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1.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0302427, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are extensively used in many medical schools worldwide with the stated objective to assess students' clinical skills acquired during internships. The objective of the present study was to assess the factors associated with success in university summative OSCEs, especially the impact of previous hospital internships in corresponding disciplines and supervision during internships. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study assessing the results in the summative OSCEs of 4th year medical students during the 2021-2022 academic year in a French medical school. The summative OSCEs included five stations for each student. Each student answered a survey at the end of summative OSCEs about previous internships, the supervision they had and perceived difficulty levels for each station. The scores in each station were assessed according to previous hospital internships in the corresponding discipline. Analysis of predictive factors of success in OSCEs, defined by a score ≥ 10/20 at each station, were performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Out of the 220 students participating in the summative OSCEs, 182 (83%) answered the survey. One hundred and forty-four (79%) of these students had carried out hospital internships in at least one of the disciplines evaluated during the OSCEs. Students having completed an internship in the corresponding discipline had significantly higher OSCEs scores for interrogation, communication, therapeutic education and procedure stations compared to those who had not. Previous internship in corresponding disciplines was independently associated with success in OSCEs in interrogation (OR 9.45 [1.34-66.8] p = 0.02), clinical examination (OR 6.93 [1.88-25.57] p = 0.004, and therapeutic education (OR 3.09 [1.22-7.82] p = 0.02) stations. CONCLUSION: Previous hospital internships in the discipline evaluated by the OSCEs are associated with success in summative OSCEs. This reinforces the importance of student involvement during their hospital internships.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement , Internship and Residency , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , France , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Female , Male , Educational Measurement/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 634, 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the numerous advantages of mastering biostatistics, medical students generally perceive biostatistics as a difficult and challenging subject and even experience anxiety during the courses. Evidence for the correlation between students' academic achievements and their attitudes, indicating that attitudes at the beginning of the biostatistics course may affect cognitive competence at the end of the course and subsequently influence student academic performance. However, there are current disagreements regarding the measurement and evaluation of attitudes related to statistics. Thus, there is a need for standard instruments to assess them. This study was conducted to develop a Chinese version of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS-36) in order to acquire a valid instrument to measure medical students' attitudes toward biostatistics under Chinese medical educational background. METHODS: The Chinese version SATS-36 was developed through translation and back-translation of the original scale, with subsequent revisions based on expert advice to ensure the most appropriate item content. The local adaption was performed with a cohort of 1709 Chinese-speaking medical undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in biostatistics courses. And then, the reliability, validity and discrimination of the questionnaires were evaluated through correlation coefficient calculation, factor analysis, parallel analysis and other methods. RESULTS: The Chinese version SATS-36 consisted of 36 items and loaded a five-factor structure by factor analysis, which offered an alternative similar but not equal to that original six-factor structure. The cumulative variance contribution rate was 62.20%, the Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.908, the Guttman split-half reliability coefficient was 0.905 and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.752. Discriminant analysis revealed small to large significant differences in the five attitude subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese version SATS-36 with good validity and reliability in this study can be used to evaluate the learning framework of Chinese medical students.


Subject(s)
Biostatistics , Students, Medical , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Female , China , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Young Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Adult , Psychometrics
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 632, 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the benefits of employing a Physical Lifelike Brain (PLB) simulator for training medical students in performing craniotomy for glioblastoma removal and decompressive craniectomy. METHODS: This prospective study included 30 medical clerks (fifth and sixth years in medical school) at a medical university. Before participating in the innovative lesson, all students had completed a standard gross anatomy course as part of their curriculum. The innovative lesson involved PLB Simulator training, after which participants completed the Learning Satisfaction/Confidence Perception Questionnaire and some received qualitative interviews. RESULTS: The average score of students' overall satisfaction with the innovative lesson was 4.71 out of a maximum of 5 (SD = 0.34). After the lesson, students' confidence perception level improved significantly (t = 9.38, p < 0.001, effect size = 1.48), and the average score improved from 2,15 (SD = 1.02) to 3.59 (SD = 0.93). 60% of the students thought that the innovative lesson extremely helped them understand the knowledge of surgical neuroanatomy more, 70% believed it extremely helped them improve their skills in burr hole, and 63% thought it was extremely helpful in improving the patient complications of craniotomy with the removal of glioblastoma and decompressive craniectomy after completing the gross anatomy course. CONCLUSION: This innovative lesson with the PLB simulator successfully improved students' craniotomy knowledge and skills.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Clinical Competence , Decompressive Craniectomy , Glioblastoma , Simulation Training , Students, Medical , Humans , Glioblastoma/surgery , Prospective Studies , Decompressive Craniectomy/education , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Female , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Craniotomy/education , Curriculum
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 630, 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stress significantly affects both the physical and emotional health of individuals, particularly students in health-related fields. Medical students in Brazil face unique challenges due to the demanding nature of their studies, especially during assessment periods, which heighten academic pressure. These pressures often lead to poor coping strategies and mental health concerns. It is crucial to understand the complex dynamics of stress within medical education to develop strategies that improve student well-being and promote a healthier academic environment. This study aims to investigate the intricate relationship between assessment periods and stress levels among medical students. It seeks to understand how academic demands and sociodemographic factors contribute to stress dynamics during these periods. METHODS: An online observational, longitudinal, and prospective study was conducted from February to October 2022. Medical students were recruited through snowball sampling and participated in surveys administered via Google Forms at two timepoints: before (T1) and during (T2) assessment periods. The surveys collected sociodemographic data and stress symptoms using Lipp's Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults (LSSI). RESULTS: The transition from T1 to T2 was defined by a rise in the prevalence of stress from 59.6 to 84.2% (p = 0.001) and a decline in symptom-free students from 40.4 to 15.8% (p = 0.001). There was a significant increase in exhaustion, from 12.3 to 31.6% (p = 0.0001). Higher stress levels were notably more prevalent among younger students (≤ 24 years), females, those from wealthier families, students without scholarships, those without prior degrees, and those in the clinical phase of their studies. However, non significant correlations were found between these sociodemographic and academic factors and the increase in stress. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight significant concerns regarding the mental health of medical students during assessment periods, marked by increased stress and exhaustion levels. These results emphasize the need for proactive interventions to manage stress effectively in medical education, considering its profound impact on students' well-being.


Subject(s)
Stress, Psychological , Students, Medical , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Female , Male , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Brazil , Young Adult , Adult , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Adaptation, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12608, 2024 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824182

ABSTRACT

Changes in dietary patterns and body weight have become a focus of research in undergraduate students. This study compared breakfast consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and BMI between medical and non-medical students. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in 4,561 Peruvian university students, of whom 1,464 (32.1%) were from the medical field and 3,097 (67.9%) from the non-medical field. We compared the frequency of breakfast consumption (categorized as regular: 6 to 7 days/week; occasional: 3 to 5 days/week; and rarely or never: 0 to 2 days/week) and the frequency of consumption of foods high in saturated fat. We created simple and multiple linear and Poisson regression models with robust variance to evaluate the association of the mentioned variables with academic fields. Non-medical students (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99; p = 0.008) were less likely to eat breakfast regularly compared to medical students. Likewise, consumption of foods high in saturated fats was higher in non-medical students (B = 1.47, 95% CI 0.91-2.04; p < 0.001) compared to medical students. Similarly, the mean BMI of these students was significantly higher than that of medical students (B = 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.53; p = 0.002). Although medical students reported relatively healthy eating habits and a lower BMI, there is a widespread need to promote improved diet and lifestyle among the entire university population to reduce the risks of communicable diseases and improve quality of life.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Breakfast , Feeding Behavior , Students, Medical , Humans , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Male , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , Adult , Students/statistics & numerical data , Dietary Fats , Fatty Acids , Adolescent , Universities , Peru
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 609, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that communication skills teaching learnt in the classroom are not often readily transferable to the assessment methods that are applied nor to the clinical environment. An observational study was conducted to objectively evaluate students' communication skills in different learning environments. The study sought to investigate the extent to which the communication skills demonstrated by students in classroom, clinical, and assessment settings align. METHOD: A mixed methods study was conducted to observe and evaluate students during the fourth year of a five-year medical program. Participants were videorecorded during structured classroom 'interactional skills' sessions, as well as clinical encounters with real patients and an OSCE station calling upon communication skills. The Calgary Cambridge Observational Guides was used to evaluate students at different settings. RESULT: This study observed 28 students and findings revealed that while in the classroom students were able to practise a broad range of communication skills, in contrast in the clinical environment, information-gathering and relationship-building with patients became the focus of their encounters with patients. In the OSCEs, limited time and high-pressure scenarios caused the students to rush to complete the task which focussed solely on information-gathering and/or explanation, diminishing opportunity for rapport-building with the patient. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate a poor alignment that can develop between the skills practiced across learning environments. Further research is needed to investigate the development and application of students' skills over the long term to understand supports for and barriers to effective teaching and learning of communication skills in different learning environments.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence , Communication , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Educational Measurement , Humans , Clinical Competence/standards , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Students, Medical , Teaching , Male , Female , Physician-Patient Relations
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 627, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries face a disproportionate impact of sexual health problems compared to high-income countries. To address this situation proper interpersonal communication skills are essential for clinician to gather necessary information during medical history-taking related to sexual health. This study aimed to evaluate the interrater reliability of ratings on sexual health-related interpersonal communication and medical history-taking between SPs and trained HCP faculty for health care professional students. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional comparative study to evaluate the interrater reliability of ratings for sexual health-related interpersonal communication and medical history-taking. The data were collected from medical and nursing students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, who interviewed 12 Standardized Patients (SPs) presenting with sexual health issues. The video-recorded interviews rated by SPs, were compared to the one rated by 5 trained Health Care Professional (HCP) faculty members. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated using percent agreement (PA) and kappa statistics (κ). RESULTS: A total of 412 students (mean age 24) were enrolled in the study to conduct interviews with two SPs presenting with sexual health concerns. For interpersonal communication (IC), the overall median agreement between raters was slight (κ2 0.0095; PA 48.9%) while the overall median agreement for medical sexual history-taking was deemed fair (κ2 0.139; PA 75.02%). CONCLUSION: The use of SPs for training and evaluating medical and nursing students in Tanzania is feasible only if they undergo proper training and have sufficient time for practice sessions, along with providing feedback to the students.


Subject(s)
Communication , Medical History Taking , Sexual Health , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tanzania , Medical History Taking/standards , Male , Female , Reproducibility of Results , Sexual Health/education , Young Adult , Clinical Competence/standards , Adult , Students, Medical , Observer Variation , Patient Simulation , Students, Nursing
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 624, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of mental health problems among medical graduate students is much higher than among students of other disciplines. This can have adverse consequences for the medical students themselves as well as their future patients. This study aims to understand the pressures faced by Chinese medical students and the current status of mental health education. It also propose recommendations for the current situation and prospects for the future. METHOD: The authors conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 22 master's students from five medical schools during November 2023. All interview sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcriptions were analyzed using the Colaizzi's seven-step method. RESULT: Three main themes were extracted from the students' statements: sources of psychological stress, ways to cope with stress, and perspectives on mental health education. The study showed that current mental health education in China is mostly in the form of printed mental health education manuals and mental health lectures, and there is no active tiered intervention for students at different levels. It is suggested that reforms should be made to shift to a model where the school proactively identifies problems and intervenes based on feedback. CONCLUSION: This study reveals the widespread psychological stress and shortcomings in current education methods. To address these challenges, institutions should develop tailored interventions, including tiered support systems, open dialogue promotion, and resilience training. Future research should focus on evaluating innovative interventions' effectiveness, ultimately fostering a supportive environment that enhances students' success and contributes to a healthier healthcare workforce.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Qualitative Research , Stress, Psychological , Students, Medical , Humans , China , Students, Medical/psychology , Male , Female , Adult , Interviews as Topic , Mental Health , Education, Medical, Graduate , Coping Skills , East Asian People
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 622, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical reasoning (CR) is a crucial ability that can prevent errors in patient care. Despite its important role, CR is often not taught explicitly and, even when it is taught, typically not all aspects of this ability are addressed in health professions education. Recent research has shown the need for explicit teaching of CR for both students and teachers. To further develop the teaching and learning of CR we need to improve the understanding of students' and teachers' needs regarding content as well as teaching and assessment methods for a student and trainer CR curriculum. METHODS: Parallel mixed-methods design that used web-surveys and semi-structured interviews to gather data from both students (nsurvey = 100; ninterviews = 13) and teachers (nsurvey = 112; ninterviews = 28). The interviews and surveys contained similar questions to allow for triangulation of the results. This study was conducted as part of the EU-funded project DID-ACT ( https://did-act.eu ). RESULTS: Both the surveys and interview data emphasized the need for content in a clinical reasoning (CR) curriculum such as "gathering, interpreting and synthesizing patient information", "generating differential diagnoses", "developing a diagnostic and a treatment plan" and "collaborative and interprofessional aspects of CR". There was high agreement that case-based learning and simulations are most useful for teaching CR. Clinical and oral examinations were favored for the assessment of CR. The preferred format for a train-the-trainer (TTT)-course was blended learning. There was also some agreement between the survey and interview participants regarding contents of a TTT-course (e.g. teaching and assessment methods for CR). The interviewees placed special importance on interprofessional aspects also for the TTT-course. CONCLUSIONS: We found some consensus on needed content, teaching and assessment methods for a student and TTT-course in CR. Future research could investigate the effects of CR curricula on desired outcomes, such as patient care.


Subject(s)
Clinical Reasoning , Curriculum , Humans , Students, Medical , Male , Female , Teaching , Faculty, Medical , Clinical Competence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Needs Assessment
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 619, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840140

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIM: Radiological imaging is crucial in modern clinical practice and requires thorough and early training. An understanding of cross-sectional imaging is essential for effective interpretation of such imaging. This study examines the extent to which completing an undergraduate ultrasound course has positive effects on the development of visual-spatial ability, knowledge of anatomical spatial relationships, understanding of radiological cross-sectional images, and theoretical ultrasound competencies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted at a medical school with 3rd year medical students as part of a voluntary extracurricular ultrasound course. The participants completed evaluations (7-level Likert response formats and dichotomous questions "yes/no") and theoretical tests at two time points (T1 = pre course; T2 = post course) to measure their subjective and objective cross-sectional imaging skills competencies. A questionnaire on baseline values and previous experience identified potential influencing factors. RESULTS: A total of 141 participants were included in the study. Most participants had no previous general knowledge of ultrasound diagnostics (83%), had not yet performed a practical ultrasound examination (87%), and had not attended any courses on sonography (95%). Significant subjective and objective improvements in competencies were observed after the course, particularly in the subjective sub-area of "knowledge of anatomical spatial relationships" (p = 0.009). Similarly, participants showed improvements in the objective sub-areas of "theoretical ultrasound competencies" (p < 0.001), "radiological cross-section understanding and knowledge of anatomical spatial relationships in the abdomen" (p < 0.001), "visual-spatial ability in radiological cross-section images" (p < 0.001), and "visual-spatial ability" (p = 0.020). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound training courses can enhance the development of visual-spatial ability, knowledge of anatomical spatial relationships, radiological cross-sectional image understanding, and theoretical ultrasound competencies. Due to the reciprocal positive effects of the training, students should receive radiology training at an early stage of their studies to benefit as early as possible from the improved skills, particularly in the disciplines of anatomy and radiology.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Ultrasonography , Humans , Prospective Studies , Male , Female , Educational Measurement , Young Adult , Adult , Curriculum
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 623, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Final year medical students and postgraduate doctors regularly contend with feelings of under-preparedness when transitioning into new areas of clinical practice. This lack of confidence is most evident in the context of on-call work which frequently requires sound clinical prioritisation, rigorous decision making and the management of acutely unwell patients, often with reduced senior support and staffing. This has prompted the emergence of on-call simulation which seeks to enhance participant confidence in performing on-call tasks and facilitate the development of key clinical and non-technical skills. This narrative review examined the use of on-call simulation in medical student and newly qualified doctor cohorts, its effectiveness in achieving its stated outcomes and to identify novel areas for the development of existing models. METHOD: A search strategy was developed in conjunction with a specialist medical librarian. OVID Medline and Embase searches identified articles related to the use and design of on-call simulation in medical education with no restrictions placed upon date or language of publication. Key findings from articles were summarised to develop comprehensive themes for discussion. RESULTS: Twenty Three unique publications were reviewed which unanimously reported that on-call simulation had a positive effect on self-reported participant confidence in performing on-call roles. Furthermore the value on-call simulation when used as an induction activity was also evident. However, there was limited evidence around improved patient and performance outcomes following simulation. It also remains resource intensive as an educational tool and there is a distinct absence of interprofessional education in current models. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that on-call simulation must adopt an interprofessional educational approach, incorporating other clinical roles. Further studies are needed to characterise the impact on patient outcomes. It remains highly useful as a confidence-boosting induction activity, particularly in specialities where clinical exposure is limited. Virtual and tabletop simulation formats, could potentially address the resource burden of manikin-based models, particularly with ever growing demands on medical educators and the expansion of training posts.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence , Simulation Training , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , After-Hours Care
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 620, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Collective decision-making by grading committees has been proposed as a strategy to improve the fairness and consistency of grading and summative assessment compared to individual evaluations. In the 2020-2021 academic year, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis (WUSM) instituted grading committees in the assessment of third-year medical students on core clerkships, including the Internal Medicine clerkship. We explored how frontline assessors perceive the role of grading committees in the Internal Medicine core clerkship at WUSM and sought to identify challenges that could be addressed in assessor development initiatives. METHODS: We conducted four semi-structured focus group interviews with resident (n = 6) and faculty (n = 17) volunteers from inpatient and outpatient Internal Medicine clerkship rotations. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants felt that the transition to a grading committee had benefits and drawbacks for both assessors and students. Grading committees were thought to improve grading fairness and reduce pressure on assessors. However, some participants perceived a loss of responsibility in students' grading. Furthermore, assessors recognized persistent challenges in communicating students' performance via assessment forms and misunderstandings about the new grading process. Interviewees identified a need for more training in formal assessment; however, there was no universally preferred training modality. CONCLUSIONS: Frontline assessors view the switch from individual graders to a grading committee as beneficial due to a perceived reduction of bias and improvement in grading fairness; however, they report ongoing challenges in the utilization of assessment tools and incomplete understanding of the grading and assessment process.


Subject(s)
Clinical Clerkship , Educational Measurement , Focus Groups , Students, Medical , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Internal Medicine/education , Clinical Competence/standards , Female , Male , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/standards , Faculty, Medical , Attitude of Health Personnel
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 626, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Education is urgently needed to equip medical students with knowledge, values and skills to promote planetary health. However, the current literature offers little insight into evidence-based approaches and best practices. In response to this pressing need, a novel serious game was introduced into the medical curriculum at Erasmus Medical Center in 2023. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students after they had played a serious game that addresses climate change and health. METHODS: In accordance with a mixed-methods design, quantitative data were collected using pre- and post-intervention surveys. Differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Focus group discussions were held after the game and thematically analysed. RESULTS: One hundred forty-five students (38.6% of the entire cohort) played the game, of which 59 students completed the pre- and post-intervention surveys. After the game, self-reported knowledge increased. Regarding objective knowledge, an increase in the proportion of students who answered one of the two questions correctly was observed, while the proportion of correct responses decreased for the other question. Student's responses to two out of five attitude questions were significantly more positive. The proportion of students who recognized the importance of climate change education, to inform patients and society about the health impacts of climate change, increased. Moreover, survey results indicated a significant increase in climate worry subsequent to the game. Eleven students participated in the focus group discussions. Thematic analysis highlighted participants' reflections on the roles and responsibilities in climate change and health, along with their realisation of the tools for action that climate and health co-benefits provide. Another significant aspect was the importance participants placed on learning alongside peers with diverse attitudes. Additionally, participants appreciated the tangible overview of climate change and health provided by the serious game. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel serious game addressed an important gap in the medical curriculum. The game can enable medical students to cultivate the necessary knowledge and attitudes to promote health in times of a climate crisis. The accompanying climate worry needs attention through the empowerment of students' agency to foster change.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Students, Medical , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Male , Female , Focus Groups , Curriculum , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Young Adult , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Carbon Dioxide
14.
Can Med Educ J ; 15(2): 91-92, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827898

ABSTRACT

Reflection is a skill which has the potential to enhance higher order thinking such as empathy and compassion. We aimed to study reflective writing as a means to nurture empathy among medical students. An interventional study was conducted among 73 final-year medical students using the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered anonymously before and after a clinical clerkship. Reflective writing generated strong emotional responses but did not improve Empathy Questionnaire scores. Reflective writing about patient care experiences may be useful in clinical clerkships to develop certain constructs of empathy such as perspective taking and compassion among medical students, but it may not raise empathy scores in the short term.


La réflexion est une compétence qui a le potentiel de développer la pensée de haut niveau telle que l'empathie et la compassion. Nous avons voulu étudier l'écriture réflexive comme moyen de développer l'empathie chez les étudiants en médecine. Une étude interventionnelle a été menée auprès de 73 étudiants en dernière année de médecine à l'aide du Toronto Empathy Questionnaire. Le questionnaire a été administré de manière anonyme avant et après un stage clinique. L'écriture réflexive a suscité de fortes réactions émotionnelles mais n'a pas amélioré les scores au questionnaire sur l'empathie. L'écriture réflexive sur les expériences de soins aux patients peut être utile dans les stages cliniques pour développer chez les étudiants en médecine certains concepts d'empathie tels que la compréhension du point de vue de l'autre et la compassion, sans pour autant augmenter les scores d'empathie à court terme.


Subject(s)
Empathy , Students, Medical , Writing , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Female , Male , Clinical Clerkship , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods
15.
Can Med Educ J ; 15(2): 78-82, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827901

ABSTRACT

Patient and family-centered care and patient engagement practices have strong evidence-based links with quality and safety for both patients and health care providers. Expectations for patient and family-centered care have advanced beyond hearing the patient perspective and taking patient wishes into account. A participatory approach including patients as partners in their care journey is expected, but attitudes toward patient and family-centered care remain barriers in practice. As health service organizations shift from a system-centered approach to a patient and family-centered care delivery model, black ice occurs. In this Black Ice article, we present some practical tips for medical educators to improve opportunities for medical students to develop knowledge, attitudes, and skills that support patient and family-centered care.


Le lien entre les soins axés sur le patient et la famille et l'engagement des patients d'un côté et la qualité et la sécurité des soins, tant pour les patients que pour les prestataires de services, de l'autre, a été solidement démontré. Les attentes en matière de soins axés sur le patient et la famille ont évolué et elles ne se limitent plus à recueillir le point de vue du patient et à prendre en considération ses souhaits. On préconise désormais une approche participative faisant intervenir les patients en tant que partenaires dans leur cheminement clinique. Toutefois, certaines attitudes à l'égard des soins axés sur le patient et la famille freinent la mise en pratique d'une telle démarche. Dans les organismes de services de santé, le passage d'une approche centrée sur le système à un modèle de prestation de soins axé sur le patient et la famille constitue un terrain glissant. Nous proposons ici quelques stratégies pratiques pour aider les enseignants en médecine à faciliter l'acquisition par les étudiants des connaissances, des attitudes et des habiletés qui favorisent les soins centrés sur le patient et la famille.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Patient-Centered Care , Humans , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Patient Participation/methods , Students, Medical
16.
Can Med Educ J ; 15(2): 6-13, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827909

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rural communities have poorer health compared to urban populations due partly to having lesser healthcare access. Rural placements during medical education can equip students with the knowledge and skills to work in rural communities, and, it is hoped, increase the supply of rural physicians. It is unclear how students gain knowledge of rural generalism during placements, and how this can be understood in terms of place-based and/or sociocultural educational theories. To gain insight into these questions we considered the experiences of pre-clerkship medical students who completed two mandatory four-week rural placements during their second year of medical school. Methods: Data was collected using semi-structured interviews or focus groups, followed by thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. Results: Rural placements allowed students to learn about rural generalism such as breadth of practice, and boundary issues. This occurred mainly by students interacting with rural physician faculty, with the effectiveness of precepting being key to students acquiring knowledge and skills and reporting a positive regard for the placement experience. Discussion: Our data show the central role of generalist physician preceptors in how and what students learn while participating in rural placements. Sociocultural learning theory best explains student learning, while place-based education theory helps inform the curriculum. Effective training and preparation of preceptors is likely key to positive student placement experiences.


Introduction: Les communautés rurales sont en moins bonne santé que les populations urbaines, en partie parce qu'elles ont moins accès aux soins de santé. Les stages de médecine en milieu rural peuvent permettre aux étudiants d'acquérir les connaissances et les compétences nécessaires pour travailler dans les communautés rurales et, on l'espère, augmenter le nombre de médecins y travaillent. On ne sait pas clairement comment les étudiants acquièrent des connaissances sur le généralisme rural au cours de leurs stages, et comment cela peut être compris en termes de théories éducatives socioculturelles et/ou basées sur le lieu de travail. Pour répondre à ces questions, nous avons étudié les expériences d'étudiants en médecine au pré-clinique qui ont effectué deux stages obligatoires de quatre semaines en milieu rural au cours de leur deuxième année d'études de médecine. Méthodes: Les données ont été recueillies au moyen d'entrevues semi-structurées ou de groupes de discussion, suivis d'une analyse thématique des transcriptions des entrevues. Résultats: Les stages en milieu rural ont permis aux étudiants de se familiariser avec le généralisme rural, notamment l'étendue de la pratique et les questions de limites. L'efficacité du préceptorat est essentielle pour que les étudiants acquièrent des connaissances et des compétences et qu'ils aient une expérience de stage positive. Discussion: Nos données témoignent du rôle central que jouent les médecins généralistes précepteurs quant au contenu et modes d'apprentissage des étudiants lorsqu'ils participent à des stages en milieu rural. La théorie de l'apprentissage socioculturel est celle qui explique le mieux l'apprentissage des étudiants, tandis que la théorie de la formation fondée sur le lieu contribue à orienter le programme d'études. Une formation et préparation efficace des précepteurs est probablement la clé d'une expérience de stage positive pour les étudiants.


Subject(s)
Students, Medical , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Rural Health Services , Preceptorship , Rural Population , Focus Groups , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , General Practice/education , Female , Interviews as Topic , Male , Learning
17.
Can Med Educ J ; 15(2): 83-85, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827907

ABSTRACT

The transition between pre-clerkship and clerkship can be difficult for medical students. Near-peer teaching may fill knowledge gaps within curricular clerkship orientation, leveraging recent, relatable, and up-to-date experiences from near-peers. These benefits have not been formally evaluated in the context of a clerkship orientation. We therefore created the Clerkship Primer, a near-peer teaching initiative that aimed to introduce incoming clerks to clerkship through a curricular session facilitated exclusively by senior clerkship students. Sessions had high satisfaction among students. This pilot project suggests that curricular near-peer teaching is a valuable component of clerkship orientation.


La transition entre le pré-externat et l'externat peut être difficile pour les étudiants en médecine. Un enseignement par les pairs a le potentiel de combler des lacunes dans les connaissances dans le cadre d'une orientation à l'externat, à partir d'expériences récentes et actualisées de pairs. Ces avantages n'ont pas été formellement évalués dans le contexte d'une orientation à l'externat. Nous avons donc créé le Clerkship Primer, une démarche d'enseignement par les pairs qui vise à présenter l'externat aux nouveaux externes dans le cadre d'une séance animée exclusivement par des externes séniors. Les séances ont été très appréciées par les étudiants. Ce projet pilote porte à croire qu'un enseignement par les pairs est une composante précieuse de l'orientation à l'externat.


Subject(s)
Clinical Clerkship , Curriculum , Peer Group , Students, Medical , Clinical Clerkship/methods , Humans , Pilot Projects
18.
Can Med Educ J ; 15(2): 27-33, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827908

ABSTRACT

Background: Community-based service learning (CBSL) is a core component of the Canadian medical education system. However, the unique role of community partner organizations (CPOs) in supporting CBSL remains unclear. This qualitative study evaluates the perspective of CPOs as co-educators in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods: We conducted eight semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with CPOs at a medical school in Toronto, Ontario between 2020-2021. Interviews were conducted following a pre-determined interview guide and then recorded, de-identified, and transcribed. Three reviewers independently performed an inductive thematic analysis of codes followed by a group review of discrepancies. Results: Five main findings were identified: 1) CPOs share a common interest in serving as co-educators; 2) considerable heterogeneity in the understanding of co-education exists; 3) there is an opportunity for increased partnerships between CPOs and faculty; 4) the role of co-educators is limited by curriculum structure; and 5) co-educators facilitate unique teachings of social determinants of health otherwise not available through traditional didactic teaching. Conclusions: There is an emerging, unique role for community co-educators in the undergraduate medical curriculum, supported by interest from CPOs. Its emphasis may contribute to future cohorts of medical students capable of understanding and addressing the needs of the populations they serve.


Contexte: L'apprentissage par le service communautaire (APSC) est une composante essentielle du système d'éducation médicale canadien. Cependant, le rôle unique des organismes communautaires partenaires (OCP) dans le soutien de l'APSC n'est toujours pas clair. Cette étude qualitative évalue le point de vue des OCP en tant que co-éducateurs dans le programme d'études médicales de premier cycle. Méthodes: Nous avons mené huit entrevues individuelles semi-structurées avec des OCP d'une faculté de médecine de Toronto, en Ontario, entre 2020 et 2021. Les entrevues ont été menées en suivant un guide d'entrevue prédéterminé, puis enregistrées, dépersonnalisées et transcrites. Trois examinateurs ont effectué indépendamment une analyse thématique inductive des codes, suivie d'un examen collectif des divergences. Résultats: Cinq conclusions principales ont été identifiées : 1) les OCP ont un intérêt commun à agir en tant que co-éducateurs; 2) il existe une grande hétérogénéité dans la compréhension de la co-éducation; 3) il est possible d'accroître les partenariats entre les OCP et le corps professoral; 4) le rôle des co-éducateurs est limité par la structure du curriculum médical et 5) les co-éducateurs facilitent des opportunités d'apprentissage uniques sur les déterminants sociaux de la santé qui ne sont pas disponibles dans le cadre de l'enseignement didactique traditionnel. Conclusions: Les co-éducateurs communautaires jouent un rôle novateur et unique dans le programme d'études médicales de premier cycle, soutenu par l'intérêt des OCP. L'accent mis sur ce rôle peut contribuer à former de futures cohortes d'étudiants en médecine capables de comprendre et de répondre aux besoins des populations qu'ils servent.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Qualitative Research , Humans , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Ontario , Community Health Services , Interviews as Topic , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
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