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2.
Nature ; 626(7997): 45-57, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297170

ABSTRACT

The linear production and consumption of plastics today is unsustainable. It creates large amounts of unnecessary and mismanaged waste, pollution and carbon dioxide emissions, undermining global climate targets and the Sustainable Development Goals. This Perspective provides an integrated technological, economic and legal view on how to deliver a circular carbon and plastics economy that minimizes carbon dioxide emissions. Different pathways that maximize recirculation of carbon (dioxide) between plastics waste and feedstocks are outlined, including mechanical, chemical and biological recycling, and those involving the use of biomass and carbon dioxide. Four future scenarios are described, only one of which achieves sufficient greenhouse gas savings in line with global climate targets. Such a bold system change requires 50% reduction in future plastic demand, complete phase-out of fossil-derived plastics, 95% recycling rates of retrievable plastics and use of renewable energy. It is hard to overstate the challenge of achieving this goal. We therefore present a roadmap outlining the scale and timing of the economic and legal interventions that could possibly support this. Assessing the service lifespan and recoverability of plastic products, along with considerations of sufficiency and smart design, can moreover provide design principles to guide future manufacturing, use and disposal of plastics.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution , Goals , Plastics , Recycling , Sustainable Development , Biomass , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/chemistry , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Environmental Pollution/economics , Environmental Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Environmental Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Fossil Fuels , Global Warming/prevention & control , Greenhouse Gases/analysis , Plastics/chemical synthesis , Plastics/economics , Plastics/metabolism , Plastics/supply & distribution , Recycling/economics , Recycling/legislation & jurisprudence , Recycling/methods , Recycling/trends , Renewable Energy , Sustainable Development/economics , Sustainable Development/legislation & jurisprudence , Sustainable Development/trends , Technology/economics , Technology/legislation & jurisprudence , Technology/methods , Technology/trends
3.
Educ. med. super ; 37(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1528553

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La interdisciplinariedad es el resultado de la puesta en práctica de varias disciplinas, que permite afrontar el objeto de estudio de modo integral y promover el desarrollo de nuevas intervenciones para la solución de problemas. En el campo de la medicina involucra la contribución de diversas disciplinas y la participación de especialistas de diversas áreas que integra el pensamiento de diferentes profesiones o tecnologías para lograr un resultado común. Objetivos: Exponer una visión integral acerca de cómo la interdisciplinariedad ha permitido el desarrollado de la cirugía mínimamente invasiva en la especialidad de urología. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática y crítica de artículos reportados sobre la interdisciplinariedad en el campo de la cirugía mínimo invasiva, en idioma español e inglés, desde 2005 hasta 2022, en sitios Web (PubMed, SciELO, MedLine, Lilacs y Science Direct. Se referenciaron 22 artículos de los consultados. Conclusiones: Las evidencias reportadas y consultadas ofrecen una visión integral de las diversas intervenciones que certifican la interdisciplinariedad en el campo de la cirugía urológica mínimamente invasiva, que fortalece el marco curricular de la especialidad y permite alcanzar un nivel de profesionalidad significativo, evidenciado en un excelente desempeño profesional(AU)


Introduction: Interdisciplinarity results from implementing several disciplines, allowing to address the object of study comprehensively, as well as promote the development of new interventions to solve problems. In the field of medicine, it involves the contribution of various disciplines and the participation of specialists from different areas, integrating the thinking from different professions or technologies to achieve a common result. Objectives: To present a comprehensive perspective of how interdisciplinarity has allowed the development of minimally invasive surgery in the specialty of urology. Methods: A systematic and critical review was carried out with reported articles on interdisciplinarity in the field of minimally invasive surgery, in Spanish and English, from 2005 to 2022, in Web sites (PubMed, SciELO, MedLine, Lilacs and Science Direct). Twenty-two of the consulted articles were referenced. Conclusions: The reported and consulted evidence offers a comprehensive perspective of the various interventions certifying interdisciplinarity in the field of minimally invasive urologic surgery, which strengthens the curricular framework of the specialty and allows to achieve a significant level of professionalism, evidenced through excellent professional performance(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Technology/methods , Urology/education , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Knowledge , Education, Medical
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(14)2023 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37514627

ABSTRACT

A digital twin is a computer-based "virtual" representation of a complex system, updated using data from the "real" twin. Digital twins are established in product manufacturing, aviation, and infrastructure and are attracting significant attention in medicine. In medicine, digital twins hold great promise to improve prevention of cardiovascular diseases and enable personalised health care through a range of Internet of Things (IoT) devices which collect patient data in real-time. However, the promise of such new technology is often met with many technical, scientific, social, and ethical challenges that need to be overcome-if these challenges are not met, the technology is therefore less likely on balance to be adopted by stakeholders. The purpose of this work is to identify the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of digital twins in cardiovascular medicine. Using, the Non-adoption, Abandonment, Scale-up, Spread, and Sustainability (NASSS) framework, we conducted a document analysis of policy reports, industry websites, online magazines, and academic publications on digital twins in cardiovascular medicine, identifying potential facilitators and barriers to adoption. Our results show key facilitating factors for implementation: preventing cardiovascular disease, in silico simulation and experimentation, and personalised care. Key barriers to implementation included: establishing real-time data exchange, perceived specialist skills required, high demand for patient data, and ethical risks related to privacy and surveillance. Furthermore, the lack of empirical research on the attributes of digital twins by different research groups, the characteristics and behaviour of adopters, and the nature and extent of social, regulatory, economic, and political contexts in the planning and development process of these technologies is perceived as a major hindering factor to future implementation.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Technology , Humans , Technology/methods , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Empirical Research , Computer Simulation
5.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 14(2): e563, jul.-dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408544

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Al elaborar una metodología resulta importante obtener los criterios de expertos antes de su aplicación. En un periodo precedente a esta investigación se elaboró una metodología con etapas y procedimientos para el desarrollo de software educativo. Objetivo: Valorar la pertinencia de la metodología para la integración de software educativo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de las asignaturas Rehabilitación I y II de Estomatología. Método: Se realizó una investigación pedagógica en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Holguín. Para valorar la pertinencia de la metodología se aplicó el método Delphi, a partir del cual, mediante una encuesta aplicada a 17 expertos seleccionados por su alto coeficiente de competencia en la temática, se pudo llegar a un consenso sobre el tema explorado. Resultados: La aplicación del cuestionario reveló que la mayoría de los expertos consideró cada indicador de la dimensión validez como muy adecuado, solo uno evaluó el indicador etapas de la metodología como adecuado y los procedimientos de la etapa dos como bastante adecuados. Para la dimensión viabilidad casi la totalidad consideró muy adecuados los indicadores factibilidad de aplicación y posibilidad de generalización; esta última fue evaluada por un experto como adecuada. Al comparar los resultados de los siete indicadores con los puntos de corte se aprecia que los expertos en su conjunto los definen como muy adecuados. Conclusiones: La pertinencia de la metodología se constató con el criterio consensuado de los expertos, quienes consideraron muy adecuados los aspectos valorados, y realizaron aportes que permitieron perfeccionarla antes de su implementación. Sobre estas bases no fue necesaria una segunda etapa de aplicación del método(AU)


Introduction: When developing a methodology, it is important to obtain the criteria of experts before its application. In a period preceding this research, a methodology with stages and procedures was defined for the development of educational software. Objective: To assess the relevance of the methodology for the integration of educational software in the teaching-learning process of the subjects Rehabilitation I and II of Stomatology. Method: A pedagogical research was carried out at the University Of Medical Sciences Of Holguín. To assess the relevance of the methodology, the Delphi method was applied, from which, through a survey applied to 17 experts selected for their high coefficient of competence in the subject, a consensus could be reached on the explored topic. Results: The application of the questionnaire revealed that most of the experts considered each indicator of the validity dimension as very adequate; only one evaluated the indicator stages of the methodology as adequate and the procedures of stage two as quite adequate. For the feasibility dimension, almost all considered the feasibility of application and possibility of generalization indicators to be very adequate; the latter was evaluated by an expert as adequate. When comparing the results of the seven indicators with the cut-off points, it can be seen that the experts as a whole define them as very adequate. Conclusions: The relevance of the methodology was verified with the agreed criteria of the experts, who considered the aspects evaluated to be very adequate, and made contributions that allowed it to be perfected before its implementation. On these bases, a second stage of application of the method was not necessary(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Medical Informatics Applications , Delphi Technique , Peer Review, Research , Oral Medicine , Multimedia , Information Technology/standards , Technology/methods
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35957307

ABSTRACT

The recent upsurge of smart cities' applications and their building blocks in terms of the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), federated and distributed learning, big data analytics, blockchain, and edge-cloud computing has urged the design of the upcoming 6G network generation, due to their stringent requirements in terms of the quality of services (QoS), availability, and dependability to satisfy a Service-Level-Agreement (SLA) for the end users. Industries and academia have started to design 6G networks and propose the use of AI in its protocols and operations. Published papers on the topic discuss either the requirements of applications via a top-down approach or the network requirements in terms of agility, performance, and energy saving using a down-top perspective. In contrast, this paper adopts a holistic outlook, considering the applications, the middleware, the underlying technologies, and the 6G network systems towards an intelligent and integrated computing, communication, coordination, and decision-making ecosystem. In particular, we discuss the temporal evolution of the wireless network generations' development to capture the applications, middleware, and technological requirements that led to the development of the network generation systems from 1G to AI-enabled 6G and its employed self-learning models. We provide a taxonomy of the technology-enabled smart city applications' systems and present insights into those systems for the realization of a trustworthy and efficient smart city ecosystem. We propose future research directions in 6G networks for smart city applications.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Ecosystem , Cities , Technology/methods , Wireless Technology
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(16)2022 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36015829

ABSTRACT

Fifth-generation (5G) technology is anticipated to allow a slew of novel applications across a variety of industries. The wireless communication of the 5G and Beyond-5G (B5G) networks will accommodate a wide variety of services and user expectations, including intense end-user connectivity, sub-1 ms delay, and a transmission rate of 100 Gbps. Network slicing is envisioned as an appropriate technique that can meet these disparate requirements. The intrinsic qualities of a blockchain, which has lately acquired prominence, mean that it is critical for the 5G network and B5G networks. In particular, the incorporation of blockchain technology into B5G enables the network to effectively monitor and control resource utilization and sharing. Using blockchain technology, a network-slicing architecture referred to as the Blockchain Consensus Framework is introduced that allows resource providers to dynamically contract resources, especially the radio access network (RAN) schedule, to guarantee that their end-to-end services are effortlessly executed. The core of our methodology is comprehensive service procurement, which offers the fine-grained adaptive allocation of resources through a blockchain-based consensus mechanism. Our objective is to have Primary User-Secondary User (PU-SU) interactions with a variety of services, while minimizing the operation and maintenance costs of the 5G service providers. A Blockchain-Enabled Network Slicing Model (BENS), which is a learning-based algorithm, is incorporated to handle the spectrum resource allocation in a sophisticate manner. The performance and inferences of the proposed work are analyzed in detail.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Algorithms , Confidentiality , Consensus , Technology/methods
9.
Healthc Manage Forum ; 35(5): 310-317, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830436

ABSTRACT

Enhancing the use of technology in long-term care has been identified as a key part of broader efforts to strengthen the sector in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. To inform such efforts, we convened a series of citizen panels, followed by a national stakeholder dialogue with system leaders focused on reimagining the long-term care sector using technology. Key actions prioritized through the deliberations convened included: developing an innovation roadmap/agenda (including national standards and guidelines); using co-design approaches for the strengthening the long-term care sector and for technological innovation; identifying and coordinating existing innovation projects to support scale and spread; enabling rapid-learning and improvement cycles to support the development, evaluation, and implementation of new technologies; and using funding models that enable the flexibility needed for such rapid-learning cycles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long-Term Care/methods , Stakeholder Participation , Technology/methods , Canada , Humans , Long-Term Care/trends , Pandemics , Technology/trends
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216138

ABSTRACT

Additive manufacturing technologies have a lot of potential advantages for construction application, including increasing geometrical construction flexibility, reducing labor costs, and improving efficiency and safety, and they are in line with the sustainable development policy. However, the full exploitation of additive manufacturing technology for ceramic materials is currently limited. A promising solution in these ranges seems to be geopolymers reinforced by short fibers, but their application requires a better understanding of the behavior of this group of materials. The main objective of the article is to investigate the influence of the microstructure of the material on the mechanical properties of the two types of geopolymer composites (flax and carbon-reinforced) and to compare two methods of production of geopolymer composites (casting and 3D printing). As raw material for the matrix, fly ash from the Skawina coal power plant (located at: Skawina, Lesser Poland, Poland) was used. The provided research includes mechanical properties, microstructure investigations with the use of scanning electron microscope (SEM), confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscope (AFM), chemical and mineralogical (XRD-X-ray diffraction, and XRF-X-ray fluorescence), analysis of bonding in the materials (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis (NMR). The best mechanical properties were reached for the sample made by simulating 3D printing process for the composite reinforced by flax fibers (48.7 MPa for the compressive strength and 9.4 MPa for flexural strength). The FT-IR, XRF and XRD results show similar composition of all investigated materials. NMR confirms the presence of SiO4 and AlO4 tetrahedrons in a three-dimensional structure that is crucial for geopolymer structure. The microscopy observations show a better coherence of the geopolymer made in additive technology to the reinforcement and equal fiber distribution for all investigated materials. The results show the samples made by the additive technology had comparable, or better, properties with those made by a traditional casting method.


Subject(s)
Construction Materials/adverse effects , Polymers/chemistry , Carbon/chemistry , Coal/adverse effects , Coal Ash/chemistry , Industrial Waste/adverse effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Poland , Power Plants , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Technology/methods , X-Ray Diffraction/methods
11.
Pap. psicol ; 43(1): 3-11, ene./abr. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-209877

ABSTRACT

La tecnología digital ya forma parte de las prácticas relacionadas con el uso de test, y de la evaluación psicológica y educativa; la forma en quese diseñan test, se recogen datos, o los modelos para su análisis han evolucionado. Como consecuencia, nos enfrentemos a retos como la for-mación del profesional, la colaboración con otras áreas, la expansión del concepto de test, y la deliberación sobre cuestiones éticas y legales.En este entorno dinámico, la experiencia y el conocimiento relacionado con la medición en psicología nos arrogan la capacidad y oportunidadde integrar y expandir los pilares en los que se asienta las buenas prácticas relacionadas con el uso de test: fiabilidad, validez y uso ético. En es-te trabajo, repasamos el desarrollo de las tecnologías de la información y comunicación, mostrando su impacto en la evaluación psicológica yeducativa, con el objetivo de exponer el abanico de innovaciones que marcarán el desarrollo de la investigación y la práctica profesional lospróximos años.(AU)


Digital technology is already part of the practices related to test use as well as psychological and educational assessment; test design, datacollection, and psychometric models have all evolved. As a consequence, we face a number of challenges such as professional training,collaboration with other areas, expansion of the testing concept, and deliberation on ethical and legal issues. In this dynamic environment, theexperience and knowledge related to psychological measurement give us the capacity and opportunity to integrate and expand the pillars onwhich good test use practices are based: reliability, validity, and ethical use. In this paper, we review the development of the information andcommunication technologies, showing their impact on psychological and educational assessment, with the aim of exposing some innovations thatwill mark the development of research and professional practice in the coming years.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Technology/methods , Information Technology , Educational Measurement , Psychological Tests , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Reproducibility of Results , Artificial Intelligence , Psychology , Psychology, Clinical , Psychology, Social , 57970 , Psychometrics
12.
Pap. psicol ; 43(1): 21-28, ene./abr. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-209879

ABSTRACT

La evaluación ambulatoria aglutina un conjunto de métodos que permiten evaluar mediante dispositivos móviles, y en múltiples momentos temporales, el comportamiento de las personas en su entorno natural y contexto diario. Permite una evaluación más precisa, dinámica, contextual e ideográfica que los métodos clásicos, abriendo nuevos horizontes con claras implicaciones para el diagnóstico y la intervención psicológica. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una introducción a la evaluación ambulatoria. En primer lugar, se realiza una delimitación conceptual y se comentan las cuestiones que viene a solucionar y sus posibles beneficios. En segundo lugar, se exponen aspectos relacionados con la metodología, abordando los diseños, los tipos de datos y un protocolo general de evaluación. En tercer lugar, se comentan algunas de las principales limitaciones, y se exponen las aplicaciones más relevantes. Finalmente, se comentan algunas recomendaciones para la aplicación de este tipo de metodología, y se analizan los retos y perspectivas futuras.(AU)


Ambulatory assessment brings together a set of methods that make it possible to evaluate, through mobile devices, and at multiple moments in time, the behavior of people in their natural environment and daily context. It allows a more precise, dynamic, contextual, and ideographic evaluation than the classical approaches, opening new horizons with clear implications for psychological intervention. The main goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to ambulatory assessment. First, a conceptual delimitation is made and the issues to be solved are discussed, as well as their possible benefits. Second, aspects related to the methodology are exposed, addressing the designs, data types, and a general evaluation protocol. Third, some of the main limitations are discussed, and the most relevant applications are presented. Finally, some recommendations for the application of this type of methodology are discussed, and some challenges and future perspectives are analyzed.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Monitoring, Ambulatory , Ambulatory Care , 57908 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Ecological Momentary Assessment , Technology/methods , Information Technology , Behavior , Psychology/methods , Psychology, Clinical , Psychology, Social , 57970
13.
Pap. psicol ; 43(1): 36-47, ene./abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-209881

ABSTRACT

Ser un lector competente en un mundo digital requiere una base sólida de Lectura, pero también la capacidad para pensar críticamente; una tarea pendiente para muchos estudiantes españoles. Las pruebas adaptativas informatizadas y los datos de proceso (información sobre las acciones que realizan los estudiantes al responder a la prueba) son especialmente importantes cuando se evalúan competencias como la Lectura. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo el uso de la tecnología está cambiando el concepto de Lectura y las formas para evaluarlo. Esto tiene implicaciones tanto para el alumnado español como para cualquier profesional encargado de interpretar y diseñar evaluaciones educativas. El investigador debe asegurar que el uso de los datos y la tecnología sea el adecuado para los objetivos de la evaluación y sirva de forma fiable, válida y justa a las personas involucradas, pero también del usuario saber cuándo, cómo y para qué utilizar los datos.(AU)


Being a proficient reader in a digital world requires a strong reading foundation, but also the ability to think critically, which is a challenge for many students in Spain. Computerized adaptive tests and process data (information about students’ actions when responding to the test) are especially important when assessing skills such as reading. This work aims to analyze how the use of technology is changing the concept of reading and the ways to evaluate it. This has implications for Spanish students and any professional in charge of interpreting and designing educational evaluations. The researcher must ensure that the use of data and technology is adequate for the objectives of the evaluation and that it works in a reliable, valid, and fair way for the people involved, but also the user must know when, how, and for what purposes to use the data.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Educational Measurement/methods , Students , Psychological Tests , Technology/methods , Reading , Internet , Psychology , Psychology, Clinical , Psychology, Social , 57970 , Spain
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0262050, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972173

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) is emerging as a technology at the center of many political, economic, and societal debates. This paper formulates a new AI patent search strategy and applies this to provide a landscape analysis of AI innovation dynamics and technology evolution. The paper uses patent analyses, network analyses, and source path link count algorithms to examine AI spatial and temporal trends, cooperation features, cross-organization knowledge flow and technological routes. Results indicate a growing yet concentrated, non-collaborative and multi-path development and protection profile for AI patenting, with cross-organization knowledge flows based mainly on interorganizational knowledge citation links.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Patents as Topic , Algorithms , Automation/methods , Diffusion of Innovation , Humans , Intellectual Property , Inventions , Models, Organizational , Models, Statistical , Technology/methods , Technology/trends
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948324

ABSTRACT

Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation might be central to heavy ion-induced detrimental processes such as cancer promotion and progression and sustained inflammatory responses. A sensitive detection system is crucial to better understand its involvement in these processes. Therefore, a DD-tdTomato fluorescent protein-based reporter system was previously constructed with human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells expressing DD-tdTomato as a reporter under the control of a promoter containing NF-κB binding sites (HEK-pNFκB-DD-tdTomato-C8). Using this reporter cell line, NF-κB activation after exposure to different energetic heavy ions (16O, 95 MeV/n, linear energy transfer-LET 51 keV/µm; 12C, 95 MeV/n, LET 73 keV/µm; 36Ar, 95 MeV/n, LET 272 keV/µm) was quantified considering the dose and number of heavy ions hits per cell nucleus that double NF-κB-dependent DD-tdTomato expression. Approximately 44 hits of 16O ions and ≈45 hits of 12C ions per cell nucleus were required to double the NF-κB-dependent DD-tdTomato expression, whereas only ≈3 hits of 36Ar ions were sufficient. In the presence of Shield-1, a synthetic molecule that stabilizes DD-tdTomato, even a single particle hit of 36Ar ions doubled NF-κB-dependent DD-tdTomato expression. In conclusion, stabilization of the reporter protein can increase the sensitivity for NF-κB activation detection by a factor of three, allowing the detection of single particle hits' effects.


Subject(s)
Heavy Ions/adverse effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Technology/methods , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic/drug effects
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8141075, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a common glomerular disease caused by a variety of causes and is the second most common kidney disease. Guizhi is the key drug of Wulingsan in the treatment of NS. However, the action mechanism remains unclear. In this study, network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of Guizhi in treating NS. METHODS: The active components and targets of Guizhi were screened by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), Hitpick, SEA, and Swiss Target Prediction database. The targets related to NS were obtained from the DisGeNET, GeneCards, and OMIM database, and the intersected targets were obtained by Venny2.1.0. Then, active component-target network was constructed using Cytoscape software. And the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was drawn through the String database and Cytoscape software. Next, Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed by DAVID database. And overall network was constructed through Cytoscape. Finally, molecular docking was conducted using Autodock Vina. RESULTS: According to the screening criteria, a total of 8 active compounds and 317 potential targets of Guizhi were chosen. Through the online database, 2125 NS-related targets were identified, and 93 overlapping targets were obtained. In active component-target network, beta-sitosterol, sitosterol, cinnamaldehyde, and peroxyergosterol were the important active components. In PPI network, VEGFA, MAPK3, SRC, PTGS2, and MAPK8 were the core targets. GO and KEGG analyses showed that the main pathways of Guizhi in treating NS involved VEGF, Toll-like receptor, and MAPK signaling pathway. In molecular docking, the active compounds of Guizhi had good affinity with the core targets. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we preliminarily predicted the main active components, targets, and signaling pathways of Guizhi to treat NS, which could provide new ideas for further research on the protective mechanism and clinical application of Guizhi against NS.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Acrolein/analogs & derivatives , Acrolein/metabolism , Gene Ontology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Nephrotic Syndrome/metabolism , Network Pharmacology/methods , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sitosterols/metabolism , Software , Technology/methods
17.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 41: 100424, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757287

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid therapeutics are developing into precise medicines that can manipulate specific genes. However, the development of safe and effective delivery system for the target cells has remained a challenge. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have provided a revolutionary delivery system that can ensure multiple clinical translation of RNA-based candidates. In 2018, Patisiran (Onpattro) was first approved as an LNP-based siRNA drug. In 2020, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, LNPs have enabled the development of two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, Tozinameran (Comirnaty or Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine) and Elasomeran (Spikevax or COVID-19 vaccine Moderna) for conditional approval. Here, we reviewed the state-of-the-art LNP technology employed in three approved drugs (one siRNA-based and two mRNA-based drugs) and discussed the differences in their mode of action, formulation design, and biodistribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Liposomes/immunology , RNA, Small Interfering/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Humans , Nanoparticles , Technology/methods
18.
Arch Toxicol ; 95(12): 3633-3650, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657219

ABSTRACT

It has been nearly 15 years since the discovery of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). During this time, differentiation methods to targeted cells have dramatically improved, and many types of cells in the human body can be currently generated at high efficiency. In the cardiovascular field, the ability to generate human cardiomyocytes in vitro with the same genetic background as patients has provided a great opportunity to investigate human cardiovascular diseases at the cellular level to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the diseases and discover potential therapeutics. Additionally, iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes have provided a powerful platform to study drug-induced cardiotoxicity and identify patients at high risk for the cardiotoxicity; thus, accelerating personalized precision medicine. Moreover, iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes can be sources for cardiac cell therapy. Here, we review these achievements and discuss potential improvements for the future application of iPSC technology in cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Animals , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cardiotoxicity/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Humans , Technology/methods
19.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(11): 1685-1692, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645747

ABSTRACT

Reducing the quantity of wax in lipstick can improve the properties of the lipstick, including the glossiness, moisturizing capability, and longevity. However, lipsticks with less wax tend to break more easily. Therefore, to prevent breakage while reducing the wax content, we focused on the crystal structure of the wax gel and strain generated during the cooling and solidification processes as they are structural factors that affect fragility. Generally, if the crystals and strain are small, the structure is less easily broken. However, because the tip of the lipstick cools more rapidly from below than the root, the strain of the root against the tip increases owing to poor heat transmission. This creates large shrink holes in the root. While reheating from above can suppress the generation of shrink holes, it also causes the crystals to grow larger and the structure to become weak owing to slow cooling. Therefore, we adopted a rubber-molding technology generally used to form logos and complicated shapes as a strategy to mitigate these issues. This successfully reduced the strain generated inside the lipstick during the cooling process, as the rubber mold shrunk along with the lipstick, making it possible to quench the root. Therefore, we were able to realize a small crystal structure and low strain on the root of the lipstick. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to realize a lipstick with excellent features by reducing the quantity of wax.


Subject(s)
Chemical Industry/methods , Cosmetics/chemistry , Lip , Rubber , Technology/methods , Waxes/analysis , Waxes/chemistry , Chemical Phenomena , Crystallization , Gels
20.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500551

ABSTRACT

The coupling of innovative technologies has emerged as a smart alternative for the process intensification of bioactive compound extraction from plant matrices. In this regard, the development of hybridized techniques based on the low-frequency and high-power ultrasound and high-pressure technologies, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquids extraction, and gas-expanded liquids extraction, can enhance the recovery yields of phytochemicals due to their different action mechanisms. Therefore, this paper reviewed and discussed the current scenario in this field where ultrasound-related technologies are coupled with high-pressure techniques. The main findings, gaps, challenges, advances in knowledge, innovations, and future perspectives were highlighted.


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals/chemistry , Technology/methods , Animals , Plants/chemistry , Ultrasonic Waves
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