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2.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9692

ABSTRACT

O II Seminário Internacional de Alimentação e Nutrição na Atenção Primária à Saúde teve como objetivo disseminar informações técnico-científicas e promover trocas de experiências a partir de espaços de discussão e proposição de ações em conjunto com coordenadores estaduais e municipais de alimentação e nutrição, gestores e profissionais envolvidos no desenvolvimento destas ações nos territórios, além de pesquisadores, estudantes e demais interessados no tema. Esse contou com um público de 5 mil pessoas, residentes em mais de 50 países. Houve o lançamento de duas importantes publicações: Recomendações para o Fortalecimento da Atenção Nutricional na Atenção Primária à Saúde no Brasil e Matriz para Organização dos Cuidados em Alimentação e Nutrição na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Esses materiais foram desenvolvidos para dar apoio técnico aos gestores e profissionais na organização da atenção nutricional e na formulação de estratégias de cuidado nos territórios cobertos pela APS no Brasil, buscando reverter cenários de má nutrição.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Nutrition Policy , Food Security , Food Insecurity , Nutritional Surveillance , Health Promotion , Obesity/prevention & control , Integrality in Health , Environmental Health , Intersectoral Collaboration , Local Health Systems , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy , Industrialized Foods , Community Health Workers , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Food Guide , Family Health , Sustainable Development , Obesity Management , Social Stigma , Healthy Lifestyle , Quality of Life , Canada , Brazil , United Kingdom
3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682255

ABSTRACT

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection adds a significant burden to women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), often leading to severe detrimental impact, not only on themselves, but also on their families and communities. Given that more than half of all people living with HIV globally are females (53%), this review seeks to understand the psychological and social impact of HIV infection on Women Living with HIV (WLHIV) and their families in LMICs in Asia, and the interrelationships between one impact and another. A systematic review was conducted to find literature using the following databases: Medline, PsycINFO, CINAL, Emcare, Scopus and ProQuest. Research articles included in this review were selected based on the following inclusion criteria: conducted in LMICs in Asia, published in English language between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2021, had full text available, involved WLHIV (married and unmarried) and explored the psychological and social impacts of HIV on these women and their families. Critical appraisal tools developed by Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) were used to assess the methodological quality of the studies, and thematic narrative synthesis was used to analyse the findings. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review showed that HIV has a range of negative psychological consequences on WLHIV, such as stress, fear, worry, anxiety and depression, as well as social impacts on the women and their families, including stigma, discrimination and family separation. The findings indicate the need for targeted interventions-specific to WLHIV-that address the psychological challenges, stigma and discrimination these women and their families face. These interventions should also incorporate education and sustainable support structures for WLHIV and their families.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Income , Male , Poverty , Social Change , Social Stigma
4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682271

ABSTRACT

The current study explored how anti-substance abuse campaigns influence substance abusers' psychological health through the perception of stigma. The study is based on a sample of substance abusers who received community-based treatments (n = 3457) and used structural equation modeling to estimate the role of perceived stigma in mediating between perceptions of overstatement of harm conveyed in anti-substance abuse campaigns and psychological outcomes. The results revealed that substance abusers' perception of overstatement of the harm caused by the substances and substance abusers enhanced their perceived stigma and impaired their psychological health in terms of anxiety, depression, and somatization, through both direct and indirect pathways. The results advocate for proper strategies in the design of anti-substance abuse campaigns. Possible initiatives to reduce substance abusers' perceived stigma are recommended.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Anxiety , China , Humans , Mental Health , Social Stigma , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734331

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the HIV educative campaign Undetectable Equals Untransmissible (U=U) is a potential gamechanger to address HIV stigma. We investigated what percentage of South African adolescents were aware of U=U, and the associations with perceived HIV stigma and past-year HIV testing. Methods: we used a cross-sectional design. Data were from the 2017/2018 South African National HIV prevalence, incidence, behaviour and communication survey. HIV status was measured using both laboratory confirmation and self-reports. Among adolescents aged 15-18 years, we calculated the percentage who believed that "the risk of HIV transmission through sex can be reduced by an HIV-positive partner consistently taking drugs that treat HIV." Data were weighted to yield nationally representative estimates. Results: overall, 49.8% of all adolescents aged 15-18 years (and 49.2% of this HIV seropositive) believed that the risk of HIV transmission through sex can be reduced by an HIV-positive partner consistently taking drugs that treat HIV. After adjusting for HIV status, geographic location, race, sex, and orphanhood status, those with belief in U=U were less likely to endorse stigmatizing statements that teachers with HIV should not teach (IRR=0.63, 95%CI, 0.47-0.84), pupils with HIV should not attend class (IRR=0.62, 95%CI, 0.45-0.84), or that children with HIV in general should be in segregated schools (IRR=0.55, 95%CI, 0.41-0.74). Among those reporting not living with HIV, U=U belief was associated with increased likelihood of past-year HIV testing (IRR=1.19, 95%CI, 1.01-1.41). Conclusion: U=U belief was associated with reduced stigma perceptions and increased HIV testing. Adoption of U=U into clinical practice guidelines in South Africa may benefit public health.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Social Stigma , South Africa/epidemiology
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 836, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35765056

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of timely diagnosis and access to treatment, previous studies have not adequately explored help-seeking behavior in cancer treatment among rural and remote residents. The barriers preventing help-seeking behavior also remain unclear. To address this research gap, this study conducted a scoping review to suggest a framework for eliminating barriers and facilitating help-seeking for cancer treatment among rural and remote residents. To conduct the scoping review, three English medical databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL) were examined for the keywords "rural," "remote," "cancer," and "help-seeking." The research objectives and study designs, participants, and excerpts describing help-seeking of the selected papers were recorded in a data charting form. Descriptions of help-seeking behavior were organized and summarized according to their meaning and integrated into factors using thematic analysis. All extracted factors related to help-seeking were sorted into four main themes according to the Ecological Model of Health Behavior, the theoretical lens for this scoping review: (1) Intrapersonal; (2) Interpersonal; (3) Groups, culture, and organizations; and (4) Policy/environment. Factors were categorized as barriers and facilitators of help-seeking. A total of 13 papers were analyzed. Intrapersonal factors such as self-reliance, symptom appraisal, and fatalism, were identified as barriers to help-seeking, whereas presentation of abnormal and serious symptoms facilitated help-seeking. Interpersonal factors such as lack of understanding of family members, influence of surrounding people, role obligations, and lack of trust in experts hindered help-seeking, whereas understanding from surrounding people such as family and friends, promoted help-seeking. Groups, cultural, and organizational factors such as prejudice, social stigma, shame, lack of anonymity, and social norms acted as barriers to help-seeking. Policy-related barriers to help-seeking included lack of medical services and physical distance from medical institutions, leading to a time burden. The study discussed the identified factors from a rural context. Future studies should consider the identified barriers and facilitators according to the four main themes in rural areas when formulating interventions to promote help-seeking. Our findings can offer a theoretical foundation to develop actionable policies, preventive strategies, and relevant interventional tools that may facilitate oncological service utilization in rural areas.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Family , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Patient Care , Rural Population , Social Stigma
7.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VII(2): 167-168, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35765257

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic continues to stalk the globe, ever since the first outbreak in December 2019. Variants of concern and fear of subsequent pandemic waves continue to challenge every nation. The virus has caught communities off-guard many times with grave consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Social Stigma
8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 46(6): 1103-1109, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of pejorative or stigmatizing language to describe individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders adversely affects treatment seeking, quality of care, and treatment outcomes. In 2015, the International Society of Addiction Journal Editors released terminology guidelines that recommended against the use of words that contribute to stigma against individuals with an addictive disorder. This study examined the use of stigmatizing language in National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research and reviews published by the journal, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (ACER) from 2010 to 2020, with the goal of sharing the results with the alcohol research community to enhance awareness. METHODS: The search for stigmatizing language in ACER was limited to NIH-funded articles made publicly available on PubMed Central (PMC). Though ACER is not an open-access journal, original research and reviews directly funded by NIH are published to PMC for open access to the public as required by the conditions of NIH funding. ACER articles published on PMC were searched from 2010 to 2020 with specific queries for individual terms of interest including those considered pejorative ("alcoholic," "addict," and "abuser") and outdated ("alcohol dependent," "alcohol abuse," and "alcoholism"). The number of articles containing a term of interest for a given year was divided by the total number of articles published in that year to determine the percent use of each term per year. RESULTS: Our search of research and reviews (n = 1903) published in ACER on PMC determined that although the use of pejorative and outdated terminology has decreased over time, there is continued use of the term "alcoholic" over the last decade. Specifically, in 2020, over 40% of articles searched for in PMC still included "alcoholic." The results of a separate manual search (n = 110) on the Wiley Online Database showed that approximately 30% of articles used the term "alcoholic" in a stigmatizing manner. CONCLUSIONS: Stigmatizing language can perpetuate negative biases against people with alcohol use disorder. We encourage researchers to shift away from language that maintains discriminatory conceptions of alcohol use disorder. Reducing stigma has the potential to increase rates of treatment seeking and improve treatment outcomes for individuals with alcohol use disorder.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Language , Social Stigma , Terminology as Topic , Alcoholism/psychology , Alcoholism/therapy , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Behavior, Addictive/therapy , Humans , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , United States/epidemiology
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1195, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptom management self-efficacy is a prerequisite for individuals to fully manage their symptoms. The literature reports associations between engagement with healthcare providers (HCPs), internalized stigma, and types of self-efficacy other than symptom management. However, the factors of symptom management self-efficacy are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship among engagement with HCPs, internalized stigma, and HIV symptom management self-efficacy in Chinese women living with HIV (WLWH). METHODS: This current analysis was part of the original randomized control trial, we used data collected from 41 women living with HIV (WLWH) assigned to an intervention arm or a control arm from Shanghai and Beijing, China, at baseline, Week 4 and Week 12. The CONSORT checklist was used. The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Registry (#NCT03049332) on 10/02/2017. RESULTS: The results demonstrate that HCPs should increase engagement with WLWH when providing care, thereby improving their symptom management self-efficacy. The results suggested that participants' engagement with HCPs was significantly positively correlated with their HIV symptom management self-efficacy in the latter two time points. Internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with HIV symptom management self-efficacy only at the 4-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the positive effect of engagement with HCPs on WLWHs' symptom management self-efficacy as well as the negative effect of internalized stigma on symptom management self-efficacy. Future research can further test the relationship between the three key concepts, as well as explore interventions to decrease internalized stigma.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Self Efficacy , China , Female , HIV Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Social Stigma
11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(S1): S46-S55, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racist socio-political and economic systems in the United States are root causes of HIV disparities among minoritized individuals. However, within HIV implementation science literature, there is scarce empirical research on how to effectively counter racism. This article names racism and White supremacy as key challenges to the success of the Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) initiative and delineates opportunities to integrate anti-racism into HIV interventions. METHODS: Formative data were synthesized from 3 EHE studies in California, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Each study engaged with community stakeholders to inform pre-exposure prophylaxis interventions. Key informant interviews and focus groups were used to query individuals-including Black individuals-about implementation challenges. Although racism was not an a priori focus of included studies, discourse on race and racism emerged as key study findings from all projects. RESULTS: Across diverse stakeholder groups and EHE locales, participants described racism as a threat to the success of the EHE initiative. Institutional and structural racism, intersectional stigma, and maltreatment of minoritized individuals within healthcare systems were cited as challenges to pre-exposure prophylaxis scale-up. Some recommendations for addressing racism were given-yet these primarily focused on the individual level (eg, enhanced training, outreach). CONCLUSIONS: EHE implementation scientists should commit to measurable anti-racist actions. To this end, we present a series of recommendations to help investigators evaluate the extent to which they are taking actionable steps to counter racism to improve the adoption, implementation, and real-world impact of EHE interventions for people of color.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Racism , Epidemics/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Social Stigma , United States
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(S1): S215-S225, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV-related and intersectional stigmas are key barriers for service delivery, but best practices are nascent for addressing them in high-resource and high-burden contexts such as New York City (NYC). The Stigma Reduction and Resilience (STAR) implementation science (IS) Mapping Project in 2020 identified untested stigma reduction efforts in HIV organizations, highlighting the need for an IS framework. SETTING: Organizations providing HIV prevention and/or care in NYC. METHODS: An interagency team determined that IS provides a structured approach for addressing identified gaps in stigma reduction efforts, but defining existing IS concepts and adapting IS frameworks were necessary to facilitate its use. The Implementation Research Logic Model was adapted to empower HIV organizations to use IS to implement stigma reduction. RESULTS: Questions, definitions, and tips were developed to guide, strengthen, and simplify the application of IS within HIV organizations to improve the reduction of HIV and intersecting stigmas. The resulting Stigma Reduction Logic Model incorporates tools for implementers who synthesize each component of the logic model (intervention, determinants, implementation strategies, mechanisms, and outcomes), including a menu of options for selecting stigma reduction interventions and implementation determinants, a checklist to assess organizational readiness for stigma reduction, and an IS terminology guide applied for stigma reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Stigma reduction initiatives and research can use this model to enable implementers, researchers, and HIV organization stakeholders to use the methodology of IS to build consensus for, systematically plan, implement, and evaluate stigma reduction activities relevant to the HIV epidemic. The next step is testing the model's utility.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Implementation Science , Organizations , Social Stigma
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010476, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Leprosy reactions, Type-1 and erythema nodosum leprosum, are immune-mediated complications of leprosy, which play a significant role in the morbidity associated with the disease. A considerable amount of literature has been published on the impact of leprosy in general but few studies focus specifically on leprosy reactions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leprosy reactions on physical, psychological, and social aspects of the lives of people affected by analysing their life experiences and perspectives about leprosy reactions. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This qualitative study involved people affected by leprosy reactions and their family members in two leprosy endemic countries. The data were collected through 66 interviews and 9 focus group discussions (4-6 participants each) in Surabaya, Indonesia, and Purulia, India. Content analysis and conversational analysis were performed. This study found that both types of leprosy reactions were perceived as an unpredictable and painful condition. Leprosy reactions restricted physical activities of the participants, such as going to bathroom, sleeping, eating, and cooking. In the interviews, the respondents expressed a range of emotions and feelings including confusion, sadness, anxiety, and anger. Some recounted that they felt stigmatized and lost opportunities to socialise and earn money. Differences between the two settings were identified. The majority of Indonesian participants preferred to stay at home, and some concealed the diagnosis of leprosy, while most of the Indian respondents continued working up to the time of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Leprosy reactions are a distressing complication of leprosy and adversely affect the lives of those affected. Individuals reported physical discomfort, distress, anxiety, stigma, and financial hardship and these negative impacts in the physical, psychological, and social spheres reinforced each other. These findings provide important information about a need for early detection and sustained commitment to follow-up care for people with a history of leprosy reactions. More research on new drugs for reactional episodes, tools to measure knowledge, attitude, and practice, and costing study on leprosy reactions treatment are needed. We recommend the development and testing of holistic strategies to improve the management of leprosy reactions.


Subject(s)
Erythema Nodosum , Leprosy , Erythema Nodosum/epidemiology , Family/psychology , Humans , Leprosy/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Social Stigma
16.
Am J Public Health ; 112(S4): S420-S432, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763725

ABSTRACT

Background. Across settings, individuals from populations that are multiply stigmatized are at increased risk of HIV and experience worse HIV treatment outcomes. As evidence expands on how intersecting stigmatized identities and conditions influence HIV outcomes, researchers have used diverse quantitative approaches to measure HIV-related intersectional stigma and discrimination. To date, no clear consensus exists regarding how to best quantitatively measure and analyze intersectional stigma and discrimination. Objectives. To review and document existing quantitative measures of HIV-related intersectional stigma and discrimination to inform research, programmatic, and policy efforts. Search Methods. We searched 5 electronic databases for relevant studies. References of included articles were screened for possible inclusion. Additional articles were screened on the basis of consultations with experts in the field. Selection Criteria. We included peer-reviewed studies published between January 1, 2010, and May 12, 2021, that were HIV related and presented 1 or more quantitative measures of stigma and discrimination using an intersectional lens in measure design or analysis. Data Collection and Analysis. Systematic methods were used to screen citations and abstract data via a standardized coding form. Data were analyzed by coding categories stratified according to 2 subgroups: (1) studies incorporating a single intersectional measure and (2) studies that examined intersectional stigma through analytical approaches combining multiple measures. Main Results. Sixteen articles met the inclusion criteria, 7 of which explicitly referenced intersectionality. Ten studies were from the United States. All of the studies included participants living with HIV. Among the 4 studies incorporating a single intersectional stigma measure, 3 explored race and gender stigma and 1 explored gender and HIV stigma. Studies involving analytic approaches (n = 12) mostly examined intersectional stigma via interaction terms in multivariate regression models. Three studies employed structural equation modeling to examine interactive effects or latent constructs of intersectional stigma. Conclusions. Research on the measurement of HIV-related intersectional stigma and discrimination is currently concentrated in high-income settings and generally focuses on the intersection of 2 identities (e.g., race and gender). Efforts are needed to expand appropriate application of intersectionality in the development, adaptation, and use of measures of HIV-related intersectional stigma and discrimination. The use of context-, identity-, or condition-adaptable measures should be considered. Researchers should also carefully consider how to meaningfully engage communities in the process of measurement development. Public Health Implications. The measures and analytic approaches presented could significantly enhance public health efforts in assessing the impact of HIV-related intersectional stigma and discrimination on critical health outcomes. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S4):S420-S432. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306639).


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Social Stigma , Consensus , Data Collection , Humans , Research Personnel
19.
Am J Public Health ; 112(S4): S344-S346, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763730
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