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1.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 27: 100175, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501027

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the effectiveness of an executive function training programme aiming at reducing the behavioural and emotional problems of 87 minors, aged between 8 and 17, in residential care within the Spanish foster care system. Participants' executive functions were assessed with the Spanish adaptation of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF®2). For the assessment of their emotional and behavioural problems, the Spanish adaptation of the Assessment System for Children and Adolescents (SENA) was used. The results revealed an improvement in initiative and task supervision. After the intervention, the minors reported having fewer problems with their classmates and fewer symptoms related to traumatic events. According to the educators, those minors also presented better integration and social skills, a greater willingness to study, less isolation, less symptoms of depression, fewer emotional problems and a higher level and variety of personal resources.


Subject(s)
Emotions , Executive Function , Adolescent , Child , Foster Home Care , Humans , Social Skills , Spain
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 338, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The quality of medical care depends on effective physician-patient communication. Interpersonal skills can be improved through teaching, but the determinants are poorly understood. We therefore assessed the factors associated with the interpersonal skills of medical students during simulated medical consultations. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of fourth-year medical students participating in simulated consultations with standardized patients. Each video-recorded medical consultation was independently assessed by two raters, using a cross-cultural adaptation of the Four Habits Coding Scheme (4-HCS) into French. We then collected information on demographics and education-related characteristics. The relationship between the overall 4-HCS score and student characteristics was modeled using univariable and multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Our analytical sample included 165 medical students for analysis. The factors significantly associated with 4-HCS score were gender (ß = - 4.8, p = 0.011) and completion of an international clinical placement (ß = 6.2, p = 0.002) or a research laboratory clerkship (ß = 6.5, p = 0.005). Education-related characteristics, multiple-choice examinations in the first to third preclinical years, and number of medicine or surgery clerkships were not significantly associated with 4-HCS score. CONCLUSIONS: Undergraduate students with higher level of interpersonal skills during video-recorded medical consultations with standardized patients are more likely to be female, to have completed international clinical placement as part of the ERASMUS exchange program or research laboratory clerkship.


Subject(s)
Clinical Clerkship , Students, Medical , Clinical Competence , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Referral and Consultation , Social Skills
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 293, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social skills are important for future physicians and are therefore increasingly considered in selection processes. One economic assessment method from which different social skills can be inferred are Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) in which applicants are asked to rate behavioral responses in context-relevant situations. However, traditional SJTs have so far failed to distinctively measure specified constructs. To address this shortcoming in the medical admission context, we applied a construct-driven approach of SJT development in which test development was deductively guided by agency and communion as target constructs. METHOD: The final version of the construct-driven SJT includes 15 items per construct with three behavioral responses. Medical school applicants (N = 1527) completed the construct-driven SJT, a traditional SJT, and an aptitude test under high-stakes condition as part of their application. A subsample (N = 575) participated in a subsequent voluntary online study with self-report measures of personality and past behavior. RESULTS: The proposed two-factor structure and internal consistency of the construct-driven SJT was confirmed. Communal SJT scores were positively associated with self-reported communal personality and communal behavior, yet effects were smaller than expected. Findings for agentic SJT scores were mixed with positive small associations to self-reported agentic personality scores and agentic behavior but unexpected negative relations to communal self-reported measures. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that construct-driven SJTs might overcome validity limitations of traditional SJTs, although their implementation is challenging. Despite first indicators of validity, future research needs to address practical points of application in high-stakes settings, inclusion of other constructs, and especially prediction of actual behavior before the application of construct-driven SJTs for selection purposes in medical admission can be recommended.


Subject(s)
Judgment , Social Skills , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , School Admission Criteria , Schools, Medical
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 293, 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examines the effectiveness of the culturally adapted Dutch version of The Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS®), utilizing a randomized control trial (RCT) with an active treatment control condition. METHODS: 106 adolescents with ASD, aged 12-18 years, were randomly assigned to one of two group interventions: the experimental condition (PEERS®; n = 54) or the active treatment control condition (Regulation, Organization and Autonomy Didactics; ROAD; n = 52). Effects of interventions on social skills were primarily assessed using an observational measure (CASS - Contextual Assessment Social Skills). Secondary indices of social skills were self, parent and teacher reported questionnaire data (i.e., Social Responsiveness Scale; SRS, and Social Skills Improvement System; SSIS). Treatment satisfaction was also obtained from adolescents and their parents. RESULTS: Results on the observational measure of social skills revealed improvements in positive affect, overall quality of rapport, as well as starting and ending a conversation, irrespective of condition. Compared to ROAD, PEERS® participants showed increased overall self-reported social skills (SSIS). Parent reports showed decreased overall social skill impairment (SRS) as well as improved social communication (SSIS subscale), with significantly more progress in the PEERS® group. Furthermore, parents of adolescents in the PEERS® group were significantly more satisfied with the intervention (M = 8.20, SD = 1.46) than parents of adolescents in the ROAD group (M = 7.52, SD = 1.45). The self-reported treatment satisfaction of adolescents did not differ between conditions. Teacher data showed decreased social skill impairment as measured with the SRS, irrespective of condition. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals promising indications that the Dutch version of PEERS® enhances social skills in adolescents with ASD. Yet, further research is needed into how effectiveness can be optimized. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch trail register NTR6255 (NL6117) 08/02/2017 https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/6117.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Social Skills , Adolescent , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Communication , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Peer Group , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(4): e35595, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020 and 2021, people increasingly used the internet to connect socially and professionally. However, people with an acquired brain injury (ABI) experience challenges in using social media, and rehabilitation professionals have reported feeling underprepared to support them in its use. To date, no review of social media skills training to inform ABI rehabilitation has been conducted. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aimed to examine research on interventions addressing social media skills and safety, with a focus on people living with health conditions; free web-based resources for the general public on social media skills training; and currently available online support groups for people with ABI. METHODS: An integrative scoping review was conducted, with a systematic search strategy applied in March and November 2020 across OvidSP (MEDLINE, AMED, PsycINFO, and Embase), Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Google, and Facebook. The data collected were critically appraised and synthesized to describe the key content and features of social media training resources. RESULTS: This review identified 47 peer-reviewed academic articles, 48 social media training websites, and 120 online support groups for people with ABI. A key recommendation was interactive training with practical components addressing cybersafety, how to use platforms, and how to connect with others. However, no social media training resources that were relevant and accessible for people with ABI were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Training resources to support people with ABI in safely using social media are limited. The key content to be addressed and the features to be incorporated into web-based social media training were determined, including the need for interactive training that is co-designed and safe and incorporates practical components that support people with ABI. These findings can be used to inform the development of web-based evidence-based support for people with ABI who may be vulnerable when participating in social media.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Medicine , Social Media , Brain Injuries/rehabilitation , Humans , Self-Help Groups , Social Skills
6.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 47-55, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362672

ABSTRACT

A pandemia da COVID-19 alterou os cenários do mundo todo, bem como as rotinas e as formas de viver. Os profissionais da saúde fazem parte da população atuante na linha de frente, e, por sua vez, tornam-se um grupo de risco, o que causa sentimentos como estresse e ansiedade, podendo chegar a apresentar sinais de depressão. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar a presença de indicativos de ansiedade, de estresse e de depressão, relacionando-os com habilidades sociais, em 70 profissionais da área da saúde de uma cidade do interior do Paraná. Para a avaliação de tais variáveis, foram utilizados a Escala HAD para avaliar sinais/sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, a Escala de Estresse Percebido (EPS-10) para avaliar a variável estresse e um questionário aberto adaptado (CABALLO, 2003) para as habilidades sociais. A partir dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que a grande maioria apresenta sinais indicativos de depressão (79,7%), bem como sinais de ansiedade (78,6%), além disso, apresentam elevados índices de estresse quando comparados à amostra normativa brasileira. Dessa forma, entende-se que os profissionais da saúde estão predispostos a apresentarem resultados elevados, visto que estão expostos a um contexto estressor e de risco, necessitando também de estratégias de cuidado. Ainda, é importante que haja mais estudos na área, uma vez que, o contexto da pandemia da COVID-19 é algo novo e requer novas formas de enfrentamento.


The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the world's scenarios as well as the routines and ways of living. Health professionals are part of the population acting in the front line, and in turn, they have become a risk group, which causes feelings such as stress and anxiety, with some may even showing signs of depression. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to characterize the presence of signs of anxiety, stress and depression and relate them to social skills in 70 health professionals in a city in Paraná. For the evaluation of such variables, the HAD Instrument Scale was used to evaluate signs/symptoms of anxiety and depression, with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) also being used to evaluate the stress variable, in addition to an adapted open questionnaire (CABALLO, 2003) for social skills. From the results obtained, it could be observed that the majority of the participants presents signs of depression (79.7%), as well as signs of anxiety (78.6%). Furthermore, they also present high levels of stress when compared to the Brazilian normative sample. Thus, it can be understood that health professionals are predisposed to presenting high results, since they are exposed to a stressful and high-risk context and are also in need of caring strategies. Furthermore, it is important to further expand studies in the area, given that the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is something new and therefore, requires new forms of confrontation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Mental Health , Health Personnel , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anxiety/psychology , Working Environment , Depression/psychology , Emotions , Social Skills , Psychological Distress , Hospitals
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328983

ABSTRACT

Parental educational styles have a significant effect in personal development. These styles (authoritative, democratic, permissive and neglectful) can be related to affects and social skills at the individual level. The study presented here, which comprised 456 participants (151 men; 33.11%), with an average age of 22.01 years (s.d. = 2.80), aimed to analyse the relationship between parental styles, affects and social skills, as well as the role played by affects in the relationship between parental style and social skills. The results suggest that the constructs under study are closely related. The most common parental style is democratic. By gender, permissive styles were more often applied to women and authoritative styles to men. No significant gender differences were found in the application of democratic and neglectful parental styles. In terms of emotional support, women were found to have higher negative affect scores and men higher emotional support scores. People with parents that use democratic and permissive styles scored higher in all variables related to affects and social skills, which challenges the notion that democratic styles are the best parental styles in terms of socialisation of children. The results of the affect and social skills scales were analysed in relation to parenting styles, indicating that children educated under a democratic parental regime tend to yield higher scores in terms of social skills than children educated under any other form of parental regime and medium scores in terms of affects. Finally, it was found that parenting styles have a direct influence on social skills, which tend to improve when affects play a mediating role between these two constructs. These results suggest that parenting styles are closely related to affects and social skills. In addition, they also suggest that affects play a mediating role in the relationship between parenting styles and social skills. Finally, owing to the impact that parenting styles have on affects and social skills, more research is needed to address this issue.


Subject(s)
Parenting , Social Skills , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting/psychology , Socialization , Young Adult
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4639, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302087

ABSTRACT

Recent data has revealed dissociations between social and non-social skills in both autistic and neurotypical populations. In the present study, we investigated whether specific visuospatial abilities, such as figure disembedding and mental rotation, are differently related to social and non-social autistic traits, in neurotypical women and men. University students (N = 426) completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), figure disembedding and mental rotation of two-dimensional figures tasks. AQ social skills (AQ-social) and attention-to-details (AQ-attention) subscales were used as measures of social and non-social autistic traits, respectively. Mental rotation was affected by a significant interaction between sex, social and non-social traits. When non-social traits were above the mean (+ 1 SD), no sex differences in mental rotation were found. Instead, below this value, sex differences depended on the social traits, with men on average outperforming women at middle-to-high social traits, and with a comparable performance, and with women on average outperforming men, at lower social traits. A small positive correlation between figure disembedding and social traits was observed in the overall sample. These results are interpreted in terms of the hyper-systemizing theory of autism and contribute to the evidence of individual differences in the cognitive style of autistic people and neurotypical people with autistic traits.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Spatial Navigation , Autistic Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Personality , Sex Characteristics , Social Skills
9.
Res Dev Disabil ; 125: 104218, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Group social skills interventions (GSSIs) are offered to youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to improve social functioning. This systematic review focused on the adolescent population, including a wider range of disabilities. AIMS: To evaluate effectiveness of GSSIs at improving social functioning in adolescents with congenital, acquired or developmental disabilities. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Databases, trial registries and dissertations were systematically searched and a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials conducted. Study screening, risk-of-bias assessment and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation were completed. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Sixteen studies (n = 1119), 15 with adolescents with ASD and one with brain tumor survivors, revealed GSSIs reduced social impairment on the Social Responsiveness Scale (mean difference (MD) 9.68, 95% CI 5.63-13.73; P < 0.001), increased social skills on the Social Skill Improvement System Rating Scales (SMD 0.38, 95% CI 0.10-0.65; P = 0.007), and improved adolescent social knowledge on the Test of Adolescent Social Skills (MD 7.43 points, 95% CI 5.36-9.50; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: There is moderate certainty evidence that GSSIs improve social responsiveness, social skills and knowledge, and low certainty of evidence to improve social participation for adolescents with ASD. High quality randomized studies are required to inform clinical practice with adolescents with other disabilities. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Current evidence for group social skills interventions (GSSIs) is for adolescents with autism (ASD). GSSIs likely improve social knowledge and reduce impairments in adolescents with ASD, however the effect of GSSIs on social participation is not well understood. Only one randomized trial investigated GSSIs in another population of adolescents, highlighting the need for more high-quality studies including adolescents with other disabilities.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Disabled Persons , Adolescent , Humans , Social Adjustment , Social Participation , Social Skills
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(3): e20210296, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to describe the development of a technological innovation designed to identify needs, parental practices, and disseminate information on social-emotional skills and development of infants from the perspective of family members of infants on the social-emotional development of children. METHODS: a report on the development of an innovation consisting of an educational group and a card game on social-emotional skills and development of infants. A spider-web concept map, content analysis and the Bioecological Theory of Human Development as a theoretical reference were used for data analysis. RESULTS: the educational group and card game enabled the identification of information needs on child behavior and playing, and parenting practices focused on affectionate interactions, responsive caregiving, and socialization. Conversation with experienced parents, educational groups, apps, and health consultations were desirable dissemination strategies. CONCLUSIONS: the educational group and the card game represent an innovative, low-cost technology with potential for large-scale application in primary healthcare services.


Subject(s)
Parenting , Parents , Emotions , Humans , Social Skills , Socialization
11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162512

ABSTRACT

Including students with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs) in regular classrooms has become a law-enforced common practice in many high- and middle-income countries. Still, without appropriate actions supporting the implementation of inclusive pedagogical practice, students with NDDs remain at increased risk for absenteeism, bullying and underachievement. There is limited knowledge on the feasibility of social skills group training (SSGT) in naturalistic settings. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to explore the lived experiences of (i) students diagnosed with autism or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and those showing subclinical social difficulties receiving either SSGT or active social control activities in a regular senior high school setting, (ii) teachers providing SSGT or the active control activity and (iii) school leaders facilitating the implementation of these actions. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, comparison between real life versus digital administration of SSGT was also examined. Within a randomized controlled pilot trial of the school-tailored SSGT SKOLKONTAKT®, the primary perspectives of 20 students, teachers and school leaders on SSGT or the social control activities were explored. All groups perceived SSGT to enhance school attendance and academic achievement of students, as well as teacher inclusion skills and the social school climate. Findings indicate that SSGT is largely feasible and socially valid, and broader implementation of SSGT in school settings appears meaningful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Skills , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
12.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(2): e22246, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191527

ABSTRACT

Research shows that children's early social competence predicts their later academic and interpersonal success. Accordingly, early childhood education programs increasingly aim to evaluate and support children's social skill development. Despite ample theoretical and empirical work demonstrating the role of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) in supporting neurophysiological processes that underlie social behaviors, no study has explicitly tested whether the assessment of PNS activity in childhood educational settings provides insight into children's social functioning. The current study addresses this gap by examining the influence of context-specific PNS regulation, assessed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), in predicting preschool children's socially competent behavior toward peers in the classroom. Results showed that: (1) RSA withdrawal (e.g., decreases relative to a baseline task) during unstructured classroom activities predicted children's socially competent behaviors during these unstructured activities but not during structured activities, whereas (2) withdrawal during structured classroom activities predicted children's socially competent behaviors during structured activities. These results indicate that PNS activity makes context-specific contributions to children's social behaviors and highlight the importance of assessing neurophysiological regulation in context.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia , Child, Preschool , Humans , Parasympathetic Nervous System/physiology , Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia/physiology , Schools , Social Behavior , Social Skills
13.
Pediatr Phys Ther ; 34(2): 246-251, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35184077

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: After the COVID-19 pandemic, several randomized controlled trials came to a halt; however, we chose to reinvent our study and shifted to a home-based, telehealth intervention delivery format to support children with autism spectrum disorder and their families. Children with autism spectrum disorder have social communication impairments as well as perceptuomotor and cognitive comorbidities. Continued access to care is crucial for their long-term development. METHODS: We created a general movement intervention to target strength, endurance, executive functioning, and social skills through goal-directed games and activities delivered using a telehealth intervention model. FINDINGS: Our family-centered approach allowed for collaboration between trainers and caregivers and made it easy for families to replicate training activities at home. CONCLUSIONS: While more studies comparing telehealth and face-to-face interventions are needed, we encourage researchers and clinicians to consider family-centered telehealth as a valid and feasible intervention delivery method, to increase the likelihood of carryover of skills into the daily lives of children and ultimately enhance their long-term development.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Social Skills
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 117, 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In medicine, the patient-centered approach is based on interpersonal skills, including communication, structuring the medical interview, and empathy, which have an impact on health professionals' interpersonal relationships and the quality of care. Training courses on this issue are therefore being developed in universities. We hypothesized that specific training courses in the physician-patient relationship could improve interpersonal skills among medical students during simulated consultations and the immediate satisfaction of standardized patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled fourth-year medical students who participated in a simulated medical consultation session with standardized patients. The evaluation of interpersonal skills was carried out using the Four Habits Coding Scheme, producing a synthetic score out of 115 points used as the primary endpoint. Some students benefited from the training courses offered by the university or by other organizations, mainly based on communication, active listening, or patient-centered approach. A comparison was made with students from the same graduating class who had not received any training. RESULTS: The analysis of the primary endpoint showed a difference of 5 points between the group of students who had attended at least one training course and those who did not (p = 0.001). This difference was even more marked when the students had completed several training courses, up to 14 points higher with three training courses (p = 0.001), each with positive results in different areas of the care relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Physician-patient relationship training currently provided in initial education appears to be effective in improving interpersonal skills. A repetition of this training is necessary to increase its impact.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Physicians , Students, Medical , Clinical Competence , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Humans , Physician-Patient Relations , Referral and Consultation , Social Skills
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e051600, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168969

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Interpersonal skills, encompassing communication and empathy, are key components of effective medical consultations. Although many organisations have implemented structured training programmes, limited evidence exists on their effectiveness in improving physician interpersonal skills. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a standardised, multifaceted, interpersonal skills development programme for hospital physicians. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a prospective, randomised (with a 1:1 allocation ratio), controlled, open-label, two parallel arm, superiority trial conducted at a single university hospital. Physicians will be randomised to receive either a multifaceted training programme or no intervention. The experimental intervention combines two 4-hour training sessions, dissemination of interactive educational materials, review of video-recorded consultations and individual feedback. The primary outcome measure is the overall 4-Habits Coding Scheme score assessed by two independent raters blinded to the study arm, based on video-recorded consultations, before and after intervention. The secondary outcomes include patient satisfaction, therapeutic alliance, physician self-actualisation and the length of medical consultation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved on 21 October 2020 by the CECIC Rhône-Alpes Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France (IRB 5891). All participants will provide written informed consent. Efforts will be made to release the primary results within 6 to 9 months of study completion, regardless of whether they confirm or deny the research hypothesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04703816.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Referral and Consultation , Social Skills
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(2)2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205326

ABSTRACT

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) causes intellectual disability and is the known leading cause of autism. Common problems in FXS include behavior and social problems. Along with syndromic characteristics and autism comorbidity, environmental factors might influence these difficulties. This systematic review focuses on the last 20 years of studies concerning behavior and social problems in FXS, considering environmental and personal variables that might influence both problems. Three databases were reviewed, leading to fifty-one studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) problems remain the greatest behavior problems, with behavioral problems and social competence being stable during the 20 years. Some developmental trajectories might have changed due to higher methodological control, such as aggressive behavior and attention problems. The socialization trajectory from childhood to adolescence remains unclear. Comorbidity with autism in individuals with FXS increased behavior problems and worsened social competence profiles. At the same time, comparisons between individuals with comorbid FXS and autism and individuals with autism might help define the comorbid phenotype. Environmental factors and parental characteristics influenced behavior problems and social competence. Higher methodological control is needed in studies including autism symptomatology and parental characteristics. More studies comparing autism in FXS with idiopathic autism are needed to discern differences between conditions.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Fragile X Syndrome , Intellectual Disability , Problem Behavior , Autistic Disorder/epidemiology , Child , Fragile X Syndrome/epidemiology , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Humans , Social Skills
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2396, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165343

ABSTRACT

We conducted a study to understand how dynamic functional brain connectivity contributes to the moderating effect of trait mindfulness on the stress response. 40 male participants provided subjective reports of stress, cortisol assays, and functional MRI before and after undergoing a social stressor. Self-reported trait mindfulness was also collected. Experiencing stress led to significant decreases in the prevalence of a connectivity state previously associated with mindfulness, but no changes in two connectivity states with prior links to arousal. Connectivity did not return to baseline 30 min after stress. Higher trait mindfulness was associated with attenuated affective and neuroendocrine stress response, and smaller decreases in the mindfulness-related connectivity state. In contrast, we found no association between affective response and functional connectivity. Taken together, these data allow us to construct a preliminary brain-behaviour model of how mindfulness dampens stress reactivity and demonstrate the utility of time-varying functional connectivity in understanding psychological state changes.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , Interpersonal Relations , Mindfulness , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Arousal , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Self Report , Social Skills , Young Adult
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 310, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research has shown that longer hours of screen time are negatively associated with children's healthy development. Whereas most research has focused on school-age children, less is known about this association in early childhood. To fill this gap, we examined the association between screen time and developmental health in preschool-aged children. METHODS: This study draws from a data linkage on children (N = 2983; Mean age = 5.2, SD = 0.3 years, 51% male) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, who entered Kindergarten in public elementary schools in 2019. Parent reports on children's screen time, health behaviors, demographics, and family income collected upon kindergarten entry (09/2019), were linked to teacher reports on children's developmental health, collected halfway through the school year (02/2020). Screen time was assessed with the Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. Developmental vulnerability versus developmental health in five domains (physical, social, emotional, language and cognition, and communication skills) was measured with the Early Development Instrument. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses using generalized estimating equation showed that children with more than one hour of daily screen time were more likely to be vulnerable in all five developmental health domains: physical health and wellbeing (odds ratio [OR] =1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99 - 2.0; p=0.058), social competence (OR=1.60; 95% CI, 1.16 - 2.2; p=0.004), emotional maturity (OR=1.29; 95% CI, 0.96 - 1.73; p=0.097), language and cognitive development (OR=1.81; 95% CI, 1.19 - 2.74; p=0.006) and communication skills (OR=1.60; 95% CI, 1.1 - 2.34; p=0.015) compared to children reporting up to one hour of screen time/day. An interaction effect between income and screen time on developmental health outcomes was non-significant. Results were adjusted for child demographics, family income, and other health behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Daily screen time that exceeds the recommended one-hour limit for young children, as suggested by the Canadian 24-h Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth (Tremblay et al. BMC Public Health. 17:874, 2017; Tremblay J Physical Activity Health. 17:92-5, 2020) is negatively associated with developmental health outcomes in early childhood. Screen-based activities should thus be limited for young children. Future research needs to examine the underlying mechanisms through which screen time is linked to developmental vulnerabilities.


Subject(s)
Child Development , Screen Time , Adolescent , British Columbia/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Schools , Social Skills
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162189

ABSTRACT

Disruptive behaviors in physical education cause conflicts among students and, consequently, an abnormal development of classes. Therefore, finding the variables that can solve them is an urgent aspect to achieve an adequate learning environment in the 21st century school. The aim of this study was to analyze what happens to disruptive behaviors in relation to systematic and regulated sports and social practice in a sample of Spanish primary school students. Five hundred and forty-eight schoolchildren (276 were girls (50.4%)) participated with a mean age of 10.98 (SD = 0.71). The results show a significant main effect in terms of social skills in relatedness (p < 0.001), irresponsibility (p < 0.001), failure to follow directions (p < 0.001), distracting or disturbing others (p < 0.001), and in poor self-management (p < 0.001) with higher scores in disruptive behaviors in students with lower social skills. Regarding sports practice, only a significant main effect was found in relatedness (p < 0.001) and in poor self-management (p < 0.001), with the highest scores the schoolchildren who do not practice sports. Schoolchildren with high social skills obtain lower scores in disruptive behaviors. Likewise, schoolchildren who play sports have lower scores in relatedness and poor self-management.


Subject(s)
Problem Behavior , Sports , Child , Female , Humans , Physical Education and Training , Social Skills , Spain
20.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263380, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The relevance of communication in medical education is continuously increasing. At the Medical Faculty of Hamburg, the communication curriculum was further developed and optimized during this project. This article aims to describe the stakeholders' perceived challenges and supporting factors in the implementation and optimization processes. METHODS: The initial communication curriculum and its development after a one-year optimization process were assessed with a curricular mapping. A SWOT analysis and group discussions were carried out to provide information on the need for optimization and on challenges the different stakeholders faced. RESULTS: The curricular mapping showed that the communication curriculum is comprehensive, coherent, integrated and longitudinal. In both the implementation and the project-related optimization processes, support from the dean, cooperation among all stakeholders and structural prerequisites were deemed the most critical factors for successfully integrating communication content into the curriculum. CONCLUSION: The initiative and support of all stakeholders, including the dean, teachers and students, were crucial for the project's success. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Although the implementation of a communication curriculum is recommended for all medical faculties, their actual implementation processes may differ. In a "top-down" and "bottom-up" approach, all stakeholders should be continuously involved in the process to ensure successful integration.


Subject(s)
Communication , Curriculum , Education, Medical , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Stakeholder Participation , Curriculum/standards , Curriculum/trends , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Education, Medical/standards , Education, Medical/trends , Faculty, Medical/standards , Germany , History, 21st Century , Humans , Implementation Science , Interprofessional Relations , Perception , Physician-Patient Relations , Social Skills , Stakeholder Participation/psychology , Teaching/psychology , Teaching/standards
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