketing/methods , Fast Foods
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301206, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598459

ABSTRACT

The Easterlin paradox questions the link between economic growth and national well-being, emphasizing the necessity to explore the impact of economic elasticity, income inequality, and their temporal and spatial heterogeneity on subjective happiness. Despite the importance of these factors, few studies have examined them together, thus ongoing debates about the impact of economics on well-being persist. To fill this gap, our analysis utilizes 11 years of panel data from 31 provinces in China, integrating macroeconomic indicators and social media content to reassess the Easterlin paradox. We use GDP per capita and the Gini coefficient as proxies for economic growth and income inequality, respectively, to study their effects on the subjective well-being expressed by citizens on social media in mainland China. Our approach combines machine learning and fixed effects models to evaluate these relationships. Key findings include: (1) In temporal relationships, a 46.70% increase in GDP per capita implies a 0.38 increase in subjective well-being, while a 0.09 increase in the Gini coefficient means a 1.47 decrease in subjective well-being. (2) In spatial relationships, for every 46.70% increase in GDP per capita, subjective well-being rises by 0.51; however, this relationship is buffered by unfair distribution, and GDP per capita no longer significantly affects subjective well-being when the Gini index exceeds 0.609. This study makes a synthetic contribution to the debate on the Easterlin paradox, indicating that economic growth can enhance well-being if income inequality is kept below a certain level. Although these results are theoretically enlightening for the relationship between economics and national well-being globally, this study's sample comes from mainland China. Due to differences in cultural, economic, and political factors, further research is suggested to explore these dynamics globally.


Subject(s)
Happiness , Social Media , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Income , Economic Development
20.
Health Expect ; 27(2): e14033, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556833

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is essential for women's health research. Little is known about how women engage with humorous social media and behavioural health messaging targeting pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). This PPI aimed to understand how women engage with a humorous social media campaign encouraging PFMT. The study findings will influence the co-design of a digital intervention to support women's adherence to PFMT. METHODS: The Guidance for Reporting Involvement of Patients and the Public Version 2 short form was used to report the study's findings. The study examined public engagement with a humorous social media campaign encouraging PFMT in women. A healthcare professional and comedian ran the campaign following the national guidelines for engagement in PFMT. Instagram analytics gave insight into the demographics of the public who engaged, how they engaged and the most popular content. The behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used in the digital nudges that generated the highest levels of engagement were analysed using the Capability Opportunity Motivation Behaviour Change Wheel. RESULTS: The majority (96%) of the population showing the highest levels of engagement were women aged 35-44 years and were based in the United Kingdom (77%). The Instagram account saw an increase in engagement by 12% over the 3-month campaign, with 22,032 users seeing digital nudges and 2645 engaging with the digital nudges. The preferred way of engaging was using Likes (9723). The common themes in the digital nudges that generated the highest levels of engagement were BCTs associated with the 'social influences' theoretical domain framework that targeted the core behaviour opportunity. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest humour may improve women's engagement with online PFMT programmes; however, more rigorous research is required to better understand diverse women's experiences of humorous online PFMT nudges. Future studies may use PFMT mobile apps instead of social media to capture true user engagement and adherence to PFMT more accurately. The insights gained from the study will be taken forward to co-design a digital behavioural intervention as part of a larger study. PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Members of the public were involved in the co-design of a digital health intervention that will be trialled as part of a larger research study. The public was involved using the social media platform Instagram. Public engagement with a humorous social media campaign to encourage women to engage with pelvic floor exercises was captured using Instagram analytics, for example, the timing of engagement.


Subject(s)
Complementary Therapies , Social Media , Humans , Female , Male , Pelvic Floor , Exercise Therapy/methods , United Kingdom
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