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1.
Prev. tab ; 25(4): 113-119, Oct.-Dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-229240

ABSTRACT

Introducción y objetivos. Citisina es un fármaco empleado para la cesación tabáquica recientemente comercializado en nuestro país. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la abstinencia a corto plazo y la seguridad en la práctica clínica diaria en población sana y con comorbilidades. Material y métodos . Estudio observacional, descriptivo y multicéntrico realizado en un centro de saludde Atención Primaria y dos Unidades de Tabaquismo de hospitales de tercer nivel. Se realiza una búsqueda en la base de datos de Tabaquismo para identificar pacientes fumadores tratados con citisina. Se analizan las características basales de los fumadores, la abstinencia mantenida al mes y a los 3 meses, así como el porcentaje de eventos adversos y el tipo de los mismos. Resultados. Un 81,5% de los pacientes se mantienen sin fumar durante el primer mes desde el inicio del tratamiento y un 61% a los 3 meses. En los pacientes con comorbilidades significativas, los porcentajes de abstinencia al mes y a los 3 meses son los siguientes: en EPOC 73% y 56,6% respectivamente, en enfermedad cardiovascular 63,5% y 42,1%, en enfermedad psiquiátrica 71% y 57,1%, y en neoplasias 66% y 55%. Solo un 7,7% presentaban efectos adversos al fármaco. Conclusiones. Citisina es una opción terapéutica efectiva a corto plazo y segura. (AU)


Introduction and objectives. Cytisine is a drug used for smoking cessation recently marketed in our country. The aim of this study is to analyze short-term abstinence and safety in daily clinical practice in healthy population and with comorbidities. Material and methods. Observational, descriptive and multicenter study carried out in a primary care health center and two smoking cessation units of third level hospitals. A search was performed in the Smoking database to identify smoking patients treated with cytisine. We analyzed the baseline characteristics of the smokers, the abstinence maintained at 1 and 3 months, as well as the percentage of adverse events and their type. Results. 81.5% of patients remained smoke-free during the first month after starting treatment and 61% at 3 months. In patients with significant comorbidities, the abstinence percentages at 1 month and 3 months were as follows: In COPD 73% and 56.6% respectively, in cardiovascular disease 63.5% and 42.1%, in psychiatric disease 71% and 57.1% and in neoplasms 66% and 55%. Only 7.7% presented adverse effects to the drug. Conclusions. Cytisine is an effective short-term and safe therapeutic option. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
2.
Prev. tab ; 25(4): 120-126, Oct.-Dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-229241

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. El tabaquismo es el principal factor de riesgo en salud pública y una de las causas que ocasionan una mayor carga económica para la sociedad. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es aumentar el nivel de salud de los trabajadores del Hospital de segundo nivel, disminuyendo el consumo de tabaco y, por tanto, sus consecuencias, pero también, disminuir la prevalencia del hábito tabáquico entre los trabajadores del Hospital de Huelva y reducir las circunstancias de especial riesgo, personal y a terceros, como consecuencia del consumo de tabaco. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron en nuestro estudio a todo trabajador fumador, del Área Hospitalaria, motivado para la deshabituación tabáquica y a convivientes con algún trabajador que, a petición de este, desee abandonar el hábito, puesto que esta medida a prestar necesita apoyo familiar. El periodo de estudio abarcó desde enero a diciembre de 2021. Resultados. El número de pacientes fue de 136. Al año de tratamiento se observó una tasa de abandono del tabaco del 56% de los trabajadores que lo iniciaron. La población de pacientes estudiados presentó una edad media de 41 años; el rango abarca desde los 23 a los 63 años. La distribución según sexo fue: 83 mujeres (69% de los casos) y 37 hombres (31%). En cuanto al consumo diario su media fue de 24 cigarrillos/día y la media de comienzo del hábito tabáquico se sitúa en los 17 años. El 73% de los casos han intentado sin éxito dejar el hábito tabáquico al menos una vez. Con respecto a la categoría son los DUE los que fuman con más frecuencia con el 21% de los casos, seguidos de los auxiliares (19,8%), celadores (9,9%) y médicos (4,9%). La marca de cigarrillos más usada es LM (23,5%), Ducados (19,8%), Marlboro (7,4%), etc. El 85% de los fumadores toman café. En el 53% de los casos no fuman en su casa. Conclusiones. En nuestro estudio encontramos un porcentaje elevado de casos ... (AU)


Objetives.Smoking is the most important risk fac-tor for public health and one of the factors with thegreatest economic repercussions for society. Increasethe level of health of second level Hospital workers byreducing tobacco consumption and, therefore, its con-sequences. But also, reduce the prevalence of smokingamong workers at the Huelva ́s Hospital and reducecircumstances of special risk, both personally and tothird parties, as a consequence of tobacco consump-tion.Material and methods.We included in our studysmokers’ workers of area, motivated to lose the smok-ing habit and family living with workers, who at therequest of them want to leave the habit. Study periodwas collected from the 1st of January 2021 to 31st ofDecember 2021.Results.All cases were 136. Alter one year of treat-ment, 56% of the workers who had started the pro-gramme had dropped out. Average age populationwas 41 years old; rank include from 23 to 63 yearsold. Distribution by sex were: 83 women (69% ofcases) and 37 men (31%). Cigarettes average numberwas 24 cigarettes/day and beginning average was 17years old. 73% of cases have to intend to leave smok-ing habit once at least. In relation with the profes-sional categories, staff nurse are most smokers (21%of cases), followed by health auxiliary staff (19,8%),hospital porter staff (9,9%) and doctors’ staff (4,9%).Brand cigarettes more usual were L.M (23,5%), Duca-dos (19,8%), Marlboro (7,4%)... Otherwise, 85% ofsmokers usually drink coffee and 53% of cases don ́tsmoke in home.Conclusions.We find in our study a higher casespercent no smoking workers after one year beginningcomprehensive treatment. We conclude with this de-scriptive study we think necessary to developmentinterventions and coordinated programs with ex-tra-hospital care, and increase the activity to lose thehabit all rest of workers of our area (Hospital Area). (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Smoking Prevention/methods , Personnel, Hospital , Retrospective Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spain
3.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 19(3): 808-812, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37470615

ABSTRACT

Background: Oral cancer is a major health concern in the Indian subcontinent, where it ranks among the top three types of cancer in the country. Tobacco and its products have been implicated as a major etiologic factor behind cancers. It is believed that tobacco is an epidemic in itself taking the death toll to 7 million globally. In India alone, mortality because of tobacco is more than 1.3 million. Dentists are the first to notice any change in the oral cavity or come across any suspicious looking oral lesion and therefore are instrumental in primary prevention and care. Methods: The present study data are of the patients enrolled in a Tobacco Cessation Center(TCC) at a Dental College in Meerut in Meerut from May 2012 (since its inception) to March 2020. The following methods of counseling were carried out: group counseling, interactive sessions, audio-visual aids, and individual counseling sessions. Self-training for oral cavity examination was also given after every group counseling session. Behavioral counseling and pharmacological intervention were given as per Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score. At the end of 1 year, patients who quit were graded into 0, 1, and 2, with 0 for those who failed to quit, 1 for those who did completely quit, and 2 for those who reduced their habit by more than 50%. Results: The quit rate achieved was 57.6% (complete responders -43.2% and partial responders 14.4%). The relapse reported was 1.8%. Conclusion: A Tobacco cessation Center set up in a Dental College could be of great help in the primary prevention of oral cancer and can bring a drastic increase in quit rates. Proper counseling skills once nurtured in young under-graduates can boost the tobacco-free India campaign.


Subject(s)
Mouth Neoplasms , Tobacco Use Cessation , Humans , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/psychology , Dentists/psychology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/etiology
4.
Transl Behav Med ; 13(10): 775-783, 2023 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37279925

ABSTRACT

Despite proliferation of evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments, African American adults still suffer higher rates of tobacco-related diseases than White adults. Although tobacco cessation treatment is efficacious, there is a need to reassess the efficacy of tobacco cessation treatment for African American adults. Previous reviews of tobacco cessation treatment studies conducted through 2007 among African American adults highlight the limited research in this area and inconsistent findings on treatment characteristics impacting efficacy. This systematic review examined the efficacy of combined behavioral and pharmacological tobacco cessation treatment for African American adults. Database searches were used to identify studies examining tobacco cessation treatment for predominantly African American samples (>50%). Eligible studies were completed between 2007 and 2021 and (i) involved randomization comparing active combined treatment to a control comparison group and (ii) reported abstinence outcomes at 6 and/or 12 months. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Active treatment groups typically consisted of a combination of nicotine replacement therapy and behavioral counseling. Abstinence rates for African American adults ranged from 10.0% to 34% in active treatment groups compared to 0.0%-40% in comparison control groups. Our results support the efficacy of combined treatment for tobacco cessation among African American adults. However, cessation rates for African American adults found in this review are lower than those in the general adult population (15%-88%). Additionally, our findings highlight the limited number of studies examining African American tobacco cessation rates and testing of tailored treatment for this population.


African American adults are more likely to develop disease when using tobacco products than other adults. Previous reviews of literature assessing tobacco cessation treatment have been conducted on research until 2007. Therefore, we assessed how well tobacco cessation treatments that were tested 2007­2021 work to decrease tobacco use for this population. We found that 10 studies tested tobacco cessation treatment with majority African American participants, in comparison to more standard treatment. Overall, tobacco cessation treatment that combines behavioral and pharmacological approaches decreases tobacco use for African American adults. However, quit rates among African American adults are lower than those found in the general population. Our findings indicate that very few studies have focused on African American adult tobacco cessation treatment outcomes, which has potentially contributed to health inequity.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation , Adult , Humans , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Smoking Cessation/methods , Black or African American , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Combined Modality Therapy
5.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0284920, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37141319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the 'best buys' for preventing Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) is to reduce tobacco use. The synergy scenario of NCDs with tobacco use necessitates converging interventions under two vertical programs to address co-morbidities and other collateral benefits. The current study was undertaken with an objective to ascertain the feasibility of integrating a tobacco cessation package into NCD clinics, especially from the perspective of healthcare providers, along with potential drivers and barriers impacting its implementation. METHODS: A disease-specific, patient-centric, and culturally-sensitive tobacco cessation intervention package was developed (published elsewhere) for the Health Care Providers (HCPs) and patients attending the NCD clinics of Punjab, India. The HCPs received training on how to deliver the package. Between January to April 2020, we conducted a total of 45 in-depth interviews [medical officers (n = 12), counselors (n = 13), program officers (n = 10), and nurses (n = 10)] within the trained cohort across various districts of Punjab until no new information emerged. The interview data wereanalyzed deductively based on six focus areas concerning feasibility studies (acceptability, demand, adaptation, practicality, implementation, and integration) using the 7- step Framework method of qualitative analysis and put under preset themes. RESULTS: The respondent's Mean ± SD age was 39.2± 9.2 years, and years of service in the current position were 5.5 ± 3.7 years. The study participants emphasized the role of HCPs in cessation support (theme: appropriateness and suitability), use of motivational interviewing, 5A's & 5R's protocol learned during the training & tailoring the cessation advice (theme: actual use of intervention activities); preferred face-to-face counseling using regional images, metaphors, language, case vignettes in package (theme: the extent of delivery to intended participants). Besides, they also highlighted various roadblocks and facilitators during implementation at four levels, viz. HCP, facility, patient, and community (theme: barriers and favorable factors); suggested various adaptations to keep the HCPs motivated along with the development of integrated standard operating procedures (SOPs), digitalization of the intervention package, involvement of grassroots level workers (theme: modifications required); the establishment of an inter-programmatic referral system, and a strong politico-administrative commitment (theme: integrational perspectives). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that implementing a tobacco cessation intervention package through the existing NCD clinics is feasible, and it forges synergies to obtain mutual benefits. Therefore, an integrated approach at the primary & secondary levels needs to be adopted to strengthen the existing healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Tobacco Use Cessation , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel
6.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(11): 1701-1708, 2023 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37195879

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Non-pharmacological management of tobacco cessation has been reported to yield a high level of abstinence from tobacco usage. However, it is unclear which type of non-pharmacological intervention to be adopted in national tobacco control program. Hence, we undertook this review to identify the best non-pharmacological tobacco cessation therapies for tobacco cessation. AIMS AND METHODS: Systematic literature search was performed in EMBASE, SCOPUS, PubMed Central, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Clinicaltrials.gov from 1964 until September 2022. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of non-pharmacological intervention for tobacco cessation in India were eligible for inclusion. Comparative intervention effect estimates obtained from network meta-analyses were represented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: 21 studies were eligible for the analysis. More than half of the studies had high risk of bias. E-Health intervention had the highest OR (pooled OR = 9.90; 95% CI: 2.01 to 48.86) in terms of tobacco cessation rate followed by group counseling (pooled OR = 3.61; 95% CI: 1.48 to 8.78) and individual counseling (pooled OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.43 to 8.25). Brief advice or self-help intervention or comparison between each of these interventions against each other (both direct and indirect network) did not yield any significant results. CONCLUSIONS: E-Health intervention was the best intervention followed by group intervention and individual face-to-face counseling intervention for tobacco cessation in India. Nonetheless, more high-quality large-scale RCTs either individual or by combining the e-Health, individual, or group counseling interventions are required to provide conclusive evidence and subsequent adoption into the national health programs in India. IMPLICATIONS: This study would aid the policymakers, clinicians, and public health researchers in choosing the right tobacco cessation therapy to be offered across various levels of the healthcare delivery system, including major health facilities providing drug therapy (ie, concurrently with pharmacological treatment for tobacco cessation) in India. The study findings can be adopted by the national tobacco control program to decide the appropriate intervention package and identify the areas of focus to perform tobacco-related research in the country.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation , Humans , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Smoking Cessation/methods , Network Meta-Analysis , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Counseling/methods
7.
Transl Behav Med ; 13(8): 539-550, 2023 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36940412

ABSTRACT

Tobacco use among cancer patients is associated with an increased mortality and poorer outcomes, yet two-thirds of patients continue using following diagnosis, with disproportionately higher use among racial/ethnic minority and low socioeconomic status patients. Tobacco treatment services that are effectively tailored and adapted to population characteristics and multilevel context specific to settings serving diverse patients are needed to improve tobacco cessation among cancer patients. We examined tobacco use screening and implementation needs for tobacco treatment services to inform equitable and accessible delivery within a large comprehensive cancer center in the greater Los Angeles region. We conducted a multi-modal, mixed methods assessment using electronic medical records (EMR), and clinic stakeholder surveys and interviews (guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research). Approximately 45% of patients (n = 11,827 of 26,030 total) had missing tobacco use history in their EMR. Several demographic characteristics (gender, age, race/ethnicity, insurance) were associated with greater missing data prevalence. In surveys (n = 32), clinic stakeholders endorsed tobacco screening and cessation services, but indicated necessary improvements for screening/referral procedures. During interviews (n = 13), providers/staff reported tobacco screening was important, but level of priority differed as well as how often and who should screen. Several barriers were noted, including patients' language/cultural barriers, limited time during visits, lack of smoking cessation training, and insurance coverage. While stakeholders indicated high interest in tobacco use assessment and cessation services, EMR and interview data revealed opportunities to improve tobacco use screening across patient groups. Implementing sustainable system-level tobacco cessation programs at institutions requires leadership support, staff training, on routine screening, and intervention and referral strategies that meet patients' linguistic/cultural needs.


Implementation of equitable tobacco cessation services for diverse cancer patients will require understanding the specific needs and referral processes within health care setting context and target populations. In our study, we identified barriers to implementing a tobacco cessation program for diverse cancer patients (e.g., Asian/Asian American, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino/a). Barriers noted by clinic team members to routine tobacco use screening and treatment included limited time during patient visits, lack of clinic team training on smoking cessation needs, language/cultural barriers for patients, and insurance coverage. Our findings showed health system leaders, providers, and staff agree that both tobacco use screening and providing tobacco cessation services are important, but there is a need for better understanding and improvement of clinic workflows, designated roles, and responsibilities of providers and staff, and increased awareness and training about tobacco use screening, available cessation services, and referral to treatment.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation , Humans , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Neoplasms/therapy
8.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 81: 103447, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652840

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Persons with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders (PwS) smoke more, and have twice the rate of mortality, with 10-25 years lower life expectancy than the general population. Evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions would help in quitting. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of a personalized tobacco cessation intervention package for patients attending the outpatient psychiatry department. METHODS: The study adopted a two-group experimental design in PwS, using a simple randomization method. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (n = 85) receiving the intervention package or the control group (n = 85) receiving brief advice to stop tobacco. The study outcomes were measured at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis. Intention-to-treat analysis was used to manage missing data. The p-value of < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. RESULTS: At 6 months, there was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in 7 days point-prevalence abstinence (28 % vs 10.8 %), reduction of tobacco by at least 50 % (62.4 % vs 40.9 %) with an attrition rate of 15.3 % vs 30.5 % in intervention and control group respectively. Reduction in nicotine dependence and tobacco craving, an increase in motivation level, quit attempts and clinical improvement favored the intervention group. 16.5 % of participants expressed interest in pharmacotherapy for tobacco cessation, 3.5 % were referred to a specialized tobacco cessation center, two control group participants were hospitalized for drug default, and withdrawal symptoms reported were mild. CONCLUSION: Implementing a tobacco cessation intervention based on the stage of motivation aids in abstinence and reduction of tobacco use in PwS.


Subject(s)
Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods
9.
Am J Prev Med ; 64(3): 428-432, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376144

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Primary care settings that serve lower-income patients are critical for reducing tobacco-related disparities; however, tobacco-related care in these settings remains low. This study examined whether processes for the provision of tobacco cessation care are sustained 18 and 24 months after implementing a health system-level intervention consisting of electronic health record functionality changes and expansion of rooming staff roles. METHODS: This nonrandomized stepped-wedge study included electronic health record data from adults with ≥1 primary care visit to 1 of 8 community-based clinics between August 2016 and September 2019. Generalized estimating equations methods were used to compute ORs of asking about tobacco use and among those who use tobacco, providing brief advice to quit and assessing readiness to quit, contrasting 18 and 24 months after implementation to both preimplementation (baseline) and 12 months after implementation. Using a 2-level model of patients clustered in clinics, outcomes were examined over time by clinic site. Analyses were conducted in 2022. RESULTS: A total of 305,665 patient visits were evaluated. Significantly higher odds of all 3 outcomes were observed at 18 and 24 months than at baseline. The odds of asking about tobacco use increased, whereas the odds of advising to quit were similar at 18 and 24 months to those at 12 months. Odds of assessing readiness to quit decreased at 18 months (OR=0.71; 95% CI=0.63, 0.80) and 24 months (OR=0.46; 95% CI=0.40, 0.52). Performance varied significantly by clinical site. CONCLUSIONS: Health system changes can have a sustained impact on tobacco assessment and the provision of brief advice among lower-income patients. Strategies to sustain assessment of readiness to quit are warranted.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation , Adult , Humans , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use/prevention & control , Ambulatory Care Facilities
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e9, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424249

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Identificar las estrategias no farmacológicas para reducir y cesar el consumo de tabaco dirigidas a la comunidad estudiantil universitaria de pregrado. Métodos. Revisión sistemática clásica de literatura científica experimental publicada en los últimos 20 años en bases de datos y literatura gris. El algoritmo de búsqueda consistió en utilizar la máxima cantidad de terminología que describiera la pregunta de investigación y así disponer del mayor número de resultados en las diferentes bases de datos. Los cuadros de evidencias se construyeron con el instrumento FLC 3.0® y Excel 2021®. La herramienta GRADE permitió evaluar la calidad de evidencia científica. El riesgo de sesgos se estimó con base a las recomendaciones del Manual Cochrane de revisiones sistemáticas de intervenciones. Se suministrő un resumen narrativo de los estudios incluidos con alto grado de heterogeneidad establecida por estadística I2. Resultados. Se realizó la búsqueda en bases de datos y literatura gris y se obtuvieron 40 823 artículos. Luego de la aplicación de los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se incluyeron 7 artículos: un estudio con impacto en casación, dos estudios sobre reducción y cuatro estudios con efectos tanto en la reducción como la cesación del consumo de tabaco. La calidad metodológica evaluada mediante la herramienta GRADE fue "buena". El riesgo de sesgos de forma global fue "bajo". La alta heterogeneidad clínica y metodológica de los estudios impidió su agrupación para la construcción del metaanálisis. Conclusión. Los datos extraídos de los siete artículos muestran la capacidad de las intervenciones no farmacológicas para reducir y cesar el consumo de tabaco en la población estudiantil universitaria, aunque la evidencia sea aún limitada. Se considera necesario realizar más estudios para elaborar recomendaciones fuertes para su implementación.


ABSTRACT Objective. Identify non-pharmacological strategies for reduction and cessation of tobacco use, aimed at the community of undergraduate university students. Methods. Classic systematic review of experimental scientific literature published in the last 20 years in databases and grey literature. The search algorithm consisted of using the maximum amount of terminology that described the research question, resulting in the largest number of results in the different databases. Evidence tables were constructed with the FLC 3.0 assessment tool and Excel 2021. Use of the GRADE tool enabled assessment of the quality of scientific evidence. Risk of bias was estimated in accordance with recommendations in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. A narrative summary of the included studies was provided, given the high degree of heterogeneity established by I2 statistics. Results. A search of databases and grey literature obtained 40 823 articles. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, seven articles were included: one study with impact on cessation, two studies on reduction, and four studies with an impact on both the reduction and cessation of tobacco use. The methodological quality was "good" according to the GRADE tool. The overall risk of bias was 'low'. The high clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the studies prevented grouping for the construction of a meta-analysis. Conclusion. Data from the seven articles show that non-pharmacological interventions can result in reduction and cessation of tobacco use in the university student population, although the evidence is still limited. Further studies are necessary in order to develop strong recommendations for implementation.


RESUMO Objetivo. Identificar estratégias não farmacológicas para reduzir e suspender o consumo de tabaco dirigidas à comunidade de estudantes universitários de graduação. Métodos. Revisão sistemática clássica da literatura científica experimental publicada nos últimos 20 anos em bases de dados e da literatura cinzenta. O algoritmo de busca consistiu em usar a quantidade máxima de terminologia que descrevesse a pergunta da pesquisa e, assim, dispor do maior número de resultados nas diversas bases de dados. As tabelas de evidências foram construídas usando as ferramentas FLC 3.0® e Excel 2021®. A ferramenta GRADE permitiu avaliar a qualidade das evidências científicas. O risco de viés foi estimado com base nas recomendações do Manual Cochrane de Revisões Sistemáticas de Intervenções. Foi fornecido um resumo narrativo de estudos com alto grau de heterogeneidade estabelecida pela estatística I2. Resultados. Foram pesquisadas bases de dados e literatura cinzenta e foram obtidos 40 823 artigos. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram incluídos sete artigos: um estudo com impacto na interrupção, dois estudos sobre a redução e quatro estudos com efeitos tanto na redução quanto na interrupção do consumo de tabaco. A qualidade metodológica segundo a avaliação com a ferramenta GRADE foi "boa". O risco geral de viés foi "baixo". A alta heterogeneidade clínica e metodológica dos estudos impediu o agrupamento para a construção de meta-análise. Conclusão. Os dados dos sete artigos mostram a capacidade de intervenções não farmacológicas para reduzir e suspender o uso do tabaco pela população estudantil universitária, embora as evidências ainda sejam limitadas. Considera-se necessário fazer mais estudos para formular recomendações sólidas para implementação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Students , Universities , Risk Assessment , Smoking Prevention
11.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(4): e007050, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1526396

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El consumo de tabaco representa un importante desafío para la salud pública debido a su alta incidencia y mortalidad, y es el principal factor de riesgo modificable para desarrollar enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. La Residencia de Medicina General y Familiar del Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Teodoro Álvarez desarrolló un programa de cesación tabáquica en el Centro de Salud y Acción Comunitaria N◦34, que forma parte desde 2012 del Programa de Prevención y Control del Tabaquismo del Ministerio de Salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Objetivo. Documentar los resultados de la eficacia de este programa y explorar las variables relacionadas con la probabilidad de éxito y recaída. Materiales y métodos. Estudio cuantitativo, de corte transversal analítico, con datos obtenidos de historias clínicas electrónicas entre 2017 y 2020. Fueron incluidos los pacientes que consultaron al menos en dos ocasiones al programa de cesación tabáquica y establecieron un día D al menos 30 días antes del abandono del consumo de tabaco. La eficacia terapéutica fue definida como haber permanecido al menos seis meses sin fumar, y la recaída, como el reinicio de consumo del tabaco luego de haber logrado 24 horas de abstinencia con fecha posterior al día D.Resultados.De 59 pacientes, 24 (40,7 %) lograron la eficacia terapéutica, de los cuales 5 (20,8 %) presentaron recaídas.De los 35 pacientes que no lograron alcanzar la etapa de mantenimiento, 30 (85,7 %) recayeron durante las primeras ocho semanas. El sexo masculino y el consumo de tabaco superior a 20 paquetes-año mostraron una mayor correlación con las recaídas. Conclusiones. El programa presentó una eficacia terapéutica del 40,7 % en el periodo evaluado. Se encontraron asociaciones entre una mayor eficacia terapéutica y ciertas características de los pacientes, pero se requieren más estudios para confirmar esta hipótesis. (AU)


Background. Tobacco consumption represents an important challenge for public health due to its high incidence and mortality and is the main modifiable risk factor for developing chronic non-communicable diseases. The General and Family Medicine Residence of the Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Teodoro Álvarez developed a smoking cessation program in Health and Community Action Centre N◦34. Since 2012 it has been part of the Program for the Prevention and Control of Smoking of the Ministry of Health of the Government of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Objective. To document the results of the effectiveness of the program and explore the variables related to the probability of success and relapse. Materials and methods. Quantitative, analytical cross-sectional study, with data obtained from electronic medical records between 2017 and 2020. Patients who consulted the smoking cessation program at least twice and established a D-day 30 days before quitting tobacco consumption were included. Therapeutic efficacy was defined as having remained at least six months without smoking, and relapse, as the resumption of tobacco consumption after having achieved 24 hours of abstinence with a date after day D. Results. Of 59 patients, 24 (40.7 %) achieved therapeutic efficacy, of which 5 (20.8 %) presented relapses. Among the35 patients who failed to reach the maintenance stage, 30 (85.7 %) relapsed during the first eight weeks. Male sex and tobacco consumption of more than 20 pack per year showed a greater correlation with relapses. Conclusions.The program presented a therapeutic efficacy of 40.7 % in the evaluated period. Associations were found between greater therapeutic efficacy and certain patient characteristics but more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Recurrence , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Evaluation of Results of Therapeutic Interventions , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Control
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1053428, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530680

ABSTRACT

Background: Providing patients with personalized tobacco cessation counseling that is culturally sensitive, and disease-specific from healthcare providers (HCPs) as part of their routine consultations is an approach that could be incorporated, using existing healthcare systems such as the Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) clinics. This paper describes the development of a multi-component culturally tailored, patient-centric, disease-specific tobacco cessation package utilizing multiple approaches of intervention development for healthcare providers and patients attending these clinics in Punjab, India, along with a proposed framework for implementation. Methods: The proposed intervention package was developed in 6 stages. These included a review of literature for identifying successful cessation interventions for ethnic minority groups, co-production of the package with all stakeholders involved via a series of consultative meetings and workshops, understanding contextual factors of the state and 'factor-in' these in the package, pre-test of the package among HCPs and tobacco users using in-depth interviews, micro detailing and expansion of the package by drawing on existing theories of the Cascade Model and Trans-Theoretical Model and developing an evolving analysis plan through real-world implementation at two pilot districts by undertaking a randomized controlled trial, assessing implementer's experiences using a mixed-method with a primary focus on qualitative and economic evaluation of intervention package. Results: A multi-component package consisting of a booklet (for HCPs), disease-specific pamphlets and short text messages (for patients; bilingual), and an implementation framework was developed using the 6-step process. A major finding from the in-depth interviews was the need for a specific capacity-building training program on tobacco cessation. Therefore, using this as an opportunity, we trained the in-service human resource and associated program managers at the state and district-level training workshops. Based on the feedback, training objectives were set and supported with copies of intervention package components. In addition, the role and function of each stakeholder were defined in the proposed framework. Conclusion: Consideration of tobacco users' socio-cultural and patient-centric approach makes a robust strategy while developing and implementing an intervention providing an enlarged scope to improve care services for diversified socio-cultural communities.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Tobacco Use Cessation , Humans , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Health Personnel , India , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
13.
Trials ; 23(1): 753, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To reduce the global burden of tobacco use, clinical guidelines support behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy as preferred interventions for tobacco cessation. The evidence-based behavioral interventions has consistently shown to be impactful in community settings; however, its efficacy has not been established in hospital settings. The current study aims to investigate impact of trans-theoretical-based behavioral intervention package on tobacco users suffering from non-communicable diseases attending tertiary care settings of North India. METHODS/DESIGN: A two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) in a tertiary healthcare hospital will be performed. A total of 360 tobacco users attending NCD clinics in four departments, cardiology, neurology, pulmonary medicine, and ENT (otolaryngology), will be recruited over a period of 3 months. After ascertaining the eligibility criteria, they will be followed up to 6 months (1, 3, 6) for their tobacco use status, readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, stage of behavior change, and self-reported and biochemical validation (urine cotinine) for tobacco abstinence. Assignment of intervention including allocation concealment, sequence generation, and blinding will be done as per SPIRIT guidelines for RCT protocols. DISCUSSION: As no strong evidence exists about the effectiveness of tobacco cessation intervention in tertiary settings, the current study will build evidence about the similar interventions in such settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2019/09/021406.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder , Behavior Therapy/methods , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tertiary Healthcare , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy
14.
Prev. tab ; 24(3): 104-110, Julio/Septiembre 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-212882

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los programas interdisciplinarios queincluyen tratamiento farmacológico y técnicas cognitivo-conductuales son efectivos en lograr la abstinenciatabáquica. Hay factores que condicionan el proceso de cesación. No hay estudios en Colombia de cesación tabáquica y los factores asociados. Pacientes y métodos.Pacientes consecutivos del programa de atención integral de cesación de tabaco de laFundación Neumológica Colombiana (EXFUMAIRE)de 2015-2019. Se definió cesación como la abstinencia al cigarrillo >12 meses. Diferencias entre grupos de cesación y no cesación con pruebas T, U de Mann-Whitney y χ2. Análisis multivariado para evaluar factores asociadosa la cesación.Resultados.Se incluyeron 170 sujetos de 55,8 ± 12,8años, el 50,6% mujeres. Hubo cesación en 113(66,5%). No hubo diferencias demográficas, historiade tabaquismo, comorbilidades o tratamiento farmacológico entre los grupos de cesación y no cesación. El 64,1% de los pacientes recibió terapia cognitivo-conductual y el 88,2% tratamiento farmacológico. La razón de no recibir terapia cognitivo-conductual fue la noaceptación del paciente, y la de no recibir tratamientofarmacológico la no disponibilidad del medicamento ono aceptación del paciente. El único factor asociado acesación en el análisis multivariado fue la motivaciónpor la escala Richmond (OR 0,81; p = 0,038).Conclusiones.La tasa de cesación de tabaquismo del66,5% fue alta. El único factor asociado con cesaciónfue la mayor motivación para cesar el tabaquismo. Lasbarreras para recibir el tratamiento farmacológico opsico-conductual son la no aceptación del paciente ola disponibilidad del medicamento. (AU)


Introduction. Interdisciplinary programs that include pharmacological treatment and cognitive behavioraltechniques are effective in achieving smoking abstinence. There are factors that condition the cessationprocess. There are no studies in Colombia on smokingcessation and the associated factors.Patients and methods.Consecutive patients of thecomprehensive smoking cessation care program of the Colombian Pneumological Foundation (EXFUMAIRE)from 2015-2019. Cessation was defined as abstinence from cigarettes >12 months. Differences between cessation and non-cessation groups with T-tests, Mann-Whitney U Test and χ2. Multivariate analysis to evaluatefactors associated with cessation.Results.A total of 170 subjects aged 55.8 ± 12.8years, 50.6% women were included. Cessation occurredin 113 (66.5%). There were no differences in the demographics, smoking history, comorbidities, or drug treatment between the cessation and non-cessation groups.A total of 64.1% of the patients received cognitivebehavioral therapy and 88.2% pharmacological treatment. The reason that cognitive behavioral therapy wasnot received was the non-acceptance of the patient and that of not receiving pharmacological treatment wasthe non-availability of the medication or non-acceptance of the patient. The only factor associated with smoking cessation in the multivariate analysis was the Richmond’ motivation scale (OR 0.81; p = 0.038).Conclusions.The smoking cessation rate of 66.5%was high. The only factor associated with cessation was the increased motivation to quit smoking. Barriers toreceive pharmacological or psycho-behavioral treatment are the non-acceptance of the patient or lack ofavailability of the medication. (AU)


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/psychology , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Tobacco Use Disorder/rehabilitation , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Colombia , Cohort Studies
16.
Wiad Lek ; 75(5 pt 1): 1180-1184, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The prevalence analysis of three ways of tobacco use among young adults: traditional (smoking of cigarillos or cigars) and alternative (hookah smoking and use of E-cigarettes) as well as the development of ways of tobacco smoking prevention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Cross-section anonymous survey among young adults 18-44 years of age (n=410) has been conducted. The obtained results were compared with the data of the similar studies from different countries. The statistical methods (analysis of the mean and relative values), structural and logical analysis and systemic approach. RESULTS: Results: Among those who were interviewed, aged 18-44 years, there are 24.15±2.11 % of respondents - hookah smokers, 9.02±1.42 % persons prefer the traditional method of tobacco use (smoking of cigarillos or cigars), while 6.34±1.20 % ones use E-cigarettes. Such forms of smoking are more common among males. The smokers of cigarillos, cigars and hookahs have appreciated their high availability when buying - 9 (7;10) points out of 10 possible. The study has found that 11.54±1.58 % of smokers of E-cigarettes and 8.08±1.35 % of hookah smokers consider them safe types of smoking and harmless to their health. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The prevention methods of smoking prevalence among young people must be based on the tougher rules of tobacco market and latest devices for smoking at the legislative level.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , Adult , Cigar Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internationality , Male , Prevalence , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Products/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco, Waterpipe/statistics & numerical data , Vaping/epidemiology , Water Pipe Smoking/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(6): e34273, 2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tobacco addiction is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality worldwide, but only 1 in 20 cessation attempts is supervised by a health professional. The potential advantages of mobile health (mHealth) can circumvent this problem and facilitate tobacco cessation interventions for public health systems. Given its easy scalability to large populations and great potential, chatbots are a potentially useful complement to usual treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of an evidence-based intervention to quit smoking via a chatbot in smartphones compared with usual clinical practice in primary care. METHODS: This is a pragmatic, multicenter, controlled, and randomized clinical trial involving 34 primary health care centers within the Madrid Health Service (Spain). Smokers over the age of 18 years who attended on-site consultation and accepted help to quit tobacco were recruited by their doctor or nurse and randomly allocated to receive usual care (control group [CG]) or an evidence-based chatbot intervention (intervention group [IG]). The interventions in both arms were based on the 5A's (ie, Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) in the US Clinical Practice Guideline, which combines behavioral and pharmacological treatments and is structured in several follow-up appointments. The primary outcome was continuous abstinence from smoking that was biochemically validated after 6 months by the collaborators. The outcome analysis was blinded to allocation of patients, although participants were unblinded to group assignment. An intention-to-treat analysis, using the baseline-observation-carried-forward approach for missing data, and logistic regression models with robust estimators were employed for assessing the primary outcomes. RESULTS: The trial was conducted between October 1, 2018, and March 31, 2019. The sample included 513 patients (242 in the IG and 271 in the CG), with an average age of 49.8 (SD 10.82) years and gender ratio of 59.3% (304/513) women and 40.7% (209/513) men. Of them, 232 patients (45.2%) completed the follow-up, 104/242 (42.9%) in the IG and 128/271 (47.2%) in the CG. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the biochemically validated abstinence rate at 6 months was higher in the IG (63/242, 26%) compared with that in the CG (51/271, 18.8%; odds ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.00-2.31; P=.05). After adjusting for basal CO-oximetry and bupropion intake, no substantial changes were observed (odds ratio 1.52, 95% CI 0.99-2.33; P=.05; pseudo-R2=0.045). In the IG, 61.2% (148/242) of users accessed the chatbot, average chatbot-patient interaction time was 121 (95% CI 121.1-140.0) minutes, and average number of contacts was 45.56 (SD 36.32). CONCLUSIONS: A treatment including a chatbot for helping with tobacco cessation was more effective than usual clinical practice in primary care. However, this outcome was at the limit of statistical significance, and therefore these promising results must be interpreted with caution. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03445507; https://tinyurl.com/mrnfcmtd. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s12911-019-0972-z.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Telemedicine , Tobacco Use Cessation , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Treatment Outcome
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 811397, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462820

ABSTRACT

Background: Emergency room nurses have a strong influence on the population of smokeless tobacco users. If healthcare providers address patient's tobacco use by using a brief intervention strategy (one minute or less), it increases the quit attempt rate threefold. The object of this study is to assess the effectiveness of asynchronous internet based brief tobacco intervention training with rural emergency room nurses. Methods: A 1-h asynchronous training session on smokeless tobacco use and the 2-A and 1-R (Ask, Advise, and Refer) brief tobacco intervention strategy were given to 13 emergency room nurses at a rural acute care hospital in West Virginia. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare the pre-and post-test results. Results: The 1-h training session produced significant and positive increases in all items measured: increased motivation to assist patients in quitting; increased knowledge of smokeless tobacco use, its dangers, and cessation processes; increased self-efficacy in implementing brief interventions; increased perception of tobacco cessation as important; increased perception of the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions; and increased acknowledgment of barriers and an awareness of how to deal with them. Conclusions: The results suggest that there is a significant potential benefit from training emergency room nurses. Brief tobacco interventions should be conducted by clinical staff during the medical history check, physical examination, or discharge phases of the emergency room visit.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation , Tobacco, Smokeless , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Tobacco, Smokeless/adverse effects , West Virginia
19.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 43, 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Brief behavioural support can effectively help tuberculosis (TB) patients quit smoking and improve their outcomes. In collaboration with TB programmes in Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan, we evaluated the implementation and scale-up of cessation support using four strategies: (1) brief tobacco cessation intervention, (2) integration of tobacco cessation within routine training, (3) inclusion of tobacco indicators in routine records and (4) embedding research within TB programmes. METHODS: We used mixed methods of observation, interviews, questionnaires and routine data. We aimed to understand the extent and facilitators of vertical scale-up (institutionalization) within 59 health facility learning sites in Pakistan, 18 in Nepal and 15 in Bangladesh, and horizontal scale-up (increased coverage beyond learning sites). We observed training and surveyed all 169 TB health workers who were trained, in order to measure changes in their confidence in delivering cessation support. Routine TB data from the learning sites were analysed to assess intervention delivery and use of TB forms revised to report smoking status and cessation support provided. A purposive sample of TB health workers, managers and policy-makers were interviewed (Bangladesh n = 12; Nepal n = 13; Pakistan n = 19). Costs of scale-up were estimated using activity-based cost analysis. RESULTS: Routine data indicated that health workers in learning sites asked all TB patients about tobacco use and offered them cessation support. Qualitative data showed use of intervention materials, often with adaptation and partial implementation in busy clinics. Short (1-2 hours) training integrated within existing programmes increased mean confidence in delivering cessation support by 17% (95% CI: 14-20%). A focus on health system changes (reporting, training, supervision) facilitated vertical scale-up. Dissemination of materials beyond learning sites and changes to national reporting forms and training indicated a degree of horizontal scale-up. Embedding research within TB health systems was crucial for horizontal scale-up and required the dynamic use of tactics including alliance-building, engagement in the wider policy process, use of insider researchers and a deep understanding of health system actors and processes. CONCLUSIONS: System-level changes within TB programmes may facilitate routine delivery of cessation support to TB patients. These strategies are inexpensive, and with concerted efforts from TB programmes and donors, tobacco cessation can be institutionalized at scale.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Cessation , Tuberculosis , Health Behavior , Humans , Smoking/therapy , Tobacco Use , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Tuberculosis/therapy
20.
Indian J Dent Res ; 33(3): 241-246, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656181

ABSTRACT

Context: Oral cancer is the third common cancer in India. Its mortality can be reduced through early detection and tobacco cessation ideally by dentists owing to their forte of work. Aim: This study was conducted to discuss effectiveness of an advanced tele-mentoring programme in oral cancer screening and tobacco cessation for dentists across India. Settings and Design: Online, interventional study. Methods and Material: The 14-week long training programme with 52 participants/spokes from across India had weekly hour-long online sessions comprising of an expert-led didactic and case discussions by spokes. Online evaluation (pre- and post-training, post-session), weekly and post-one-year feedback were conducted. Successful spokes attended a hands-on workshop subsequently. Statistical Analysis Used: One and independent sample t-tests determined the significance of the evaluation scores of the participants. Findings on attitudes and practice-related questions are presented as simple percentages. Results: A notable increase in the overall and per-session mean knowledge score, and confidence in oral cancer screening was observed. Many participants started these services at their clinics, thereby reducing further referrals, and were also motivated to spread community awareness about the same. Conclusion: This tele-mentoring programme, based on the novel Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes model, is the first oral cancer screening training programme for dentists. This model-comprising of expert didacts, case discussions, and significant spoke-expert interaction-is a promising best-practices tool for reducing the disparity in knowledge and skills regarding oral cancer prevention among dentists across different locations. This would enable these most appropriate healthcare providers to contribute toward the overall goal of oral cancer prevention.


Subject(s)
Mentoring , Mouth Neoplasms , Tobacco Use Cessation , Humans , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Dentists , Counseling/education , Counseling/methods , Early Detection of Cancer , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mouth Neoplasms/prevention & control , Attitude of Health Personnel , Surveys and Questionnaires , Practice Patterns, Dentists'
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