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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 104(14): 1168-1173, 2024 Apr 09.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583048

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the abnormal changes of intrinsic neural time scale (INT) in male smoking addicts based on whole brain resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: A case-control study. The clinical data and whole brain rs-fMRI data of 139 male subjects, aged (34.1±8.8) years, recruited through the online platform from January 2019 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the existence of smoking addiction, they were divided into smoking addiction group (n=83) and healthy control group (n=56).INT was calculated to reflect the brain neural activity dynamics. Single sample t test was used to obtain the whole brain spatial distribution maps of INT in smoking addiction group and the control group. Then two-sample t test was conducted to explore the difference of INT between the smoking addition group and the healthy control group, with age and years of education as covariates. Finally, Spearman correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between INT and nicotine dependence scale score and smoking index. Results: Subjects with smoking addiction and healthy control group showed a similar pattern of hierarchical neural timescales, namely shorter INT in sensorimotor areas and longer INT in parietal lobe, posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, in the smoking addiction group, the left medial occipital gyrus (peak t=-3.18), left suproccipital gyrus (peak t=-3.66), bilateral pericalar cleft cortex (left: peak t=-3.02, right: peak t=-3.22), bilateral lingual gyrus (left: peak t=-3.10, right: t peak=-3.04), left cuneus (peak t=-2.97), default network associated brain region [left anterior cuneus(peak t=-3.23), left angular gyrus (peak t=-3.07), and left posterior cingulate cortex (peak t=-3.54) were significantly lower than those of healthy controls (gaussian random field correction, voxel level all P<0.005, mass level all P<0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between INT and nicotine dependence scale score and smoking index (both P>0.05 after Bonferroni correction). Conclusion: Compared with healthy controls, smoking addicts showed abnormal changes in the dynamics of neural activity in the visual cortex and the default network.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Disorder , Male , Humans , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Brain , Smoking , Brain Mapping
4.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 60(4): 200-206, abr.2024. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-70

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV can infect bronchial epithelial cells rendering individuals susceptible to lung damage. Our objective was to determine the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on pulmonary function tests. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis after conducting a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Virtual Health Library databases from inception to December 31st, 2022. We employed the inverse variance method with a random effects model to calculate the effect estimate as the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We calculated the heterogeneity with the I2 statistic and performed a meta-regression analysis by age, sex, smoking, CD4 T-cells count and antiretroviral therapy. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis according to the studies’ publication date, and excluding the study with the greatest weight in the effect. The PROSPERO registry number was CRD42023401105. Results: The meta-analysis included 20 studies, with 7621 living with HIV and 7410 control participants. The pooled MD (95%CI) for the predicted percentage of FEV1, FVC and DLCO were −3.12 (−5.17, −1.06); p=0.003, −1.51 (−3.04, 0.02); p=0.05, and −5.26 (−6.64, −3.87); p<0.001, respectively. The pooled MD for FEV1/FVC was −0.01 (−0.02, −0.01); p=0.002. In all cases, there was a considerable heterogeneity. The meta-regression analysis showed that among studies heterogeneity was not explained by patient age, smoking, CD4 T-cells count or antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Pulmonary function tests are impaired in people living with HIV, independently of age, smoking, CD4 T-cells count, and geographical region. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Bronchi , Lung , Genetic Heterogeneity , Tobacco Use Disorder , Cell Count
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 709, 2024 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quitting support from smokers' partners can predict quit attempts and smoking abstinence but research on factors that predict such support has been limited. To add more evidence for partner support and the improved interventions for smoking cessation, we analyzed some new potential predictors of quitting support from smokers' spouses. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in in 2022 and 2023, selecting the students' families in which fathers smoked and mothers didn't smoke from grade 1-5 of 13 primary schools in Qingdao, China. Parents who met the criteria completed the online questionnaires and 1018 families were included in the analysis. We measured personal information related to smokers and their spouses such as age, education and nicotine dependence, and variables related to family and marital relationship such as family functioning, perceived responsiveness and power in decision-making of quitting smoking. Quitting support from smokers' spouses was measured by Partner Interaction Questionnaire and generalized linear model was used to explore the potential predictors of partner support. RESULTS: In this study, the mean age of smokers was 39.97(SD = 5.57) and the mean age of smokers' spouses was 38.24(SD = 4.59). The regression analysis showed that for smokers and their spouses, the older age groups showed the lower ratio of positive/negative support(P < 0.05) and smokers with high education showed the less positive and negative partner support(P < 0.05). Nicotine dependence was positively associated with negative support (ß = 0.120, P < 0.01), and perceived responsiveness (ß = 0.124, P < 0.05) as well as family functioning (ß = 0.059, P < 0.05) was positively associated with positive support. These three factors were associated with ratio of positive/negative support(P < 0.05). In addition, power of smoker's spouse in decision-making of quitting smoking was positively associated with the positive (ß = 0.087, P < 0.001) and negative support (ß = 0.084, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine dependence, family functioning, power in decision-making of quitting smoking and perceived responsiveness were found to be the predictors of quitting support from smokers' spouses. By incorporating predictors of partner support and integrating some established theories that can improve family functioning and marital relationships, smoking cessation interventions can be further improved.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Male , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smoking , China/epidemiology , Fathers
6.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 175: 187-239, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555116

ABSTRACT

New approaches for the treatment of alcohol dependence (AD) may improve patient outcomes. Substitution maintenance therapy is one of the most effective treatment options for opioid and nicotine use disorders. So far, there has been little attention to substitution therapy for the treatment of AD. Here, we explain the mechanistic foundations of alcohol substitution maintenance therapy. Alcohol has many primary targets in the brain (and other organs) and the physical interaction of ethanol molecules with these specific ethanol-sensitive sites on a variety of ionotropic receptors (e.g. GABA-A, NMDA, and nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors) and ion channels provides the rationale for substitution. As such, a variety of compounds can interact with those ethanol-sensitive sites and can thus substitute for some of the effects of alcohol. For some of these compounds, alcohol discrimination studies have shown their substitution potential. Accordingly, potential substitution treatments include agonists acting at GABA receptors such as sodium oxybate, baclofen and benzodiazepines, NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine and memantine, or nAChRs agonists such as varenicline. All these compounds are already approved for other indications and we present clinical evidence for these drugs in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and in the long-term treatment of AD, and outline future steps for their acceptance as substitution treatment in AD. Finally, we discuss the substitution approach of managed alcohol programs for the most severely affected homeless populations. Results showed that sodium oxybate is probably the closest to a substitution therapy for AD and is already approved for the treatment of AWS and in the long-term treatment of AD in some countries. In conclusion, we argue that better AD treatment can be provided if substitution maintenance treatments for alcohol are implemented at a similar scale as for opioid and nicotine use disorder.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Receptors, Nicotinic , Sodium Oxybate , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Alcoholism/drug therapy , Sodium Oxybate/adverse effects , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy , Ethanol/pharmacology , Tobacco Use Disorder/drug therapy , Receptors, Nicotinic/therapeutic use
8.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299728, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466736

ABSTRACT

Understanding the factors that influence smoking cessation among young people is crucial for planning targeted cessation approaches. The objective of this review was to comprehensively summarize evidence for predictors of different smoking cessation related behaviors among young people from currently available systematic reviews. We searched six databases and reference lists of the included articles for studies published up to October 20, 2023. All systematic reviews summarizing predictors of intention to quit smoking, quit attempts, or smoking abstinence among people aged 10-35 years were included. We excluded reviews on effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention; smoking prevention and other smoking behaviors; cessation of other tobacco products use, dual use, and polysubstance use. We categorized the identified predictors into 5 different categories for 3 overlapping age groups. JBI critical appraisal tool and GRADE-CERqual approach were used for quality and certainty assessment respectively. A total of 11 systematic reviews were included in this study; all summarized predictors of smoking abstinence/quit attempts and two also identified predictors of intention to quit smoking. Seven reviews had satisfactory critical appraisal score and there was minimal overlapping between the reviews. We found 4 'possible' predictors of intention to quit smoking and 119 predictors of smoking abstinence/quit attempts. Most of these 119 predictors were applicable for ~10-29 years age group. We had moderate confidence on the 'probable', 'possible', 'insufficient evidence', and 'inconsistent direction' predictors and low confidence on the 'probably unrelated' factors. The 'probable' predictors include a wide variety of socio-demographic factors, nicotine dependence, mental health, attitudes, behavioral and psychological factors, peer and family related factors, and jurisdictional policies. These predictors can guide improvement of existing smoking cessation interventions or planning of new targeted intervention programs. Other predictors as well as predictors of intention to quit smoking need to be further investigated among adolescents and young adults separately.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , Child , Adult , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Smoking , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoking , Smoking Prevention
9.
Adv Pharmacol ; 99: 327-354, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467485

ABSTRACT

This review discusses the diverse effects of nicotine on the various nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the central and peripheral nervous system and how those effects may promote the usage and addiction to tobacco products.


Subject(s)
Receptors, Nicotinic , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Nicotine/pharmacology
10.
Adv Pharmacol ; 99: 387-404, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467488

ABSTRACT

Nicotine use disorder remains a major public health emergency despite years of trumpeting the consequences of smoking. This is likely due to the complex interplay of genetics and nicotine exposure across the lifespan of these individuals. Genetics influence all aspects of life, including complex disorders such as nicotine use disorder. This review first highlights the critical neurocircuitry underlying nicotine dependence and withdrawal, and then describes the cellular signaling mechanisms involved. Finally, current genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic evidence for new drug development of smoking cessation aids is discussed, with a focus on the Neuregulin 3 Signaling Pathway.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder/drug therapy , Tobacco Use Disorder/genetics , Tobacco Use Disorder/metabolism , Precision Medicine , Smoking/genetics , Neuregulins/genetics , Neuregulins/metabolism
11.
Chron Respir Dis ; 21: 14799731241235213, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smoking poses the most common risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and aggravates disease progression. Tobacco dependence inhibits smoking cessation and may affect smoking patterns that increase tobacco exposure and predispose to lung function decline. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess tobacco dependence in current smokers with and without COPD and evaluate its role in disease development. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Greek rural areas. Current smokers completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and were classified into COPD and non-COPD groups based on spirometry parameters. RESULTS: Among current smokers, 288 participants comprised the non-COPD and 71 the COPD group. Both presented moderate tobacco dependence, but smokers with COPD started to smoke earlier in the morning. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed higher COPD prevalence in smokers with higher scores in the Fagerström test (odds ratio OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [1.01 - 1.24]) and older age (OR = 1.06 [1.03 - 1.09]), independently of pack-years smoking index. Multiple linear regression analysis in smokers with COPD showed that the forced expiratory volume in the 1st second decreased by 2.3% of the predicted value for each point increase in the Fagerström Test and 0.59% for each year of age, independently of participants' sex and pack-years smoking index. CONCLUSION: The Fagerström score appears to indicate a higher probability for COPD and lung function deterioration when assessed along with age in current smokers. Smoking cessation support programs are fundamental to COPD prevention and management.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Greece , Smokers , Prognosis
12.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 25(3): 875-883, 2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Smokeless tobacco is the preponderant form of tobacco in India. The cessation indicators are weaker for smokeless tobacco users than smokers. There is a dearth of literature on the effectiveness of the interventions that motivate and assist smokeless tobacco users in quitting in program settings. METHODS: Data from Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (GATS), 2016-17, was analysed. Quit attempts in the previous 12 months among SLT users and duration of abstinence were the two outcome variables. The chief exposure variables were the receipts of various interventions that warned about the dangers of smokeless tobacco or encouraged quitting. Logistic regression analyses were employed to identify determinants of quit attempts. For the hazard of relapse to tobacco use, survival analysis was used. RESULTS: The odds of quit attempts among SLT users in the previous 12 months were more among those who received advice from healthcare providers (OR 2.09; 1.87-2.34), noticed messages from media that made them think about quitting (OR 1.67; 1.50-1.86) and noticed a warning label that made them think about quitting (OR 1.39; 1.25-1.55). Those who used counselling (HR 0.81; 0.70-0.93) or medication (HR 0.79; 0.66-0.95) sustained abstinence from smokeless tobacco for a longer duration compared to those who did not use any cessation method. CONCLUSION: Quit advice by healthcare providers is an influential determinant of a quit attempt, and this intervention needs to be scaled up. The media messages and warning labels were effective among those who considered quitting after noticing them. Cessation methods can help prolong the abstinence from smokeless tobacco, but the reach of cessation methods is limited.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Disorder , Tobacco, Smokeless , Adult , Humans , India/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Tobacco, Smokeless/adverse effects
13.
Thorax ; 79(Suppl 1): 1-2, 2024 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531602
14.
Prev Med ; 181: 107924, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the time to first report of signs of nicotine dependence among youth exclusive e-cigarette users and compare this time to that for exclusive cigarette users. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data (Waves 1-5; 2013-2019) from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health was conducted. Youth never tobacco users in the United States who reported exclusive past-30-day (P30D) e-cigarette or cigarette use (n = 2940, N = 5,391,642) in at least one wave were included in the current analysis. Survival analysis was used to estimate the time to the first report of three nicotine dependence indicators (i.e., "use within 30 minutes of waking"; "cravings" and "really needing to use") following the first report of P30D use. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the time to first report of "use within 30 minutes of waking" (aHR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.87-1.40) and "cravings" (aHR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.81-1.47) between exclusive P30D e-cigarette use and exclusive P30D cigarette use. However, compared to exclusive P30D e-cigarette use, the hazard of first reporting "really needing to use" tobacco was 39% (aHR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.05-1.84) times higher for those who reported exclusive P30D cigarette use after controlling for covariates. CONCLUSION: Compared to exclusive P30D cigarette use, no differences in the time to first report of signs of nicotine dependence ("use within 30 minutes" and "cravings") were observed among exclusive P30D e-cigarette users. Policymakers and regulatory agencies should consider this evidence when assessing the abuse liability of e-cigarette products.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Adolescent , United States/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
15.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 139, 2024 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The National Health Service in England aims to implement tobacco dependency treatment services in all hospitals by 2024. We aimed to assess the uptake of a new service, adapted from the Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation, and its impact on 6-month quit rates and readmission or death at 1-year follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic service evaluation of a tobacco dependency service implemented among 2067 patients who smoked who were admitted to 2 acute hospitals in London, England, over a 12-month period from July 2020. The intervention consisted of the systematic identification of smoking status, automatic referral to tobacco dependence specialists, provision of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support throughout the hospital stay, and telephone support for 6 months after discharge. The outcomes were (i) patient acceptance of the intervention during admission, (ii) quit success at 6 months after discharge, (iii) death, or (iv) readmission up to 1 year following discharge. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of a range of clinical and demographic variables on these outcomes. RESULTS: The majority (79.4%) of patients accepted support at the first assessment. Six months after discharge, 35.1% of successfully contacted patients reported having quit smoking. After adjustment, odds of accepting support were 51-61% higher among patients of all non-White ethnicity groups, relative to White patients, but patients of Mixed, Asian, or Other ethnicities had decreased odds of quit success (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.32, 95%CI = 0.15-0.66). Decreased odds of accepting support were associated with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or diabetes; however, diabetes was associated with increased odds of quit success (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.17-3.04). Intention to make a quit attempt was associated with a threefold increase in odds of quit success, and 60% lower odds of death, compared to patients who did not intend to quit. A mental health diagnosis was associated with an 84% increase in the odds of dying within 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The overall quit rates were similar to results from Ottawa models implemented elsewhere, although outcomes varied by site. Outcomes also varied according to patient demographics and diagnoses, suggesting personalised and culturally tailored interventions may be needed to optimise quit success.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Patient Readmission , State Medicine , Hospitals
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 256: 111109, 2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354476

ABSTRACT

Adaptive behaviours depend on dynamically updating internal representations of the world based on the ever-changing environmental contingencies. People with a substance use disorder (pSUD) show maladaptive behaviours with high persistence in drug-taking, despite severe negative consequences. We recently proposed a salience misattribution model for addiction (SMMA; Kalhan et al., 2021), arguing that pSUD have aberrations in their updating processes where drug cues are misattributed as strong predictors of positive outcomes, but weaker predictors of negative outcomes. We also argued that conversely, non-drug cues are misattributed as weak predictors of positive outcomes, but stronger predictors of negative outcomes. We tested these hypotheses using a multi-cue reversal learning task, with reversals in whether drug or non-drug cues are relevant in predicting the outcome (monetary win or loss). We show that people with a tobacco use disorder (pTUD), do form misaligned internal representations. We found that pTUD updated less towards learning the drug cue's relevance in predicting a loss. Further, when neither drug nor non-drug cue predicted a win, pTUD updated more towards the drug cue being relevant predictors of that win. Our Bayesian belief updating model revealed that pTUD had a low estimated likelihood of non-drug cues being predictors of wins, compared to drug cues, which drove the misaligned updating. Overall, several hypotheses of the SMMA were supported, but not all. Our results implicate that strengthening the non-drug cue association with positive outcomes may help restore the misaligned internal representation in pTUD, and offers a quantifiable, computational account of these updating processes.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Cues , Bayes Theorem , Learning , Adaptation, Psychological
17.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 12(1)2024 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38390863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use disorder (TUD) adversely impacts older patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, CVD risk in chronic habitual cannabis users without the confounding impact of TUD hasn't been explored. We aimed to determine the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in older non-tobacco smokers with established CVD risk with vs. without cannabis use disorder (CUD). METHODS: We queried the 2019 National Inpatient Sample for hospitalized non-tobacco smokers with established traditional CVD risk factors aged ≥65 years. Relevant ICD-10 codes were used to identify patients with vs. without CUD. Using multivariable logistic regression, we evaluated the odds of MACCE in CUD cohorts compared to non-CUD cohorts. RESULTS: Prevalence of CUD in the sample was 0.3% (28,535/10,708,815, median age 69), predominantly male, black, and non-electively admitted from urban teaching hospitals. Of the older patients with CVD risk with CUD, 13.9% reported MACCE. The CUD cohort reported higher odds of MACCE (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.11-1.29, p < 0.001) compared to the non-CUD cohort. Comorbidities such as hypertension (OR 1.9) and hyperlipidemia (OR 1.3) predicted a higher risk of MACCE in the CUD cohort. The CUD cohort also had higher unadjusted rates of acute myocardial infarction (7.6% vs. 6%) and stroke (5.2% vs. 4.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Among older non tobacco smokers with known CVD risk, chronic cannabis use had a 20% higher likelihood of MACCE compared to those who did not use cannabis.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Hallucinogens , Hypertension , Marijuana Abuse , Substance-Related Disorders , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , Marijuana Abuse/complications , Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology
18.
Patient Educ Couns ; 122: 108136, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308975

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent, despite being a primary preventable cause of disease and mortality. This study examined the effect of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based psychoeducational intervention for smoking cessation (SC) on knowledge, SC-related parameters, and progression through the TTM stages of change among rural smokers. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study recruited 200 smokers from an outpatient clinic. The comparison group was recruited before the experimental group to address possible self-selection bias. Structured questionnaires were administered pre- and post-intervention (three months) and at follow-up (six months). RESULTS: A generalised estimation equation model indicated that the TTM-based intervention significantly increased participants' SC-knowledge and improved progression through TTM stages by the six-month follow-up. No significant group differences were found in self-efficacy and nicotine dependence scores or daily cigarette consumption. CONCLUSIONS: A TTM-based intervention enhances SC-knowledge and fosters progress through change stages. However, it does not directly impact nicotine dependence or cigarette consumption. Outpatient settings may employ TTM-based programmes for SC education and motivation. Detecting anticipated effects may require a longer intervention duration exceeding six months. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Such TTM-based programmes may facilitate SC-knowledge and motivation in outpatient settings. Further research to comprehend patients' context and experiences during the stages of change is required.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Transtheoretical Model , Longitudinal Studies , Smokers
19.
J Behav Addict ; 13(1): 163-176, 2024 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353729

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Problematic Social Networking Site Use (PSNSU) is not a formally recognised addiction, but it is increasingly discussed as such in academic research and online. Taking a quantitative, exploratory approach, this study aims to (1) determine whether PSNSU is presented like clinically defined addictions by the affected community and (2) address how well measurements of PSNSU fit with the thematic content found within the associated discourse. Methods: Four corpora were created for this study: a corpus concerning PSNSU and three control corpora concerning established addictions, including Alcohol Use Disorder, Tobacco Use Disorder and Gaming Disorder. Keywords were identified, collocates and concordances were explored, and shared themes were compared. Results: Findings show broad thematic similarities between PSNSU and the three control addictions as well as prominent interdiscursive references, which indicate possible confirmation bias among speakers. Conclusions: Scales based upon the components model of addiction are suggested as the most appropriate measure of this emerging disorder.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Behavior, Addictive , Tobacco Use Disorder , Video Games , Humans , Social Networking
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e077015, 2024 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355191

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV (PLWH) who were current cigarette smokers and receiving treatment at HIV outpatient clinics (OPCs) in Vietnam. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of smokers living with HIV. SETTING: The study was carried out in 13 HIV OPCs located in Ha Noi, Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 527 PLWH aged 18 and above who were smokers and were receiving treatment at HIV OPCs. OUTCOME MEASURES: The study used the Centre for Epidemiology Scale for Depression to assess depressive symptoms. The associations between depressive symptoms, tobacco dependence and other characteristics were explored using bivariate and Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among smokers living with HIV was 38.3%. HIV-positive smokers who were female (prevalence ratio, PR 1.51, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.22), unmarried (PR 2.06, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.76), had a higher level of tobacco dependence (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) and reported their health as fair or poor (PR 1.66, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.26) were more likely to have depression symptoms compared with HIV-positive smokers who were male, married, had a lower level of tobacco dependence and self-reported their health as good, very good or excellent. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among smokers receiving HIV care at HIV OPCs was high. Both depression and tobacco use screening and treatment should be included as part of ongoing care treatment plans at HIV OPCs.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smokers , Vietnam/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Prevalence , Ambulatory Care Facilities
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