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1.
Trials ; 25(1): 264, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perinatal substance use can have significant adverse effects on maternal and child health and family stability. Few interventions are specifically designed to address this significant public health problem. The Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP) is a 3-year case management and home-visiting intervention that seeks to help birthing persons with at-risk substance use during pregnancy to achieve and maintain substance use disorder recovery and avoid exposing future children to substances prenatally. At-risk refers to a level of substance use that creates problems in the individuals' lives or puts them or their children at risk of harm either prenatally or postnatally. Although the program has consistently shown substantial pre- to post-intervention improvements in its participants, PCAP remains to be tested with a rigorous randomized controlled trial (RCT). This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial that aims to examine the effectiveness of the intervention compared to services as usual in affecting primary outcomes related to substance use and family planning. Secondary outcomes will concern connection to recovery support services and family preservation. METHODS: Using an intent-to-treat design, the study will recruit from two metro areas in Oklahoma and enroll 200 birthing individuals who are pregnant or up to 24 months postpartum with at-risk substance use during their current or most recent pregnancy. Participants will be randomly assigned, stratified by location, to receive either PCAP or services as usual for 3 years. Participants in the PCAP condition will meet with their case manager approximately biweekly over the course of the intervention period, in their local communities or in their own homes whenever possible. Case managers will assist with goal setting and provide practical assistance in support of participants' goals. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed at baseline and 12, 24, and 36 months post-baseline using the Addiction Severity Index interview and a self-administered survey. DISCUSSION: Results from this trial will help to gauge the effectiveness of PCAP in improving parent and child well-being. Results will be reviewed by federal clearinghouses on home-visiting and foster care prevention to determine the strength of evidence of effectiveness with implications for federal financing of this program model at the state level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05534568. Registered on 6/8/2022.


Subject(s)
Parenting , Substance-Related Disorders , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Humans , Case Management , Child Health , Parent-Child Relations , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
J Nurs Educ ; 63(4): 247-251, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is an evidence-based protocol for early identification and treatment for substance use. Adolescents are a high-risk group for substance use. METHOD: SBIRT simulation was conducted among nursing students (n = 79). Surveys were administered before (pretest), immediately after (posttest 1), and 3 weeks (posttest 2) after simulation. Outcome scores including attitude, role security, therapeutic commitment, knowledge, confidence, competence, readiness, and response to scenarios and cases were compared between traditional undergraduate nursing students who received educational reinforcement before the posttest 2 survey and postbaccalaureate students. RESULTS: Mean scores for attitude, role security, knowledge, confidence, competence, readiness, and scenarios or cases improved significantly after the simulation (p < .005). Traditional undergraduate and postbaccalaureate students had similar posttest 1 and posttest 2 scores. CONCLUSION: After SBIRT simulation, outcomes improved and were maintained after educational reinforcement, which could increase the success of interventions for substance use among adolescents. [J Nurs Educ. 2024;63(4):247-251.].


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , Crisis Intervention , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Referral and Consultation , Mass Screening
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(4): 548-556, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560794

ABSTRACT

Effective screening and referral practices for perinatal mental health disorders, perinatal substance use disorders (SUDs), and intimate partner violence are greatly needed to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. We conducted a randomized controlled trial from January 2021 to April 2023 comparing outcomes between Listening to Women and Pregnant and Postpartum People (LTWP), a text- and telephone-based screening and referral program, and usual care in-person screening and referral within the perinatal care setting. Participants assigned to LTWP were three times more likely to be screened compared with those assigned to usual care. Among participants completing a screen, those assigned to LTWP were 3.1 times more likely to screen positive, 4.4 times more likely to be referred to treatment, and 5.7 times more likely to attend treatment compared with those assigned to usual care. This study demonstrates that text- and telephone-based screening and referral systems may improve rates of screening, identification, and attendance to treatment for perinatal mental health disorders and perinatal SUDs compared with traditional in-person screening and referral systems. System-level changes and complementary policies and insurance payments to support adoption of effective text- and telephone-based screening and referral programs are needed.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Substance-Related Disorders , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Postpartum Period , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Telephone , Referral and Consultation
4.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1298614, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496384

ABSTRACT

Many behavior change theories have evolved over time. Originally, the first conceptions prioritized interventions based on information, such as raising awareness and transferring knowledge. Second-generation theories prioritize the development of skills and the promotion of awareness. The emergence of evidence-based techniques in the 1990s gave rise to third-generation theories such as the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory. Presently, fourth-generation trends amalgamate various components from multiple theories to implement accurate treatments, employing technology and emphasizing targeted behavior change. This paper aims to do a concise evaluation of the multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change interventions in the context of planning substance use prevention and treatment. The current area of intervention programs aimed at preventing and treating substance use may benefit from MTM, an innovative fourth-generation behavior change model. Tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs have all been the subjects of experimental, cross-sectional, and qualitative research. We have presented that additional research is required to compare MTM with knowledge-based therapies or interventions grounded in other theories. A gold standard would be the randomized controlled trials and behavioral change interventions particularly useful for this purpose. In addition, research evaluating the interventions' efficacy must be carefully planned and executed.


Subject(s)
Health Behavior , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Behavior Therapy , Counseling , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
5.
Trials ; 25(1): 174, 2024 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While research on substance using youth experiencing homelessness (YEH) is increasing, there is a dearth of information regarding effective prevention interventions for these youth. Suicide is the leading cause of death among YEH and most youth do not access services that may be available to them. Therefore, this study seeks to address this gap in the research literature with the goal to identify an effective suicide prevention intervention that can be readily adopted by communities that serve these youth. METHODS: Three hundred (N = 300) YEH with recent substance use and suicidal ideation or a recent suicide attempt will be recruited from the streets as well as a drop-in center serving YEH. After the baseline assessment, all youth will be randomly assigned to Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CTSP) + Services as Usual (SAU) (N = 150) or to SAU alone (N = 150). SAU includes outreach, advocacy, and service linkage whereas YEH who receive CTSP will also receive ten CTSP sessions and an optional nine booster sessions. Follow-up assessments will be conducted at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-baseline. Theoretically derived mediators (e.g., cognitive distortions) will be tested to shed light on mechanisms associated with change, and the moderating effects of sex, race, sexual orientation, and baseline service connection will be examined. In order to ease future dissemination of the intervention to agencies serving YEH, we will rigorously assess acceptability, feasibility, fidelity, and cost associated with the delivery of our intervention approach using a mixed-methods approach. DISCUSSION: This study adds to a very small number of clinical trials seeking to prevent lethal suicide among a very high-risk group by addressing suicidal ideation directly rather than underlying conditions. It is hypothesized that youth receiving CTSP + SAU will show greater reductions in suicidal ideation (primary outcome), substance use, and depressive symptoms (secondary outcomes) over time compared to SAU alone, as well as improved risk and protective factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05994612. Date of Registration: August 16, 2023.


Subject(s)
Ill-Housed Persons , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Suicide Prevention , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
Rev Infirm ; 73(298): 20-21, 2024 Feb.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346824

ABSTRACT

The phenomenon of chemsex, or the use of psychoactive substances in a sexual context, is increasing in communities of men who have sex with men (MSM), and carry along significant risks and consequences. No specific treatment approach has yet been established, but risk and harm reduction strategies are at the forefront. Multi-disciplinary treatment, care and support need to be based on a non-judgmental attitude, offered by trained professionals who take into account the cultural specificities of users.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders , Male , Humans , Homosexuality, Male , Harm Reduction , Sexual Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
7.
Psychosoc Interv ; 33(1): 15-27, 2024 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298214

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study analyzes whether parental strictness, which is shared by authoritative parenting (strictness and warmth) and authoritarian parenting (strictness without warmth) styles, always acts as a main protective factor against drug use and psychosocial maladjustment in children. This conclusion has already been stated in numerous classic studies, though emergent research suggests that there are benefits to parental warmth regardless of whether strictness is present or not. Method: Sample were 2,095 Spanish participants (1,227 females, 58.6%), 581 adolescent children (aged 12-18 years, 27.7%) and 1,514 adult children (72.3%). The measures were the main parenting style dimensions (warmth and strictness), drug use, and a set of indicators of psychosocial adjustment. A 4 × 2 × 4 MANOVA was applied for all outcomes with parenting style, sex, and age as independent variables. Results: Indulgent parenting (warmth without strictness) was related to less drug use than parenting without warmth (authoritarian and neglectful). Additionally, indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were related to better scores on psychosocial adjustment than authoritarian and neglectful styles, although the indulgent parenting was the only style related to the optimal scores being equal or even more effective than the authoritative style. Conclusion: Contrary to classical studies, present findings suggest that it is the parental warmth instead of the parental strictness that seems to be effective in protecting against drug use and psychosocial maladjustment.


Objetivo: En este estudio se analiza si, como asumen numerosos estudios clásicos, el componente de severidad que comparte el estilo parental autorizativo (severidad y afecto) con el estilo autoritario (severidad sin afecto) actúan siempre como el principal factor protector del consumo de drogas y el desajuste psicosocial de los hijos. Sin embargo, la investigación emergente sugiere los beneficios del afecto parental independientemente de la severidad. Método: Los participantes fueron 2,095 hijos españoles (1,227 mujeres, 58.6%), 581 adolescentes (de 12 a 18 años, 27.7%) y 1,514 adultos (72.3%). Las medidas fueron de las principales dimensiones del estilo parental (afecto y severidad), del consumo de drogas y un conjunto de indicadores del ajuste psicosocial. Se aplicó un MANOVA 4 × 2 × 4 con todos los criterios evaluados analizando el estilo parental, el sexo y la edad como variables independientes. Resultados: El estilo indulgente (afecto sin severidad) se relacionó con un menor consumo de drogas que los estilos sin afecto (autoritario y negligente). Además, los estilos indulgente y autorizativo se relacionaron con mejores puntuaciones en ajuste psicosocial, aunque el indulgente fue el único estilo relacionado con las puntuaciones óptimas siendo igual o incluso más eficaz que el estilo autorizativo. Conclusión: A diferencia de los estudios clásicos, los presentes resultados sugieren que el afecto parental, en vez de la severidad, parece ser eficaz como protección frente al consumo de drogas y el desajuste psicosocial.


Subject(s)
Longevity , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Protective Factors , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Parenting/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
8.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 159: 105578, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360332

ABSTRACT

Neuroscience has contributed to uncover the mechanisms underpinning substance use disorders (SUD). The next frontier is to leverage these mechanisms as active targets to create more effective interventions for SUD treatment and prevention. Recent large-scale cohort studies from early childhood are generating multiple levels of neuroscience-based information with the potential to inform the development and refinement of future preventive strategies. However, there are still no available well-recognized frameworks to guide the integration of these multi-level datasets into prevention interventions. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides a neuroscience-based multi-system framework that is well suited to facilitate translation of neurobiological mechanisms into behavioral domains amenable to preventative interventions. We propose a novel RDoC-based framework for prevention science and adapted the framework for the existing preventive interventions. From a systematic review of randomized controlled trials using a person-centered drug/alcohol preventive approach for adolescents, we identified 22 unique preventive interventions. By teasing apart these 22 interventions into the RDoC domains, we proposed distinct neurocognitive trajectories which have been recognized as precursors or risk factors for SUDs, to be targeted, engaged and modified for effective addiction prevention.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Neurosciences , Substance-Related Disorders , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Neurobiology
9.
Public Health Res (Southampt) ; 12(2): 1-290, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356404

ABSTRACT

Background: Whole-school interventions modify the school environment to promote health. A subset of these interventions promotes student commitment to school to prevent substance (tobacco, alcohol, other drugs) use and/or violence. A previous review identified the theory of human functioning and school organisation as a comprehensive theory of such interventions, and found evidence that these interventions reduce substance use and/or violence. Objectives: The objectives were to search for, appraise and synthesise evidence to address the following questions: (1) What whole-school interventions promoting student commitment to school to prevent substance use and/or violence have been evaluated, what intervention subtypes are apparent and how closely do these align with the theory of human functioning and school organisation? (2) What factors relating to setting, population and intervention affect implementation? (3) What are the effects on student substance use, violence and educational attainment? (4) What is the cost-effectiveness of such interventions? (5) Are intervention effects mediated by student commitment to school or moderated by setting or population? Data sources: A total of 56 information sources were searched (in January 2020), then an updated search of 48 of these was carried out (in May 2021). Reference lists were also searched and experts were contacted. Review methods: Eligible studies were process/outcome evaluations of whole-school interventions to reduce student violence or substance use among students aged 5-18 years attending schools, via actions aligning with the theory of human functioning and school organisation: modifying teaching to increase engagement, enhancing student-staff relationships, revising school policies, encouraging volunteering or increasing parental involvement. Data extraction and quality assessments used existing tools. Theory and process reports were synthesised qualitatively. Outcome and economic data were synthesised narratively; outcome data were meta-analysed. Results: Searches retrieved 63 eligible reports on 27 studies of 22 interventions. We identified four intervention subtypes focused on student participation in school-wide decisions, improving staff-student relationships, increasing engagement in learning and involving parents. The theories of change of most intervention subtypes aligned closely with the theory of human functioning and school organisation, and informed refinement of an intervention theory of change. Theories of change for interventions increasing learning engagement did not align with this theory, aiming instead to increase school commitment primarily via social skills curricula. Factors influencing the implementation included whether or not interventions were tailorable, workable and well explained. Interventions with action groups comprising staff/students, etc. and providing local data were well implemented. Implementation was also affected by whether or not schools accepted the need for change and staff had the resources for delivery. Meta-analyses suggest small, but significant, intervention effects in preventing violence victimisation and perpetration, and substance use. There was sparse and inconsistent evidence of moderation and some evidence of mediation by student commitment to school. Two economic evaluations suggested that there is the potential for the interventions to be cost-effective. Limitations: The quality of the studies was variable and the economic synthesis was limited to two studies. Conclusions: Whole-school interventions aiming to promote student commitment to school share similar theories of change and factors affecting implementation. They have the potential to contribute to preventing violence and substance use among young people. Future trials should aim to optimise intervention effectiveness by better theorisation, and assess implementation and effect moderators and mediators. Study registration: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42019154334. Funding: This award was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Public Health Research programme (NIHR award ref: 17/151/05) and is published in full in Public Health Research; Vol. 12, No. 2. See the NIHR Funding and Awards website for further award information.


Whole-school health interventions aim to modify how schools are run, to promote students' health. Some aim to promote student commitment to school to prevent the important interlinked outcomes of substance (tobacco, alcohol, other drugs) use and violence. We searched for all evaluations of such interventions. We summarised what this research said about the sorts of interventions used, how they are meant to work, what factors affect delivery, whether or not they reduce violence and substance use and whether or not they are worth the money. We found 63 reports on 27 studies of 22 interventions. We identified four subtypes of interventions. These aimed to involve students in school decisions, improve staff­student relationships, increase engagement in learning or involve parents. Most of these interventions were intended to work by making sure schools focused on student needs, or by improving relationships between staff and students, between different areas of learning or between schools and communities. This aimed to make students feel committed to school and therefore avoid violence or substance use. A few aimed to work mostly by teaching students how to avoid violence and substance use. We found that interventions were well implemented if they were tailored for each school and had good materials and support. Interventions were well delivered if they were led by action groups (comprising staff, students, etc.) or provided schools with information on students' needs. Implementation was affected by whether or not schools accepted the need for change and whether or not staff had the necessary time and money to do the work. These interventions appear to have small, but significant, intervention impacts in preventing violence and substance use among young people. There was not consistent evidence of different effects for different students. A small number of studies suggest that such interventions might show economic benefit, but this would need further research. Future research should focus on interventions that are refined to make sure that they can be well delivered.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Educational Status , Schools , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Violence/prevention & control
10.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(7): 1031-1038, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403989

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although Indian Americans constitute the second-largest immigrant group in the United States, there is a paucity of information about Indian American youth, particularly with respect to substance use risk. We examined the relationship of social factors to permissive substance use beliefs (a proxy for substance use risk since they can lead to adulthood substance use and misuse) and family functioning. METHODS: The study used structural equation modeling to examine the prevalence of permissive substance use beliefs in a sample of Indian American youth ages 12-17 (N = 223) and examined the degree to which discrimination, bicultural identity integration, and endorsement of the model minority stereotype were associated with permissive substance use beliefs. RESULTS: Findings suggest that bicultural identity integration (B = 0.267 [SE = 0.112], p = 0.01) and discrimination (B = 0.294 [SE = 0.087], p = 0.001) are positively associated with permissive substance use beliefs. Bicultural identity integration (B = 0.415 [SE = 0.090], p = 0.0001) was positively associated with family support (B= -0.329 [SE = 0.108], p = 0.002) which, in turn, was associated with less permissive substance use beliefs. In contrast, endorsement of the model minority stereotype (B = 0.351 [SE = 0.090], p = 0.001) was positively associated with family closeness (B = 0.232 [SE = 0.927], p = 0.01) which, in turn, was associated with family support and then with less permissive substance use beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination and bicultural identity integration emerged as key constructs related to substance use risk among Indian American youth. These youth could benefit from culturally appropriate prevention programming that addresses the negative impact of discrimination and its effect on permissive substance use beliefs and highlights protective factors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , Minority Groups , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Asian , Culture , Child , Family Support
11.
Sex Health ; 212024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behaviour (RSB) is a serious public health problem for adolescents. We examined whether a contingency management intervention implemented by juvenile probation officers (JPOs) targeting substance use also impacted RSB. METHODS: A total of 218 adolescents on probation were randomly assigned to contingency management or to probation as usual. RESULTS: The substance use intervention delivered by JPOs reduced rates of RSB over time (ß =-0.32, P =0.041 at 6months; ß =-0.32, P =0.036 at 9months). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents receiving a substance use intervention from JPOs demonstrated reduced/prevented RSB. Interventions targeting single risk behaviours in juvenile probation populations should measure changes in other risk behaviours . Under-resourced communities lacking clinicians might consider JPOs delivering interventions.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Sexual Behavior , Risk-Taking
12.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 36(1): 79-84, 2024 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38410844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured educational module on substance abuse prevention program among adolescents in enhancing their knowledge against substance abuse. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was employed involving 120 students (mean age: 14.3±1.03 years, 59.2% boys) from two English medium schools. Participants were exposed to a structured module on substance abuse over a month. The study assessed changes in knowledge through pretest and post-test evaluations. Statistical analyses examined improvements in scores and the relationship between class of study and post-test knowledge scores. RESULTS: The intervention significantly improved students' knowledge about substance abuse (p<0.001) across all measured domains, genders, and classes, with the exception of the 7th class. A positive correlation was found between the class of study and post-test scores (Rs=0.288, p<0.001), indicating that higher classes were associated with greater improvements in knowledge. These findings suggest that the training effectively increased awareness and understanding of substance abuse among participants. CONCLUSIONS: The substance abuse prevention program successfully enhanced adolescents' knowledge and equipped them with resilience and coping strategies, thus reducing their vulnerability to peer pressure and substance abuse. Despite the lack of significant improvement in the 7th class, the overall positive outcomes underscore the importance of implementing such educational interventions to foster healthy development and well-being among students. Further research is encouraged to explore the specific barriers to effectiveness in younger classes and to refine program content accordingly.


Subject(s)
Students , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Schools , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 8, 2024 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical transition period and is at high risk for drug/substance abuse. In Myanmar, drug use is common among adolescents and is a public health concern. There are no studies of drug abuse prevention among Myanmar adolescents. Intentions to avoid drug abuse can be a protective factor for preventing drug abuse among adolescents. This study investigated the effects of sex, parental history of drug/alcohol abuse, self-efficacy, parental marital status, and family functioning on the intention of drug abuse avoidance among Myanmar adolescents. METHODS: This is a predictive correlational study. The Biopsychosocial model was used as the theoretical framework of this study. A convenient sampling method was used to collect data from 157 students aged 13-18 years in a government school, middle school level and high school level, Pinlaung Town, Southern Shan State, Myanmar during the COVID-19 pandemic and political protests. G* power software was used to calculate the sample size. Data was collected by four self-administered questionnaires: a socio-demographic questionnaire, Thai Family Functioning Scale (TFFS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), and Intention of Drug Avoidance Scale (IDAS). Multiple linear regression was employed to analyze the data. RESULTS: Five predictors, including biological sex, parental history without drug/alcohol abuse, self-efficacy, parental marital status, and family functioning, explained 24.4% of the variance in the intention of drug abuse avoidance among Myanmar adolescents (R 2 = .244, F (5,151) = 9.738, p = .000). In addition, only three factors, family functioning (ß = .31, p < .001), biological sex (ß = -.25, p < .01), and self-efficacy (ß = .16, p < .05) statistically and significantly predicted the intention of drug abuse avoidance among Myanmar adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Family functioning, female gender, and self-efficacy predicted the intention of drug abuse avoidance among Myanmar adolescents in Pinlaung Township, Southern Shan State, Myanmar. IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY: The results of this study have implications for all stakeholders through research, education, practice, and policymaking leading to improve the intentions of drug abuse avoidance among Myanmar adolescents. Furthermore, the results of this study specifically contribute to create psychoeducational intervention programs for increasing intention to avoid substance use by promoting family functioning and self-efficacy of adolescents. This is especially proper for male adolescents who have less intention to avoid substance use.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Intention , Myanmar , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e080160, 2024 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Among people experiencing severe and multiple disadvantage (SMD), poor oral health is common and linked to smoking, substance use and high sugar intake. Studies have explored interventions addressing oral health and related behaviours; however, factors related to the implementation of these interventions remain unclear. This mixed-methods systematic review aimed to synthesise evidence on the implementation and sustainability of interventions to improve oral health and related health behaviours among adults experiencing SMD. METHODS: Bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EBSCO, Scopus) and grey literature were searched from inception to February 2023. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and extracted independently by two researchers. Quality appraisal was undertaken, and results were synthesised using narrative and thematic analyses. RESULTS: Seventeen papers were included (published between 1995 and 2022). Studies were mostly of moderate quality and included views from SMD groups and service providers. From the qualitative synthesis, most findings were related to aspects such as trust, resources and motivation levels of SMD groups and service providers. None of the studies reported on diet and none included repeated offending (one of the aspects of SMD). From the quantitative synthesis, no difference was observed in programme attendance between the interventions and usual care, although there was some indication of sustained improvements in participation in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: This review provides some evidence that trust, adequate resources and motivation levels are potentially important in implementing interventions to improve oral health and substance use among SMD groups. Further research is needed from high quality studies and focusing on diet in this population. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020202416.


Subject(s)
Oral Health , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Humans , Diet , Health Promotion/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Health Behavior
15.
Res Nurs Health ; 47(2): 234-241, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281085

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a culturally based intervention, the Intertribal Talking Circle program, compared to a standard alcohol and drug abuse education, the Be A Winner program. Community-based participatory research was used to implement a two-condition, quasi-experimental study. The sample included 540 Native American youth ages 10-12 years old from three tribal areas in the United States. Data were collected at baseline, 6 and 12-months post-intervention for both the intervention and control groups using demographic, cultural identity, alcohol use, and drug use questionnaires. Regression models evaluated participants' improvement in decreasing alcohol and drug use and increasing cultural identity. Findings revealed that alcohol and drug use decreased more significantly among youth who participated in the Intertribal Talking Circle (ITC) intervention program than youth who participated in a standard alcohol and drug abuse education Be A Winner (BAW) program. Cultural identity also increased more significantly among participants who completed the Talking Circle intervention program. Native American youth ages 10-12 years old respond positively to a culturally based intervention for the reduction of alcohol and drug use. The findings highlight the importance of cultural values and identity and their significance in preventing and reducing alcohol and drug use among Native American youth.


Subject(s)
American Indian or Alaska Native , Substance-Related Disorders , Child , Humans , Health Education , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Culturally Competent Care
16.
Prev Sci ; 25(2): 245-255, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37099212

ABSTRACT

A primary community prevention approach in Iceland was associated with strong reductions of substance use in adolescents. Two years into the implementation of this prevention model in Chile, the aim of this study was to assess changes in the prevalence of adolescent alcohol and cannabis use and to discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the substance use outcomes. In 2018, six municipalities in Greater Santiago, Chile, implemented the Icelandic prevention model, including structured assessments of prevalence and risk factors of substance use in tenth grade high school students every 2 years. The survey allows municipalities and schools to work on prevention with prevalence data from their own community. The survey was modified from an on-site paper format in 2018 to an on-line digital format in a shortened version in 2020. Comparisons between the cross-sectional surveys in the years 2018 and 2020 were performed with multilevel logistic regressions. Totally, 7538 participants were surveyed in 2018 and 5528 in 2020, nested in 125 schools from the six municipalities. Lifetime alcohol use decreased from 79.8% in 2018 to 70.0% in 2020 (X2 = 139.3, p < 0.01), past-month alcohol use decreased from 45.5 to 33.4% (X2 = 171.2, p < 0.01), and lifetime cannabis use decrease from 27.9 to 18.8% (X2 = 127.4, p < 0.01). Several risk factors improved between 2018 and 2020: staying out of home after 10 p.m. (X2 = 105.6, p < 0.01), alcohol use in friends (X2 = 31.8, p < 0.01), drunkenness in friends (X2 = 251.4, p < 0.01), and cannabis use in friends (X2 = 217.7, p < 0.01). However, other factors deteriorated in 2020: perceived parenting (X2 = 63.8, p < 0.01), depression and anxiety symptoms (X2 = 23.5, p < 0.01), and low parental rejection of alcohol use (X2 = 24.9, p < 0.01). The interaction between alcohol use in friends and year was significant for lifetime alcohol use (ß = 0.29, p < 0.01) and past-month alcohol use (ß = 0.24, p < 0.01), and the interaction between depression and anxiety symptoms and year was significant for lifetime alcohol use (ß = 0.34, p < 0.01), past-month alcohol use (ß = 0.33, p < 0.01), and lifetime cannabis use (ß = 0.26, p = 0.016). The decrease of substance use prevalence in adolescents was attributable at least in part to a reduction of alcohol use in friends. This could be related to social distancing policies, curfews, and homeschooling during the pandemic in Chile that implied less physical interactions between adolescents. The increase of depression and anxiety symptoms may also be related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The factors rather attributable to the prevention intervention did not show substantial changes (i.e., sports activities, parenting, and extracurricular activities).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
17.
Child Abuse Negl ; 148: 106198, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37117069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rich cultural and traditional practices make interpersonal relationships vital for American Indian (AI) youth. Social relations and multigenerational networks (i.e., peer, family, kinship, and community) remain a salient fixture of AI culture, survival and thriving in reservation communities. Research in other populations has demonstrated how social networks impact youth risk and resilience, but data are lacking on AI adolescent networks. Intergenerational trauma from settler colonialism leads some AI youth to early initiation of substance use and subsequent substance misuse, along with disproportionately high risk for suicide and vulnerability to witnessing and experiencing violence. Using network data to develop prevention strategies among this population is a promising new avenue of research. In this study protocol paper, we describe the rationale and methodology of an exploratory study to be conducted with American Indian 9th and 10th graders at three schools on a Northern Plains reservation. METHODS: This mixed methods study will collect quantitative social network surveys (N = 300) and qualitative interviews (n = 30). The study will examine the extent to which existing social network theories and data metrics adequately characterize AI youth networks or how they may need to be expanded for this population. Associations of network characteristics with risk and protective factors for substance use, exposure to violence, and suicide will also be examined. DISCUSSION: This innovative methodological approach holds promise for informing the development of effective preventive approaches to address co-occurring risks for substance use, violence and suicide among AI adolescents. Understanding processes that impact social networks among AI adolescents can promote culturally resonant social relationships that may support better outcomes for youth.


Subject(s)
American Indian or Alaska Native , Culture , Social Support , Adolescent , Humans , American Indian or Alaska Native/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/ethnology , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Suicide/ethnology , Suicide/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Social Support/psychology , Residence Characteristics , Violence/ethnology , Violence/prevention & control , Violence/psychology
18.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(3): 421-424, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37897057

ABSTRACT

Objective: College students engage in high rates of risky substance use. Standard college prevention strategies focus on providing feedback about current substance use behaviors and harm reduction strategies but do not address the underlying genetically-influenced risk factors impacting these behaviors. We created an online Personalized Feedback Program (PFP) for college students that targets genetically-influenced externalizing and internalizing risk pathways and provides personalized recommendations and campus resources. College students received personalized feedback on four risk domains (Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, Extraversion, and Neuroticism). Methods: An open trial (n = 300) was conducted at a large public university in spring of 2021 to assess initial responses to the PFP and evaluate intentions related to future substance use and campus resource use. Results: 81% of students in the open trial reported they enjoyed the Personalized Feedback Program. Participants reported intending to use significantly more campus resources after completing the PFP. Among participants that drank, 39% reported they intended to decrease their alcohol consumption and 41% reported they intended to decrease the number of times they get drunk after completing the PFP; these intentions to reduce use after completing the PFP are higher than rates found in previous studies. Conclusion: Preliminary data indicate that the Personalized Feedback Program may be a complementary method to enhance current college substance use prevention programs.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Intoxication , Alcoholism , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Universities
19.
Prev Sci ; 25(2): 318-329, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37976009

ABSTRACT

Reports of deportation can create a state of chronic fear in children living in mixed-status immigrant families over their own or a loved one's potential deportation. One indicator of health disparities among youth is elevated rates of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (ATOD). Yet little is known about the effects of fear of deportation (FOD) on ATOD or what might promote resilience. We explore the associations between FOD and ATOD use, how stress mediates this relationship, and whether hope moderates the mediated pathway from FOD to ATOD. Participants were 200 first- and second-generation 7th grade Hispanic youth (49% female) assessed across three waves of data. A moderated mediation model tested the indirect effect of FOD on ATOD through stress and whether hope moderated these associations. FOD was measured by the Family Fear of Deportation Scale. Snyder's Children's Hope Scale measured hope. Stress was measured by a short version of Pediatric Psychological Stress Measure. ATOD was adapted from the Monitoring the Future project. FOD was not directly associated with ATOD use. However, this path was fully mediated by stress. Hope significantly moderated the path from FOD to stress such that a one unit increase in hope completely offset the effects of FOD on stress. Hope did not moderate the path from stress to ATOD use. Interventions that increase awareness of deportation trauma, alleviate stress, and promote hope may help prevent, delay initiation into, and/or decrease ATOD among Hispanic first- and second-generation youth.


Subject(s)
Deportation , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Fear , Hispanic or Latino , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
20.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 43(1): 325-342, 2024 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963493

ABSTRACT

ISSUES: Project Stop, a real-time monitoring program for pseudoephedrine-containing medicines, was initiated in 2005 by the Pharmacy Guild of Australia in collaboration with police in the state of Queensland. The program implemented an online database to record pseudoephedrine purchases (and attempted purchases) to prevent large-scale diversion to methamphetamine production. APPROACH: This narrative review aims to understand the overall impact of Project Stop, what evidence exists for this kind of intervention in Australia, and what lessons can be learned from its introduction. Systematic database searches were conducted in Embase, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar, with 20 relevant sources selected for inclusion. KEY FINDINGS: Project Stop successfully prevented some pseudoephedrine from being diverted from pharmacies to methamphetamine production. The intervention has been most effective in jurisdictions that made the program mandatory. Project Stop was also associated with a temporary decline in clandestine laboratory seizures in Queensland, changes in methamphetamine production methods and reduced voluntary treatment admissions for methamphetamine use. Implementation was not associated with an appreciable effect on secondary indicators, such as methamphetamine production and harmful use. IMPLICATIONS: Future applications of a Project Stop model must ensure ongoing impact evaluation, assessment of its effect on individual's drug-related behaviour and combine it with policies that address drug use as a health issue. CONCLUSION: Project Stop has been narrowly successful in terms of reducing pseudoephedrine diversion and demonstrates the potential for third-party policing practices directed at the consumer level, in collaboration with healthcare practitioners, rather than only regulating precursor wholesalers.


Subject(s)
Methamphetamine , Pharmacies , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Australia , Pseudoephedrine , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
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