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1.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597519

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis is a neglected mycosis that affects human and animal hosts, including domestic cats. In Brazil, its most frequently diagnosed etiological agent is Sporothrix brasiliensis. Zoonotic transmission of S. brasiliensis occurs via direct contact between an infected cat and a susceptible human host. Notification of confirmed cases of feline sporotrichosis is not mandatory in Brazil. The metropolitan area of Goiania city can be considered a silent area for the occurrence of feline sporotrichosis. In this context, voluntary reporting of feline sporotrichosis cases is recommended for all healthcare professionals. This study aimed to report the first occurrence of S. brasiliensis in a cat from the metropolitan area of Goiania city. Cytopathology, mycology, thermal dimorphism and calmodulin gene amplification tests were performed. The mycological and molecular biological diagnoses corresponded to S. brasiliensis. The etiological agent of zoonotic sporotrichosis was detected in the metropolitan area of Goiania city, and therefore there is a risk of the emergence of new cases of cats infected with S. brasiliensis and the occurrence of zoonotic transmission of this fungus.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Animals , Cats , Humans , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Sporothrix/genetics , Health Personnel , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Lancet Microbe ; 5(3): e282-e290, 2024 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic sporotrichosis is a neglected fungal disease, whereby outbreaks are primarily driven by Sporothrix brasiliensis and linked to cat-to-human transmission. To understand the emergence and spread of sporotrichosis in Brazil, the epicentre of the current epidemic in South America, we aimed to conduct whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to describe the genomic epidemiology. METHODS: In this genomic epidemiology study, we included Sporothrix spp isolates from sporotrichosis cases from Brazil, Colombia, and the USA. We conducted WGS using Illumina NovaSeq on isolates collected by three laboratories in Brazil from humans and cats with sporotrichosis between 2013 and 2022. All isolates that were confirmed to be Sporothrix genus by internal transcribed spacer or beta-tubulin PCR sequencing were included in this study. We downloaded eight Sporothrix genome sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (six from Brazil, two from Colombia). Three Sporothrix spp genome sequences from the USA were generated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of this study. We did phylogenetic analyses and correlated geographical and temporal case distribution with genotypic features of Sporothrix spp isolates. FINDINGS: 72 Sporothrix spp isolates from 55 human and 17 animal sporotrichosis cases were included: 67 (93%) were from Brazil, two (3%) from Colombia, and three (4%) from the USA. Cases spanned from 1999 to 2022. Most (61 [85%]) isolates were S brasiliensis, and all were reported from Brazil. Ten (14%) were Sporothrix schenckii and were reported from Brazil, USA, and Colombia. For S schenckii isolates, two distinct clades were observed wherein isolates clustered by geography. For S brasiliensis isolates, five clades separated by more than 100 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were observed. Among the five S brasiliensis clades, clades A and C contained isolates from both human and cat cases, and clade A contained isolates from six different states in Brazil. Compared with S brasiliensis isolates, larger genetic diversity was observed among S schenckii isolates from animal and human cases within a clade. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that the ongoing epidemic driven by S brasiliensis in Brazil represents several, independent emergence events followed by animal-to-animal and animal-to human transmission within and between Brazilian states. These results describe how S brasiliensis can emerge and spread within a country. FUNDING: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brazil; the São Paulo Research Foundation; Productivity in Research fellowships by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, and Ministry of Science and Technology of Brazil.


Subject(s)
Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Animals , Humans , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/veterinary , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Disease Outbreaks , Genomics , Sporothrix/genetics
3.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 119: e230208, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359307

ABSTRACT

Twenty-five years have passed since the initial observation of endemic zoonotic sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since then, this disease has spread throughout South America. Accompanying the emergence of this mycosis, some progress has been made, including the expansion of a research network in this field and higher visibility of sporotrichosis within government authorities and funding agencies. However, there are still some challenges to curbing the expansion of this disease in the coming years. These include the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic tests, new antifungal drugs, particularly for the treatment of extracutaneous manifestations of sporotrichosis, and more comprehensive care for cats with sporotrichosis. Including these actions in the sporotrichosis research agenda is required so as to change the development of this disease in the years to come.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Animals , Cats , Sporotrichosis/veterinary , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Brazil/epidemiology , Anniversaries and Special Events , Antifungal Agents
5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1289: 342216, 2024 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sporothrix globosa (S. globosa) is an agricultural activity-related but neglected pathogenic fungus responsible for sporotrichosis. Timely detection is crucial for managing and preventing its spread. However, due to the lack of efficient recognition elements for enriching S. globosa, the current approaches for detecting S. globosa are not simple and/or sensitive enough. This hinders their wider application of fast screening. RESULTS: Herein, we successfully prepared immunoglobulin Y (IgY) targeting S. globosa, and developed a rapid and accurate detection method, improving upon current limited and inadequate detection approaches. Our method combined the use of IgY and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to enhance detection sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. The IgY was fabricated on magnetic beads to specifically concentrate S. globosa in samples, while LAMP amplified the captured target after simple boiling DNA extraction. By using our method, as low as 4.66 × 102 Cells mL-1S. globosa was accurately detected in soil and corn straw samples. We further integrated this assay into a portable toolbox for sample-to-result detection in resource-limited areas. By using this toolbox, we have colorimetrically detected soil and corn straw samples contaminated by S. globosa, suggesting the promising on-site detection potential. SIGNIFICANCE AND NOVELTY: A new IgY recognizing S. globosa was prepared. Through the combination of IgY enrichment and LAMP amplification, the detection sensitivity and specificity were improved simultaneously. This method eliminated thermal cycling, simplified the operation, and reduced the analysis time. Compared to existing methods, our approach is more suitable for on-site detection and can significantly improve public health responses to sporotrichosis outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulins , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Humans , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity , Soil , Magnetic Phenomena
6.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 170: 103845, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38040325

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic Sporothrix species. Among them, Sporothrix brasiliensis is the main species associated with endemic regions in South America, especially Brazil. It is highly virulent and can be spread through zoonotic transmission. Molecular epidemiological surveys are needed to determine the extent of genetic variation, to investigate outbreaks, and to identify genotypes associated with antifungal resistance and susceptibility. This study investigated the sequence variation of different constitutive genes and established a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for S. brasiliensis. Specific primers were designed for 16 genes using Primer-BLAST software based on the genome sequences of three S. brasiliensis strains (ATCC MYA-4823, A001 and A005). Ninety-one human, animal, and environmental S. brasiliensis isolates from different Brazilian geographic regions (South, Southeast, Midwest and Northeast) andtwo isolates from Paraguay were sequenced. The loci that presented the highest nucleotide diversity (π) were selected for the MLST scheme. Among the 16 studied genetic loci, four presented increased π value and were able to distinguish all S. brasiliensis isolates into seven distinct haplotypes. The PCR conditions were standardized for four loci. Some of the obtained haplotypes were associated with the geographic origin of the strains. This study presents an important advance in the understanding of this important agent of sporotrichosis in Brazil. It significantly increased the discriminatory power for genotyping of S. brasiliensis isolates, and enabled new contributions to the epidemiological studies of this human and animal pathogen in Brazil and in other countries.


Subject(s)
Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Animals , Humans , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Brazil/epidemiology
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 44(12): 1999-2004, 2023 Dec 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38129160

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis, a fungal infection caused by Sporothrix species, can greatly lead to chronic inflammation of the skin, mucosa, and lymphatic vessels and disseminate systemically sometimes, even threatening life. It is known that Sporothrix is distributed worldwide, while in China, most of the cases were reported in northeast China and parts of south China. Sporothrix globosa is the main source of infection, and other regions may lack relevant awareness and attention to the disease, making it a public health challenge in China. Thus, it is important to understand its epidemiology and public health risks to prevent and control the disease properly.


Subject(s)
Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Humans , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/prevention & control , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Public Health , China/epidemiology
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(7): e0011478, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37494410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sporotrichosis is a subacute to chronic fungal infection of skin and subcutaneous tissues, caused by dimorphic fungi belonging to the genus Sporothrix, commonly seen in tropical and subtropical regions like Madagascar. This study describes the epidemiological, clinical, and the treatment outcomes with itraconazole for sporotrichosis. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study on patients suffering from sporotrichosis, from March 2013 to January 2019, was conducted, in the reference center for endemic mycoses. Patients with sporotrichosis who received itraconazole for at least 3 months were included in the study. Patients received itraconazole 200 mg daily for 3 to 6 months. Therapeutic responses were evaluated at months 3 and 6 after treatment. Outcomes were classified as minor response, major response, cure, and failure. RESULTS: Forty-three cases of sporotrichosis were included. The median age of patients was 40 years. Most of them (62.8%) were rural workers. Men were more frequently infected (72%). At the end of 6th month of treatment, 20 patients (46.5%) were cured and a major response to itraconazole was observed in 8 patients (18.6%). The cure rate was higher in 12 patients (27.9%) who had disease durations of less than to one year than in those who had more time of disease (18.6%) (p = 0.01). Thirteen patients (30.2%) were lost to follow up. The rate of lost to follow-up was also higher (39.5%) in patients who had sporotrichosis of less than to one year than in those who had more time of disease. CONCLUSION: The cure rate found in this study was inferior to that reported in the literature. However, it was higher in patients with early symptomatology.


Subject(s)
Sporotrichosis , Male , Humans , Adult , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Madagascar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
Mycoses ; 66(10): 911-922, 2023 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37452233

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis is a neglected fungal zoonosis with significant impacts on human and animal health. Accurate diagnosis, treatment, and understanding of the transmission dynamics of Sporothrix species are essential for mitigating the spread of sporotrichosis. This study aimed to identify the Sporothrix species involved in the ongoing outbreaks of animal sporotrichosis in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and analyse the phylogenetic relationships between pathogenic species to investigate the outbreak origin. Additionally, to better understand the evolution of the disease, we conducted a retrospective survey of positive feline and canine cases from November 2017 to July 2021 with proven cultures for Sporothrix. A significant increase in animal cases over the last 4 years was observed, with cats being the most affected host. Sporothrix brasiliensis was the predominant agent in 100% of the clinical isolates (n = 180) molecularly identified. Phylogenetic and haplotype analysis points towards the cases isolated from Minas Gerais sharing the haplotype originating from a long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, however, with a secondary contribution from genotypes circulating in other outbreaks in Brazil. Thus, we present clear evidence of the circulation of different S. brasiliensis genotypes associated with animal sporotrichosis in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Genetic monitoring can contribute to understanding the causal agent for zoonotic sporotrichosis in epidemiological processes and help to implement disease prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , Cat Diseases/microbiology
11.
Mycoses ; 66(10): 845-853, 2023 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37376902

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus belonging to the genus Sporothrix. This fungal infection can affect both humans and domestic animals, and in recent years, an increase in the geographic spread and prevalence of sporotrichosis has been observed globally. This systematic review aimed to examine the clinical-epidemiological and therapeutic aspects related to sporotrichosis co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). An extensive electronic search was conducted on databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Lilacs, Medline, Embase, Scopus and SciELO was performed to identify clinical cases of people living with HIV (PLWH) with sporotrichosis published until May 2023. As a result, we found that most co-infected patients were male, representing 71.76% (94/131) of cases. The most prevalent age group was 41-50 years, with a mean age of 36.98 years. The countries with the highest number of cases were Brazil (75.57%, 99/131) and the United States (16.03%, 21/131). The most frequent clinical presentation was systemic dissemination, accounting for 69.47% (91/131) of the cases, followed by cutaneous dissemination with 13% (17/131). The mean CD4+ cell count was 154.07 cells/µL, and most patients used amphotericin B with at least one azole, which represented 47.33% (62/131) of cases, followed by azole monotherapy in 17.56% (23/131) of cases. As for the outcome, 51.15% (67/131) of the patients remained alive, and 37.4% (49/131) died. Therefore, it was concluded that sporotrichosis in PLWH is a disease with a high prevalence in Brazil and may be associated with systemic clinical manifestations requiring longer periods of systemic antifungal therapy.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Coinfection , Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Animals , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Sporotrichosis/complications , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , HIV , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Azoles/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(7): 1330-1339, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37347527

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic outbreaks of sporotrichosis are increasing in Brazil. We examined and described the emergence of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis (CTS) caused by the fungal pathogen Sporothrix brasiliensis. We calculated incidence and mapped geographic distribution of cases in Curitiba, Brazil, by reviewing medical records from 216 sporotrichosis cases diagnosed during 2011-May 2022. Proven sporotrichosis was established in 84 (39%) patients and probable sporotrichosis in 132 (61%). Incidence increased from 0.3 cases/100,000 outpatient visit-years in 2011 to 21.4 cases/100,000 outpatient visit-years in 2021; of the 216 cases, 58% (n = 126) were diagnosed during 2019-2021. The main clinical form of sporotrichosis was lymphocutaneous (63%), followed by localized cutaneous (24%), ocular (10%), multisite infections (3%), and cutaneous disseminated (<0.5%). Since the first report of CTS in Curitiba in 2011, sporotrichosis has increased substantially, indicating continuous disease transmission. Clinician and public awareness of CTS and efforts to prevent transmission are needed.


Subject(s)
Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Disease Outbreaks
13.
Mycoses ; 66(8): 651-658, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37156262

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous and chronic infection caused by traumatic inoculation of pathogenic sporothrix species, usually infecting the skins and subcutaneous tissues of humans and animals. However, the lack of epidemiological data required further molecular identification to describe the distribution of this fungus in our region. In this study, forty-eight clinical sporothrix isolated from Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital were classified, and the susceptibility of each strain to seven antifungal agents was determined. METHODS: Forty strains of S. globosa and eight strains of S. shenkshii were identified via colony morphology and PCR sequencing of calmodulin gene. RESULTS: Antifungal susceptibility tests of the mycelial phase in vitro showed terbinafine (TRB) and luliconazole (LULI) were the most effective, followed by itraconazole (ITZ) and amphotericin B (AMB). By contrast, voriconazole (VCZ), 5-flucytosine (5FC) and fluconazole (FCZ) have low efficacy with high MIC. CONCLUSION: Our results showed a predominantly S. globosa infection trend in southern China. Simultaneously, sporothrix is sensitive to TRB, LULI, ITZ and AMB whereas resistant to FCZ. This study firstly reports antifungal sensitivity test in vitro and epidemiological correlation analysis of sporothrix in southern China, and also the first time to find that sporothrix is sensitive to LULI.


Subject(s)
Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Animals , Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Sporothrix/genetics , Prevalence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Itraconazole , Amphotericin B , Terbinafine/pharmacology , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Flucytosine , China/epidemiology
14.
Mycoses ; 66(8): 643-650, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37198141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is an endemic subcutaneous mycosis classically caused by the Sporothrix schenckii species complex. Recently, sporotrichosis has emerged in Brazil as a cat-transmitted epidemic caused by a new species, Sporothrix brasiliensis. OBJECTIVES: To survey the clinical-epidemiological profile of all sporotrichosis cases diagnosed between 2011 and 2020 at a reference hospital in São Paulo metropolitan area and evaluate the annual distribution of cases in relation to seasonality. METHODS: Patients' demographic and clinical-epidemiological data were surveyed. A generalized linear model was fitted to relate the quarterly number of sporotrichosis cases detected between 2015 and 2019 with precipitation and temperature series. Prediction of the number of cases from 2011 to 2014 was attempted based on the fitted model without the trend component that appears from 2015. RESULTS: Among 271 suspected cases admitted during 2011-2020, 254 were confirmed by fungal isolation and/or clinical-epidemiological criteria. We observed that 2015 onwards the number of cases regularly increased during Autumn and Winter, the driest and coldest stations of the year. We verified that temperature series affected the number of cases (p = .005) because an increase of 1°C in the temperature series was associated with a 14.24% decrease in the average cases number, with the average number of cases increasing by 10.96% (p < .0001) every quarter, corresponding to an annual increase of 52%. Between 2011 and 2014, the predicted number of sporotrichosis cases averaged 10-12 per year, with 33%-38% occurring in the winter. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that sporotrichosis seasonality is associated with the felines' oestrus cycle, which may provide alternative, cat-directed approaches to the sporotrichosis epidemic control.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Dermatomycoses , Epidemics , Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Animals , Cats , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Dermatomycoses/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(6): 1109-1114, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37188341

ABSTRACT

Ocular infections associated with sporotrichosis can present four clinical manifestations: granulomatous conjunctivitis, dacryocystitis, Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, and bulbar conjunctivitis. The incidence of ocular sporotrichosis related to zoonotic transmission has significantly increased in endemic regions and is a frequently misdiagnosed cause of granulomatous conjuntivitis. Therefore, we present a series of seven cases of eye injury by Sporothrix strains, including clinical forms, therapeutic approaches, and laboratory procedures to alert health professionals who provide care to these patients.


Subject(s)
Conjunctivitis , Dacryocystitis , Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Humans , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye , Dacryocystitis/complications , Dacryocystitis/drug therapy , Brazil/epidemiology
16.
Mycoses ; 66(7): 621-631, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37035906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarise 71 cases of cutaneous sporotrichosis in Zhejiang over the past 9 years and analyse clinical and epidemiological characteristics. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients with cutaneous sporotrichosis attending the Department of Dermatology of the Hangzhou Third People's Hospital between 2013 and 2022. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio was 1.15:1 among the 71 patients, with a mean age of 55.90 years (±2.02) and an age range of 3 to 94 years. The disease duration was unknown for 17 patients. The intermediate course for the remaining 54 patients lasted 11.90 months, ranging from 1 to 120 months. Thirty-four patients were involved in mixed occupations, 28 were farmers, 4 were housewives, 3 were manufacturing workers, and 2 were carpenters; 23.95% of cases had a history of trauma. The most common clinical manifestation was fixed cutaneous (69.01%), followed by lymphocutaneous (29.58%) and disseminated cutaneous (1.41%). There were 72 affected sites; the upper limbs (69.44%) were affected the most, followed by the face (16.67%) and lower limbs (12.50%). Forty-nine patients showed open lesions (69.01%), 15 showed mixed lesions (21.13%), and seven showed closed lesions (9.86%). Seventy-one patients were confirmed by biopsied tissue or tissue fluid culture. Forty-four patients underwent direct microscopy; of these, 18 (40.91%) were positive and 26 were negative. Molecular analysis confirmed that all fungal strains were Sporothrix globosa. Fifty-nine patients underwent histopathological examination, of whom 18 (18.64%) were positive for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Eighteen patients were lost to follow-up; the remaining patients were cured. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the epidemiological situation of sporotrichosis in other areas of China, S. globosa is the primary pathogen in the Zhejiang province. The primary clinical form of sporotrichosis is fixed cutaneous. Susceptible subjects are mainly middle-aged and elderly rural populations, and males are affected more than females. Patients with cutaneous sporotrichosis do not commonly have a history of obvious trauma. Direct microscopy is important for the diagnosis of sporotrichosis, and itraconazole is a safe and effective treatment option.


Subject(s)
Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Middle Aged , Aged , Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Skin/pathology
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(3): e0011212, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36972287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous or implantation mycosis caused by some species of the genus Sporothrix. Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, experiences hyperendemic levels of zoonotic sporotrichosis, with increasing cases of disseminated disease, especially in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Involvement of the nasal mucosa is rare and occurs isolated or in disseminated cases, with a delayed resolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic profiles of 37 cases of sporotrichosis with involvement of the nasal mucosa treated at the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) outpatient clinic of the Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, from 1998 to 2020. Data were reviewed from the medical records and stored in a database. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the means of quantitative variables, and Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to verify the association between qualitative variables (p<0.05). Most patients were males, students or retirees, with a median age of 38 years, residents in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, and infected through zoonotic transmission. Disseminated sporotrichosis forms in patients with comorbidities (mostly PLHIV) were more common than the isolated involvement of the mucosa. The main characteristics of lesions in the nasal mucosa were the presence/elimination of crusts, involvement of various structures, mixed appearance, and severe intensity. Due to therapeutic difficulty, itraconazole was combined with amphotericin B and/or terbinafine in most cases. Of the 37 patients, 24 (64.9%) healed, with a median of 61 weeks of treatment, 9 lost follow-up, 2 were still treating and 2 died. CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppression was determinant to the outcome, with worse prognosis and lower probability of cure. Notably in this group, the systematization of the ENT examination for early identification of lesions is recommended to optimize the treatment and outcome of the disease.


Subject(s)
Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Male , Humans , Adult , Female , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Brazil/epidemiology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Nasal Mucosa , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
18.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0272672, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36745585

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis with a global distribution, also known as "rose gardener's disease". Brazil is experiencing a rapid spread of the zoonotic transmission of of Sporothrix brasiliensis, the main etiological agent of this disease in this country, affecting domestic felines. Cost-effective interventions need to be developed to control this emergent public health problem. To allow for the comparison of alternative control strategies, we propose in this paper, a mathematical model representing the transmission of S. brasiliensis among cats, stratified by age and sex. Analytical properties of the model are derived and simulations show possible strategies for reducing the endemic levels of the disease in the cat population, with a positive impact on human health. The scenarios included mass treatment of infected cats and mass implementation of contact reduction practices, such as neutering. The results indicate that mass treatment can reduce substantially the disease prevalence, and this effect is potentialized when combined with neutering or other contact-reduction interventions. On the other hand, contact-reduction methods alone are not sufficient to reduce prevalence.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Dermatomycoses , Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Animals , Cats , Humans , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/prevention & control , Sporotrichosis/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Models, Theoretical , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/prevention & control
20.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 31(2): 329-337, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080998

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe 120 cases of ocular sporotrichosis. METHODS: Review of medical records of patients with culture-proven (from eye specimen) ocular sporotrichosis, in Rio de Janeiro, from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS: Women were more affected (61.7%) and median age was 24 years. The isolated ocular form was more frequent (75.8%). Fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis was the most commonly associated form (48.3%). Hypersensitivity reactions were observed in 10% of patients. Ocular involvement was unilateral in 98.3% of the cases, and the most frequent clinical presentation was granulomatous conjunctivitis (86.7%), followed by eyelid lesion (25%). Dacryocystitis represented 7.5% of the cases, predominantly in children (55.6%). Itraconazole was the first choice treatment (95.8%). Sequelae were observed in 23 patients (22.5%), and surgical treatment was required for most of them. CONCLUSION: Ocular sporotrichosis can be considered a characteristic form of the zoonotic transmission, with high morbidity. Delay in initiating specific treatment is likely to increase the risk of progression to more severe forms of the disease, and development of ocular sequelae.


Subject(s)
Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis , Child , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Eyelids/pathology
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