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1.
J Safety Res ; 89: 269-287, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858051

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Advancements in the modern construction industry have contributed to the development of a range of technology-based interventions to improve the safety behavior of front-line construction workers. Notwithstanding the extensive research on safety behavior, there is still a paucity of research on assessing technology interventions of safety behavior to provide an overview of their strengths and limitations. The present study aims to bridge this gap in the literature and identify the main trends of research. METHOD: A systematic review and critical content analysis are adopted to capture an overview of the state of knowledge on safety behavior technologies. As a result of searching Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases in the period from Jan 2010 to Feb 2023, a total of 359 potential studies went through the systematic screening process and finally, 48 representative studies were selected followed by an assessment of the feasibility and applicability of the safety behavior technologies. RESULTS: It was found that safety behavior technology is characterized by seven technologies including virtual-reality simulation (T1), eye-tracking technology (T2), prediction modeling of safety behavior (T3), computer-based training (T4), drone/sensor-based hazard monitoring (T5), vision-based behavior monitoring (T6), and real-time positioning (T7). CONCLUSIONS: This research improves understanding of the status of safety behavior technologies and provides a critical review of their feasibility from the perspective of four assessment criteria including application, limitation, benefit, and feasibility. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The categorizations of technologies add value to the body of knowledge in terms of generic requirements for their implementation and adaptation on construction sites.


Subject(s)
Construction Industry , Feasibility Studies , Safety Management , Humans , Safety Management/methods , Occupational Health , Technology
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304688, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829914

ABSTRACT

The high-quality development of SRDI enterprises is crucial for China to overcome critical technological bottlenecks and thereby achieve technological independence and strength. However, the factors driving the high-quality development of SRDI enterprises are not isolated elements, but rather a complex system of interconnected antecedents. This study employs the TOE framework and fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) with 141 Chinese SRDI "little giant" listed companies as samples to explore how various factors contribute to their high-quality development. The findings indicate: (1) No single factor is necessary for SRDI enterprises' high-quality development. (2) It is the synergy of multiple factors, in various combinations, that drives their high-quality development. (3) Technological innovation plays a key role in these pathways; SRDI enterprises should leverage their resources and capabilities for a synergistic technology-organization-environment match, selecting the most suitable development path. The results of this study not only enrich our understanding of the factors influencing SRDI enterprises' high-quality development but also offer insights for both the enterprises and government policy-making.


Subject(s)
Fuzzy Logic , China , Humans , Technology , Inventions
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12783, 2024 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834616

ABSTRACT

The Aurignacian is the first European technocomplex assigned to Homo sapiens recognized across a wide geographic extent. Although archaeologists have identified marked chrono-cultural shifts within the Aurignacian mostly by examining the techno-typological variations of stone and osseous tools, unraveling the underlying processes driving these changes remains a significant scientific challenge. Scholars have, for instance, hypothesized that the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) super-eruption and the climatic deterioration associated with the onset of Heinrich Event 4 had a substantial impact on European foraging groups. The technological shift from the Protoaurignacian to the Early Aurignacian is regarded as an archaeological manifestation of adaptation to changing environments. However, some of the most crucial regions and stratigraphic sequences for testing these scenarios have been overlooked. In this study, we delve into the high-resolution stratigraphic sequence of Grotta di Castelcivita in southern Italy. Here, the Uluzzian is followed by three Aurignacian layers, sealed by the eruptive units of the CI. Employing a comprehensive range of quantitative methods-encompassing attribute analysis, 3D model analysis, and geometric morphometrics-we demonstrate that the key technological feature commonly associated with the Early Aurignacian developed well before the deposition of the CI tephra. Our study provides thus the first direct evidence that the volcanic super-eruption played no role in this cultural process. Furthermore, we show that local paleo-environmental proxies do not correlate with the identified patterns of cultural continuity and discontinuity. Consequently, we propose alternative research paths to explore the role of demography and regional trajectories in the development of the Upper Paleolithic.


Subject(s)
Archaeology , Italy , Humans , History, Ancient , Technology , Cultural Evolution
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(26): e2319175121, 2024 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38885385

ABSTRACT

Cumulative culture, the accumulation of modifications, innovations, and improvements over generations through social learning, is a key determinant of the behavioral diversity across Homo sapiens populations and their ability to adapt to varied ecological habitats. Generations of improvements, modifications, and lucky errors allow humans to use technologies and know-how well beyond what a single naive individual could invent independently within their lifetime. The human dependence on cumulative culture may have shaped the evolution of biological and behavioral traits in the hominin lineage, including brain size, body size, life history, sociality, subsistence, and ecological niche expansion. Yet, we do not know when, in the human career, our ancestors began to depend on cumulative culture. Here, we show that hominins likely relied on a derived form of cumulative culture by at least ~600 kya, a result in line with a growing body of existing evidence. We analyzed the complexity of stone tool manufacturing sequences over the last 3.3 My of the archaeological record. We then compare these to the achievable complexity without cumulative culture, which we estimate using nonhuman primate technologies and stone tool manufacturing experiments. We find that archaeological technologies become significantly more complex than expected in the absence of cumulative culture only after ~600 kya.


Subject(s)
Archaeology , Hominidae , Animals , Humans , Cultural Evolution , Tool Use Behavior , Biological Evolution , Fossils , Technology , History, Ancient
6.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0298453, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870238

ABSTRACT

Independent innovation emphasizes the self-reliance and control of all key links. Slack resources within an organization, especially for innovation, are the critical resources that are controllable for independent innovation. However, existing research still lacks evidence on the areas of slack innovation resources and independent innovation for deeper exploration. This research addresses this gap by providing an empirical analysis of the relationship between R&D human resource slack and firms' independent innovation. Based on the unbalanced panel data of China's listed manufacturing firms for eleven years, this research explores the effects of R&D human resource slack on firms' independent innovation, the mediating mechanism of technological diversification, and the boundary effects of top management team functional heterogeneity. The results reveal that R&D human resource slack positively affects firms' independent innovation; R&D human resource slack can promote firms' independent innovation through related technological diversification, while the mediating effect of unrelated technological diversification is not statistically significant; the top management team functional heterogeneity strengthens the positive impact of R&D human resource slack on firm independent innovation.


Subject(s)
Inventions , Humans , China , Technology , Research
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: European research policy promotes active assisted living (AAL) to alleviate costs and reach new markets. The main argument for massive investments in AAL is its potential to raise older adults' Quality of Life and enhance their freedom, autonomy, mobility, social integration, and communication. However, AAL is less widely spread in older adults' households than expected. RESEARCH AIM: We investigate how the variable "technology acceptance" is connected to socio-economic-, social, health, "personal attitude towards ageing", and "Quality of life" variables. METHOD: We conducted a study in Vienna between 2018 and 2020, questioning 245 older adults (M = 74, SD = 6.654) living in private homes. We calculated multivariate models regressing technology acceptance on the various exploratory and confounding variables. RESULTS: Experiencing an event that made the person perceive their age differently changed the attitude towards using an assistive technological system. Participants perceived technology that is directly associated with another human being (e.g., the use of technology to communicate with a physician) more positively. CONCLUSION: Older adults' attitudes towards technology may change throughout their lives. Using major events in life as potential entry points for technology requires awareness to avoid reducing the lives of older adults to these events. Secondly, a certain human preference for "human technology" may facilitate abuse if technology is given a white coat, two eyes, a nose, and a mouth that may falsely be associated with a natural person. This aspect raises the ethical issue of accurate information as a significant precondition for informed consent.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Humans , Aged , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Austria , Technology , Attitude , Assisted Living Facilities , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Aging/psychology
8.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 23(2): ar27, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805587

ABSTRACT

Mentorship has been widely recognized as an effective means to promote student learning and engagement in undergraduate research experiences. However, little work exists for understanding different mentors' perceived approaches to mentorship, including mentorship of students from backgrounds and educational trajectories not well represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Transfer students, in particular, face unique trajectories in their pursuit of research opportunities, yet few studies investigate how mentors describe their approaches to supporting these students. Using semistructured interviews, this study examines how mentors approach mentoring students from diverse backgrounds as research trainees, with an emphasis on transfer students. First, using phenomenography as an analytical approach, we identified four categories describing variations in how mentors reflected upon or accounted for the transfer student identity in their approaches. We find that research mentors vary in their understanding and exposure to the transfer student identity and may have preconceived notions of the transfer student experience. Second, we present vignettes to illustrate how mentors' approaches to the transfer student identity may relate or diverge from their general approaches to mentoring students from different backgrounds and identities. The emerging findings have implications for developing effective mentorship strategies and training mentors to support transfer students.


Subject(s)
Engineering , Mathematics , Mentoring , Mentors , Science , Students , Technology , Humans , Mathematics/education , Engineering/education , Technology/education , Science/education , Female , Male , Research/education
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2023): 20240149, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808447

ABSTRACT

Developing robust professional networks can help shape the trajectories of early career scientists. Yet, historical inequities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields make access to these networks highly variable across academic programmes, and senior academics often have little time for mentoring. Here, we illustrate the success of a virtual Laboratory Meeting Programme (LaMP). In this programme, we matched students (mentees) with a more experienced scientist (mentors) from a research group. The mentees then attended the mentors' laboratory meetings during the academic year with two laboratory meetings specifically dedicated to the mentee's professional development. Survey results indicate that mentees expanded their knowledge of the hidden curriculum as well as their professional network, while only requiring a few extra hours of their mentor's time over eight months. In addition, host laboratories benefitted from mentees sharing new perspectives and knowledge in laboratory meetings. Diversity of the mentees was significantly higher than the mentors, suggesting that the programme increased the participation of traditionally under-represented groups. Finally, we found that providing a stipend was very important to many mentees. We conclude that virtual LaMPs can be an inclusive and cost-effective way to foster trainee development and increase diversity within STEM fields with little additional time commitment.


Subject(s)
Engineering , Mentors , Science , Technology , Engineering/education , Humans , Science/education , Laboratories , Mathematics , Mentoring
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300315, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805430

ABSTRACT

The National Sustainable Development Agenda Innovation Demonstration Zones (NSDAIDZs) aim to spearhead green development through scientific and technological innovation, showcasing sustainable development to other regions in China and offering valuable insights for countries worldwide. Taking Chengde City, which is one of the cities in the second batch of NSDAIDZs, as a case study, we examine the quantitative impact of technological innovation on green development. Additionally, it investigates the threshold effect of Research and development investments (R&D investments) on the relationship between technological innovation and green development. The results indicate that: (1) technological innovation has a positive promoting effect on green development, with a 1.01% increase in green development for every one unit increase in technological innovation; (2) The positive effect of technological innovation on green development becomes fully realized only when R&D investments and the upgrading of industrial structure surpass a specific threshold value. We contribute to the existing research on the connection between technological innovation and green development in innovation demonstration zones. It also provides empirical insights to foster a mutually beneficial relationship between R&D investments, industrial structure upgrading, and technological innovation, ultimately maximizing the promoting role of technological innovation in green development.


Subject(s)
Cities , Inventions , Sustainable Development , China , Sustainable Development/trends , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Technology , Humans
11.
Dev Psychol ; 60(6): 1109-1130, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695824

ABSTRACT

Gender stereotypes about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are salient for children and adolescents and contribute to achievement-related disparities and inequalities in STEM participation. However, few studies have used a longitudinal design to examine changes in gender stereotypes across a range of STEM fields. In a large, preregistered study, we examined the developmental trajectories of two gender stereotypes (involving interest and ability) in four STEM fields across three time points within a calendar year, starting in Grades 2-8. The diverse sample included 803 students ages 7-15 years old at the start of the study (50% girls; 8.5% Asian, 6.0% Black, 25.5% Hispanic/Latinx, 43.7% White, and 16.3% other). Multilevel growth modeling was used to examine developmental trajectories in students' stereotypes for four STEM fields (math, science, computer science, and engineering) while considering both gender and grade level. We found that different STEM disciplines displayed different developmental patterns: Math ability and science interest stereotypes more strongly favored girls over the year among elementary school participants, whereas computer science stereotypes less strongly favored boys over time, and engineering stereotypes (which largely favored boys) were stable across time. The results highlight that the development of stereotypes is not the same for all STEM fields as well as the need to understand the complexity and specificity of developmental change across fields and types of stereotypes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Engineering , Mathematics , Science , Stereotyping , Technology , Humans , Female , Child , Male , Adolescent , Longitudinal Studies , Child Development/physiology , Students/psychology , Sex Factors
12.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304344, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814955

ABSTRACT

China is in a phase of high-quality development, where scientific and technological innovations are serving as the primary driving force for its development strategy. This emphasis on innovations is expected to fuel the upgrading of the industrial structure. This study investigates the role of scientific and technological innovations in industrial upgradation in China using spatial econometric analysis. Leveraging the data of 31 provinces of China from 2005 to 2022, we employed a spatial Durbin model to determine the spatial spillover effects of scientific and technological innovations on industrial upgradation. Our findings reveal the significant positive spatial spillover effects, indicating that provinces with higher levels of scientific and technological innovations tend to experience greater industrial upgradation, which in turn contributes to regional economic development. Furthermore, the findings suggest a strong spatial correlation between innovation and the upgrading of industrial structures, indicating that regional innovations have the potential to drive China's industrial upgradation. These results underscore the critical role of scientific and technological innovations in promoting industrial upgradation and regional development in China.


Subject(s)
Industrial Development , Inventions , China , Industrial Development/trends , Inventions/economics , Models, Econometric , Economic Development , Humans , Technology , Industry/economics
14.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121211, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788410

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the relationship between financial technology (fintech) and environmental efficiency across G20 countries, emphasizing the moderating effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) from 2010 to 2022. Employing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) through both Slack-Based Measure (SBM) and Epsilon-Based Measure (EBM), alongside Tobit regression and the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) for analytical rigor, the research reveals that fintech exerts a positive influence on environmental efficiency within these countries. Furthermore, it demonstrates that FDI contributes to enhancing environmental efficiency. However, when FDI is combined with fintech investments, it yields a negative impact. This detrimental effect stems from FDI's emphasis on short-term gains, rapid expansion, and a globally oriented supply chain that favors cost efficiency at the expense of sustainability. The study highlights the necessity for investments in fintech that comply with environmental standards and offers policy recommendations to improve environmental efficiency. It urges policymakers to promote environmentally sustainable investment practices within the fintech sector to aid in achieving sustainable development goals.


Subject(s)
Investments , Sustainable Development , Technology , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environment
15.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121229, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796866

ABSTRACT

China proposed establishing a carbon emission trading market in its 12th Five-Year Plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions through market mechanisms, promote the development of science and technology and help China become an environment-friendly country. To examine the impact of carbon emission trading on green technology innovation in Chinese energy enterprises, data from 1993 to 2020 were collected from 494 A-share-listed energy enterprises. Enterprises located in the pilot area of carbon emissions trading were assigned to the treatment group, while those in the non-pilot area were assigned to the control group. The propensity-score-matching method was utilized to match the treatment group with the control group, and the resulting samples were used as the actual sample data. The difference-in-differences method was then employed to assess the net impact of carbon emission trading and investigate its effect on green technology innovation in energy enterprises. This empirical study suggested that carbon emission trading has a positive impact on green technology innovation in energy enterprises, particularly state-owned ones. Larger enterprises are more willing to engage in green technological innovation than small enterprises. Furthermore, when faced with a carbon emission trading system, 'mature' companies tend to pay more attention to green technology innovation than younger enterprises do. This study puts forward policy measures for establishing a national-level carbon emission market in China in the future.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , China , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Technology , Inventions
16.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(3): 19, 2024 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748085

ABSTRACT

This study investigated people's ethical concerns of surveillance technology. By adopting the spectrum of technological utopian and dystopian narratives, how people perceive a society constructed through the compulsory use of surveillance technology was explored. This study empirically examined the anonymous online expression of attitudes toward the society-wide, compulsory adoption of a contact tracing app that affected almost every aspect of all people's everyday lives at a societal level. By applying the structural topic modeling approach to analyze comments on four Hong Kong anonymous discussion forums, topics concerning the technological utopian, dystopian, and pragmatic views on the surveillance app were discovered. The findings showed that people with a technological utopian view on this app believed that the implementation of compulsory app use can facilitate social good and maintain social order. In contrast, individuals who had a technological dystopian view expressed privacy concerns and distrust of this surveillance technology. Techno-pragmatists took a balanced approach and evaluated its implementation practically.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Mobile Applications , Privacy , Humans , Hong Kong , Contact Tracing/ethics , Contact Tracing/methods , Trust , Confidentiality , Technology/ethics , Internet , Female , Male , Adult , Narration
17.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(3): 18, 2024 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748291

ABSTRACT

This paper provides a justificatory rationale for recommending the inclusion of imagined future use cases in neurotechnology development processes, specifically for legal and policy ends. Including detailed imaginative engagement with future applications of neurotechnology can serve to connect ethical, legal, and policy issues potentially arising from the translation of brain stimulation research to the public consumer domain. Futurist scholars have for some time recommended approaches that merge creative arts with scientific development in order to theorise possible futures toward which current trends in technology development might be steered. Taking a creative, imaginative approach like this in the neurotechnology context can help move development processes beyond considerations of device functioning, safety, and compliance with existing regulation, and into an active engagement with potential future dynamics brought about by the emergence of the neurotechnology itself. Imagined scenarios can engage with potential consumer uses of devices that might come to challenge legal or policy contexts. An anticipatory, creative approach can imagine what such uses might consist in, and what they might imply. Justifying this approach also prompts a co-responsibility perspective for policymaking in technology contexts. Overall, this furnishes a mode of neurotechnology's emergence that can avoid crises of confidence in terms of ethico-legal issues, and promote policy responses balanced between knowledge, values, protected innovation potential, and regulatory safeguards.


Subject(s)
Imagination , Humans , Policy Making , Creativity , Neurosciences/legislation & jurisprudence , Neurosciences/ethics , Technology/legislation & jurisprudence , Technology/ethics
18.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300147, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753620

ABSTRACT

The proliferation of smart devices in educational settings has prompted a need to investigate their influence on learners' attitudes and language learning outcomes. Recent advancements in smart technology (ST) have ignited curiosity regarding their impact on academic eagerness (AE), (AS), and academic performance (AP) among elementary English language learners. Despite this, there remains a dearth of comprehensive discussion in this area. This study encompasses all primary language students from the academic year 2023 as its sample. A multistage sampling method was employed for sample selection. The study introduced ST as an intervention over eight 45-minute sessions spanning two months. Data collection instruments included AE assessments adapted from Fredericks et al., an AS questionnaire developed by the researchers, and an AP questionnaire designed by Pham and Taylor. Data analysis incorporated statistical tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene test, and univariate analysis of covariance. The findings yield valuable insights into the impact of ST on AE, AS, and AP, shedding light on its potential advantages and limitations in language learning. Notably, the experimental group (EG) outperformed the control group (CG). These results contribute to the growing body of knowledge concerning ST integration in education and its consequences on AP and learner attitudes. Ultimately, this research aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for enhancing language learning outcomes and experiences among elementary English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in the digital education era.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , Learning , Humans , Female , Male , Child , Language , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Technology/education , Multilingualism
19.
J Environ Manage ; 359: 121036, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718603

ABSTRACT

Researchers have shown a growing interest in investigating the environmental consequences of energy exploitation and green technologies, particularly in light of the escalating severity of climate change issues in recent times. However, these researches remain incomplete in terms of the various elements and mechanisms of impact. By assessing the novel facet of resource diversification, this study has assessed the direct and indirect effects of this feature on environmental quality. This study used the Moment quantile Regression technique to examine data from 31 OECD nations spanning the time frame of 2009-2019. The findings indicate that resource diversification has an adverse effect on environmental quality, however this effect is not homogeneously observed across all countries. Countries with favorable environmental conditions will encounter a more pronounced influence from the diversification of natural resources extraction. This study further demonstrates that expanding the variety of natural resource exploitation will amplify the negative effects of resource exploitation on environmental quality. Furthermore, the degree of environmental technology exerts a beneficial impact on environmental quality across various degrees of environmental quality. Our findings offer several insightful policies for natural resources management in the context of the ongoing industrial revolution.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Conservation of Natural Resources , Natural Resources , Technology , Environment
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299150, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758949

ABSTRACT

The capitalisation on and transfer of technological, engineering and scientific knowledge associated with empirical know-how is an important issue for the sustainability and development of manufacturing. Indeed, certain sectors of industry are facing the increasing ageing of the labour force, recruitment difficulties and high staff turnover, leading to a loss of knowledge and know-how. In a context of numerical and digital transition and the migration of processes to industry 4.0, one of major challenges manufacturers face today is their capacity to build intelligent platforms for acquiring, storing and transferring their know-how and knowledge. It is crucial to create new media and tools for staff training and development capable of capturing knowledge and reusing it to create a project history through expertise and data collection. This paper presents the methodology and guidelines for implementing electronic knowledge books (eK-Books), along with their uses. The eK-Book is a semantic web-based hypertext medium (channel) allowing stakeholders to capitalise on, structure and transfer knowledge by using concept maps, process maps, influence graphs, downloadable documents, web pages and hypermedia knowledge sheets. They are intended for engineers, expert or novice technicians, manufacturers, sector coordinators and plant managers, as well as trainers and learners. They are usable and manageable in all types of environments and with different levels of accessibility. This paper highlights (1) the transfer knowledge capacity of eK-Books and (2) their usability in two agri-food sectors namely (1) the cheese sector with protected designation of origin (PDO) and protected geographical indication (PGI), and (2) the butchery and cold meat sectors.


Subject(s)
Books , Knowledge , Humans , Engineering/education , Technology , Internet
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