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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(4 (Supple-4)): S17-S28, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of ChatGPT in plastic surgery research and assess the authenticity of such contributions. METHODS: The study conducted a literature search in Sep'23 from databases like Pubmed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, and OVID Medline.The following keywords 'ChatGPT', 'chatbot', 'reconstruction', 'aesthetic' and 'plastic surgery' were used. 32 papers were included from the initial 131 results of articles. English language articles from November 2022 to July 2023 discussing ChatGPT's role in plastic and aesthetic surgery were included whereas non-English documents, irrelevant content, and non-academic sources were excluded from the study. RESULTS: The manuscripts included in the systematic review had a diverse range, including original research articles, case reports, letters to the editor, and editorials. Among the included studies, there were 9 original research articles, 1 case report, 23 letters to the editor, and 2 editorials. Most publications originated from the United States (18) and Australia (7). Analysis suggested concerns, such as inaccuracies, plagiarism, outdated knowledge, and lack of personalized advice. Various authors recommend using ChatGPT as a supplementary tool rather than a replacement for human decision-making in medicine. CONCLUSIONS: ChatGPT shows potential in plastic surgery research, concerns about inaccuracies and outdated knowledge may provide deceiving information and it always requires human input and verification.


Subject(s)
Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Social Media
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 22: eRW0710, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747887

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This work aims to review the existing use of robotics in plastic surgery. METHODS: A meticulous selection process identified 22 articles relevant to this scoping review. RESULTS: The literature on the use of robotics in plastic surgery is sparse. Nonetheless, this review highlights emerging benefits in microsurgery, breast reconstruction, and transoral surgery. CONCLUSION: This scoping review identifies critical articles reporting the emerging use of robotics in plastic surgery. While the scientific medical community has yet to extensively document its use, the available evidence suggests a promising future for robotics in this field.


Subject(s)
Robotic Surgical Procedures , Humans , Robotic Surgical Procedures/trends , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Plastic Surgery Procedures/trends , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Surgery, Plastic/trends , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Microsurgery/trends , Microsurgery/methods , Microsurgery/instrumentation , Mammaplasty/methods , Mammaplasty/trends
5.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(5S Suppl 3): S336-S339, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest an increasing trend of plastic surgeons choosing private practice after training, with up to 90% pursuing private practice without future fellowships.1 Previous data showed that 66.7% of graduates from plastic surgery residency programs chose to pursue private practice without future fellowship, while more recent studies estimate this statistic has risen close to 90%.1,2 The literature has yet to characterize the current plastic surgery workforce and changes in its composition over time. This study aims to analyze the characteristics and training of plastic surgeons in California through a comparative study with general surgeons. METHODS: Surgeon demographics were extracted from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services open database. Urban/rural classification and academic affiliation were crosslinked from the Inpatient Prospective System database and sole proprietorship status was cross-linked from the NPI Registry. Summary statistics and logistic regressions with chi-squared analysis were analyzed using STATA/MP17. RESULTS: Our analysis consisted of 3871 plastic and general surgeons in California. Compared to general surgeons, plastic surgeons were less likely to be females (P < 0.000), and more likely to be sole proprietors (P < 0.000), and affiliated with a teaching hospital (P < 0.005). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of rural-practicing plastic and general surgeons (P = 0.590). More recent plastic surgery graduates were more likely to be affiliated with an academic hospital (P < 0.0000). The composition of females significantly increased from the older graduated cohort to the most recent one. There was no significant difference in sole proprietorship and rural practice status between the oldest and youngest graduating cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Although the California plastic surgery workforce is gaining female plastic surgeons and shifting to academic institutions, significant progress in serving rural communities is yet to be made. Our study suggests that there may be a shift in the trend of plastic surgeons opting for private practice, possibly driven by a desire for more stable positions in academia. Continued improvement in diversity and training of future plastic surgeons is needed to alleviate the rural care gap.


Subject(s)
Surgery, Plastic , Humans , California , Surgery, Plastic/education , Surgery, Plastic/trends , Surgery, Plastic/statistics & numerical data , Female , Male , Private Practice/statistics & numerical data , Private Practice/trends , Career Choice , Surgeons/statistics & numerical data , Surgeons/trends , Adult , Middle Aged
9.
Lasers Med Sci ; 39(1): 110, 2024 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649644

ABSTRACT

The sample comprised 44 volunteers who had undergone some surgical procedure and were equally divided into four groups. G1 started the therapy 24 h after the surgical procedure with the device off. G2 followed the same time pattern, 24 h, but with the device turned on. G3 and G4 started therapy three days after the surgical procedure; in G3, the device was turned off, and in G4, the device remained on during therapy; each session lasted 30 min, using 660 nm (red), energy 180 J. For all groups, the therapy started with daily use for seven days and followed the interval use of three times a week until completed 21 days. The revaluation was performed after 7 and 21 days. The results found show changes in HR at rest, systolic and diastolic BP, and in peripheral oxygen saturation, which showed a significant difference in the groups that used on-therapy (p < 0.05). In the MCGILL Scale evaluation, the mean total score showed a more accentuated drop in the groups that used ILIB, (p < 0.05). ILIB may have prevented a more significant evolution of firosis levels; however, no changes were observed in the evaluation of sleep and anxiety. The application of the ILIB in patients undergoing plastic surgery was supported in terms of hemodynamics and pain; in addition, starting the ILIB application 24 h after the procedure proved to be more advantageous.


Subject(s)
Plastic Surgery Procedures , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Ilizarov Technique/instrumentation , Hemodynamics , Young Adult , Oxygen Saturation , Surgery, Plastic/methods
10.
Plast Aesthet Nurs (Phila) ; 44(2): 140-146, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639973

ABSTRACT

In this systematic review, we searched electronic databases for literature addressing physician use of chaperones during examinations of patients undergoing plastic surgery from the perspective of the patient, physician, and chaperone from inception of the database until April 2023. After screening 939 articles, we included seven studies in a systematic review. We conducted an inductive thematic analysis of four domains (physician perspective, patient perspective, chaperone perspective, and chaperone documentation). The results of the analysis showed that surgeons who are experienced, are men, or have received education related to using chaperones are more likely to provide chaperones during patient examinations for medicolegal protection and patient comfort. A small percentage of surgeons have faced accusations from patients of inappropriate behavior. Most of these incidents have occurred without a chaperone present. Patients who have long associations with a particular plastic surgery practice are less likely to want a chaperone. When physicians examine nonsensitive areas, most patients prefer having no chaperone. However, young patients and patients undergoing reconstructive procedures are more likely to request chaperones. Patients prefer having family members or friends serve as chaperones. Notably, despite the presence of a chaperone, we found that documentation of the presence of a chaperone was inadequate. Using a chaperone helps establish trust and ensure patient comfort. Further research, including qualitative studies and multinational approaches, is warranted to gain deeper insights and develop comprehensive guidelines for chaperone use that empowers both patients and health care providers.


Subject(s)
Medical Chaperones , Physician-Patient Relations , Surgeons , Surgery, Plastic , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Plast Aesthet Nurs (Phila) ; 44(2): 133-139, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639972

ABSTRACT

In the field of medical aesthetics and plastic surgery, it is not uncommon to interact with clients who never seem to be satisfied, regardless of the success of an intervention. Medical professionals may attribute this to the patient having an overly critical nature; however, this continual dissatisfaction could also be the result of a mental health disorder known as body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) that is significantly underdiagnosed and prevalent within the plastic surgery and aesthetic patient population. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), BDD is defined as, "a preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance that are not observable or appear slight to others" (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016, Table 23). Having the ability to identify the signs of BDD, utilize appropriate communication skills with individuals who may have BDD, and understand the implications of providing additional aesthetic treatments for patients who present with BDD allows aesthetic practitioners to prioritize and promote patient safety, well-being, and satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Body Dysmorphic Disorders , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , United States , Surgery, Plastic/psychology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/diagnosis , Esthetics , Patient Care
12.
Oper Orthop Traumatol ; 36(2): 125-131, 2024 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594591

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the surgical intervention is the elimination of infections, ulceration and pain caused by ingrown nails (unguis incarnatus). INDICATIONS: A surgical intervention is recommended for ingrown nails (the large toenail is most frequently affected) in stage III and higher (according to the Mozena classification) as well as in cases of nail plate defects and recurrences. CONTRAINDICATIONS: In cases where a disturbance of wound healing is expected and general contraindications for surgery. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The surgical approach incorporates a half-moon-shaped skin incision and a straight longitudinal nail incision. Both incisions extend to the bone. A wedge-shaped piece of tissue is removed and after thorough curettage and rinsing the wound is closed using transungual single-button sutures. POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: Regular changes of wound dressing, relief of the affected ray by immobilization during wound healing. An antibiotic therapy is only indicated in selected cases. RESULTS: Between 1 January 2013 and 1 January 2023 a total of 50 Emmert's plastic surgery operations (15 women and 35 men) were performed at the Klinikum Vest, Knappschaftskrankenhaus Recklinghausen. The average age of the patients was 50.6 years. The mean follow-up time was 63 months. The outcome and satisfaction of the patients were evaluated according to the self-reported foot and ankle score (SEFAS). The total point count (median value) of the evaluated SEFAS score was 44.


Subject(s)
Nails, Ingrown , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Nails, Ingrown/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Nails/surgery
14.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(4S Suppl 2): S79, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556651
15.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(4S Suppl 2): S146-S149, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Loss of vision and other ocular defects are a concern with eyelid burn sequelae. This most commonly progresses from eyelid contracture to cicatricial ectropion and lagophthalmos. When left untreated, these may lead to exposure keratitis, ulceration, infection, perforation, and loss of vision. In the case of full-thickness eyelid burns, release and grafting are required. However, there is a paucity of studies on outcomes in eyelid burn surgery treatment, despite concern for permanent ocular damage or loss of vision. The aim of the study is to describe the complication rates in burn eyelid reconstruction at a single center for 14 years. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of all patients who had sustained eyelid burns and required reconstruction between April 2009 and February 2023. Medical records were obtained from patients' charts. Collected data include demographics, medical history, type of injury, indication for surgery, procedure performed, and complications. RESULTS: A total of 14 patients and 25 eyelids underwent eyelid reconstruction of the 901 total patients with burn-related injuries requiring plastic surgery reconstruction. These patients underwent 54 eyelid surgeries with a mean follow-up time of 13.1 ± 17.1 months. Patients were 71% men and 29% women, with a mean age of 45.1 ± 15.6 years. In 53.7% (n = 29) of the cases, the simultaneous reconstruction of both the upper and lower eyelids was necessary. The reconstruction of the upper and lower eyelid alone represented a smaller percentage (25.9% and 20.4%, respectively). On average, the patients received 3.9 ± 3.5 eyelid surgeries. The overall complication rate was 53.7% (n = 29). The most common complication was ectropion (42.6%, n = 23). Other complications included eye injury (25.9%, n = 14), lagophthalmos (24.1%, n = 13), local infection (7.4%, n = 4), and graft loss (5.6%, n = 3). CONCLUSION: Periorbital burns represent a major challenge that may require complex surgical intervention. Full-thickness skin graft remains the standard of care for patients with eyelid burns. However, there is a high incidence of ectropion that may require reoperation. Further studies examining the conditions of successful eyelid burn procedures may provide guidance on when patients may benefit from eyelid reconstruction during their burn treatment.


Subject(s)
Burns , Ectropion , Lagophthalmos , Surgery, Plastic , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Ectropion/etiology , Ectropion/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Eyelids/surgery , Burns/complications , Burns/surgery
16.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(4S Suppl 2): S172-S178, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556669

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The fully synthetic skin substitute, NovoSorb Biodegradable Temporizing Matrix (BTM), may be a cost-effective alternative to the animal-derived Integra Dermal Regeneration Template (IDRT). However, the current literature insufficiently compares the two. Therefore, our study compared clinical, aesthetic, and economic outcomes in treating soft tissue wounds with IDRT, an animal-derived template, vs BTM, a fully synthetic template. METHODS: Our single-center retrospective study compared outcomes of 26 patient cases treated with BTM (57.7%) or IDRT (42.3%) during 2011-2022. RESULTS: The mean surgery time was significantly shorter in BTM cases (1.632 ± 0.571 hours) compared with IDRT cases (5.282 ± 5.102 hours, P = 0.011). Median postoperative hospital stay was notably shorter for BTM placement than IDRT placement (0.95 vs 6.60 days, P = 0.003). The median postoperative follow-up length approached a shorter duration in the BTM group (P = 0.054); however, median follow-up visits were significantly lower in the BTM group compared with the IDRT group (5 vs 14, P = 0.012). The median duration for complete wound closure was shorter for BTM (46.96 vs 118.91 days, P = 0.011). Biodegradable Temporizing Matrix demonstrated a notably lower infection rate (0.0%) compared with IDRT (36.4%, P = 0.022). Integra Dermal Regeneration Template exhibited higher wound hypertrophy rates (81.8%) than BTM (26.7%, P = 0.015). Revisionary surgeries were significantly more frequent in the BTM group (P < 0.001). Failed closure, defined as requiring one or more attempts, exhibited a significant difference, with a higher risk in the IDRT group (26.7%) compared with BTM (6.7%, P = 0.003). Biodegradable Temporizing Matrix showed a lower mean Vancouver Scar Scale adjusted fraction (0.279) compared with IDRT (0.639, P < 0.001). Biodegradable Temporizing Matrix incurred lower costs compared with IDRT but displayed a lower mean profit per square centimeter ($10.63 vs $22.53, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Economically, although the net profit per square centimeter of dermal template may favor IDRT, the ancillary benefits associated with BTM in terms of reduced hospital stay, shorter surgery times, fewer follow-up visits, and lower revisionary surgery rates contribute substantially to overall cost-effectiveness. Biodegradable Temporizing Matrix use reflects more efficient resource use and potential cost savings, aligning with broader trends in healthcare emphasizing value-based and patient-centered care.


Subject(s)
Acellular Dermis , Surgery, Plastic , Animals , Humans , Wound Healing , Retrospective Studies , Esthetics , Skin Transplantation
17.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(4S Suppl 2): S210-S217, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556676

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Current literature demonstrates a lack of racial diversity in plastic surgery media. However, to our knowledge, no study has yet examined the racial diversity of Webpage content as if from a patient-search perspective. The objective of this study is to determine if there is a racial discrepancy between the US Census, American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) statistics, and the media featuring implied patients on US plastic surgeons' Webpages from a patient-focused approach. A Google search was completed using the term "(state) plastic surgeon." The first 10 relevant Web sites were collected for each state, and homepages were analyzed. In line with previous studies, the implied patients in media were classified into 1 of 6 skin tone categories: I, ivory; II, beige; III, light brown; IV, olive; V, brown; and VI, dark brown. These correlate to Fitzpatrick phototypes; however, the Fitzpatrick scale measures skin's response to UV exposure. Skin tone was used as a guide to measure racial representation in the media, with the caveat that skin tone does not absolutely correlate to racial identity. Categories I-III were further classified as "white" and IV-VI as "nonwhite." These data were compared with the 2020 ASPS demographics report and US Census. Four thousand eighty individuals were analyzed from 504 Webpages, the majority of which were those of private practice physicians. A total of 91.62% of individuals were classified as "white" and 8.38% "nonwhite." The distribution by category was as follows: I = 265, II = 847, III = 2626, IV = 266, V = 71, and VI = 5. Using χ2 analyses, a statistically significant difference was found between the racial representation within this sample and that of the 2020 US Census nationally (P < 0.001), regionally (P < 0.001), and subregionally (P < 0.001); the 2020 ASPS Cosmetic Summary Data (P < 0.001); and the 2020 ASPS Reconstructive Summary Data (P < 0.001). This study highlights the significant difference between racial representation on plastic surgeons' Webpages and the demographics of patients they serve. Further analyses should identify the impact of these representational disparities on patient care and clinical outcomes, as well as examine how best to measure racial diversity and disparities in patient-oriented media.


Subject(s)
Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgeons , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , United States , Private Practice
18.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(4S Suppl 2): S200-S203, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) for patients with end-stage cardiac failure awaiting heart transplantation has become increasingly common. However, ventricular assist device-related infections remain a major problem complicating their long-term use. Retrospective review has previously shown a decrease in lifetime return to operating room (RTOR) with no change in 90-day complications when a muscle or omental flap is used for coverage after washout for infection. We wished to determine if early plastic surgery intervention led to a decreased length of stay for these patients. METHODS: Patients with LVAD readmitted for LVAD infection at a single institution from 2008 to 2021 were identified using a preexisting database. Patients were followed retrospectively for an average of 3.2 years. Patient demographics, preoperative diagnosis/disease state, type of ventricular assist device inserted, postoperative day of ventricular assist device infection onset, definitive device coverage, timing of coverage procedure after the initial washout for infection, type of flap used for coverage, 90-day complications after definitive coverage, and lifetime return to operating room for infection were reviewed. Comparison analysis with χ2 and analysis of variance testing was used to analyze outcomes. RESULTS: Of 568 patients admitted with an LVAD infection, 104 underwent operative debridement and closure by plastic and reconstructive surgery (PRS) or cardiothoracic surgery (CTS). Fifty-three underwent PRS closure, and 51 underwent CTS closure. There was an increased incidence of diabetes among the PRS group (P < 0.001); otherwise, there was no difference in baseline characteristics. There was increased RTOR over a lifetime with CTS closure compared with PRS (P = 0.03) and increased 90-day risk of infection (P = 0.007). Patients with PRS closure had an increased risk of postoperative hematoma (P = 046). Plastic and reconstructive surgery was typically consulted on hospital day 10. Both PRS and CTS closure patients were discharged on postoperative day 7, on average (P = 0.542). CONCLUSIONS: Plastic surgery involvement with surgical decision making and closure of infected LVAD devices has a decrease in lifetime RTOR and decreased 90-day complications related to infections. There may be a benefit to earlier PRS consultation for coverage assessment.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Heart-Assist Devices , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Heart-Assist Devices/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Operating Rooms , Prosthesis-Related Infections/etiology , Heart Failure/surgery , Heart Failure/etiology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(4S Suppl 2): S218-S222, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Plastic Surgery is one of the fields that lags behind the rest when it comes to surgeons from backgrounds underrepresented in medicine (URiM). Extensive research has shown that diversity in health care not only fosters inclusivity but also saves lives. The study aim is to quantify how many integrated plastic surgery residency programs have outlined criteria defining diversity goals and/or groups of people they consider to be URiM. METHODS: All American Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited integrated plastic surgery program Web sites were reviewed for diversity missions/statements and explicit mentions of the racial and ethnic groups. Web sites were deemed "up-to-date" if they were last updated within 6 months before the initial data collection period. The data collection period was from November 20 to 29, 2022. RESULTS: A total of 86 program were reviewed. Only 8 programs (9%) had clear URiM criteria listed on their Web sites, whereas 26 (30%) relied on institution/department-wide criteria, 1 (1%) listed that they were adhering to American Association of Medical Colleges definition of URiM, and 51 programs (60%) had no form of definition for what is considered URiM. When looking at the programs that have some form of criteria for URiM (n = 35 [40%]), all programs (100%) considered African American/Black, Native American/Alaskan Native, Hispanic/Latinx, and Pacific Islander/Native Hawaiian as groups URiM. Assessing the same subset of programs that have a form of criteria listed (n = 35 [40%]), 19 (58%) had listed other groups outside of race/ethnicity considered to be URiM for their program, and 14 (42%) programs did not. Fourteen programs (74%) considered LGBTQIA+ as a URiM group. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: There still is a great deal of heterogeneity among residency programs when it comes to identifying which medical students are URiM. Numerous plastic surgery organizations have placed diversity and inclusive excellence at the forefront of their agendas; however, it is critical that residency programs also actively align their efforts in an equitable and intentional way. This study serves to encourage residency programs to evaluate their mission toward diversity, equity, and inclusion and to spark discussion toward creating a clearer URiM definition to be consistent among all programs.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Black or African American , Education, Medical, Graduate , Ethnicity
20.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(4S Suppl 2): S245-S250, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Plastic surgery training has undergone tremendous change and transitioned through many models over the years, including independent, combined, and integrated. This study evaluates how these changes and others have affected plastic surgery applicants' demographics and academic qualifications over the last 30 years. METHODS: Data on applicant demographics and academic qualifications were extracted from multiple sources including the National Resident Matching Program, the American Association of Medical Colleges, and cross-sectional surveys of plastic surgery applicants for the years 1992, 2005, 2011, and 2022. Data were compared using pairwise χ2 goodness of fit tests. RESULTS: The sex distribution of plastic surgery applicants changed significantly over the last 30 years: whereas men predominated in 1992 (86% male vs 14% female), by 2011, the distribution was nearly equal (54% male vs 46% female in both 2011 and 2022, P < 0.001).The racial makeup of applicants also changed over time (P < 0.05). White applicants decreased from 73% in 1992 to 55% in 2011, and 53% in 2022. While there was an increase in Asian (7% to > 17% to > 20%) and other (13% to > 14% to > 21%) applicants over time, whereas the proportion of Black applicants remained stagnant (5% to > 6% to > 8%).Applicants with prior general surgery experience declined precipitously over the years: 96% in 1992, 64% in 2005, 37% in 2011, and 26% in 2022 (P < 0.001). When compared with 1992, Alpha Omega Alpha status increased significantly in 2011 (36% vs 12%, P < 0.05) but did not change considerably in 2005 (22%) and 2022 (23%). Research experience increased dramatically over the years, with the proportion of applicants with at least one publication going from 43% in 1992, to 75% in 2005, to 89% in 2011, and to 99% in 2022 (P < 0.001). Applicant interest in academic plastic surgery did not change considerably over the years at roughly ranging from 30% to 50% of applicants (P = ns). CONCLUSIONS: There has been a shift in the demographics and academic qualifications of plastic surgery applicants over the last 3 decades. Understanding this evolution is critical for reviewing and evaluating the makeup of our specialty, and enacting changes to increase representation where necessary.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Male , Female , United States , Surgery, Plastic/education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Medical, Graduate
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