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PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299728, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466736


Understanding the factors that influence smoking cessation among young people is crucial for planning targeted cessation approaches. The objective of this review was to comprehensively summarize evidence for predictors of different smoking cessation related behaviors among young people from currently available systematic reviews. We searched six databases and reference lists of the included articles for studies published up to October 20, 2023. All systematic reviews summarizing predictors of intention to quit smoking, quit attempts, or smoking abstinence among people aged 10-35 years were included. We excluded reviews on effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention; smoking prevention and other smoking behaviors; cessation of other tobacco products use, dual use, and polysubstance use. We categorized the identified predictors into 5 different categories for 3 overlapping age groups. JBI critical appraisal tool and GRADE-CERqual approach were used for quality and certainty assessment respectively. A total of 11 systematic reviews were included in this study; all summarized predictors of smoking abstinence/quit attempts and two also identified predictors of intention to quit smoking. Seven reviews had satisfactory critical appraisal score and there was minimal overlapping between the reviews. We found 4 'possible' predictors of intention to quit smoking and 119 predictors of smoking abstinence/quit attempts. Most of these 119 predictors were applicable for ~10-29 years age group. We had moderate confidence on the 'probable', 'possible', 'insufficient evidence', and 'inconsistent direction' predictors and low confidence on the 'probably unrelated' factors. The 'probable' predictors include a wide variety of socio-demographic factors, nicotine dependence, mental health, attitudes, behavioral and psychological factors, peer and family related factors, and jurisdictional policies. These predictors can guide improvement of existing smoking cessation interventions or planning of new targeted intervention programs. Other predictors as well as predictors of intention to quit smoking need to be further investigated among adolescents and young adults separately.

Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , Child , Adult , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Smoking , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoking , Smoking Prevention
Transl Behav Med ; 14(4): 241-248, 2024 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330454


Multilevel interventions in healthcare settings (e.g. Ask, Advise, and Connect; AAC) can reduce tobacco product use among adult patients: their effectiveness in pediatric practice is largely unknown. We implemented an AAC model in pediatric primary care to deter children's tobacco use, and evaluated its effectiveness in a single-arm trial. At wellness visits, young patients (ages 12-17) completed a tablet-based assessment (Ask) of lifetime and current tobacco use. These data were made available within the electronic health record to pediatric primary care providers for preventive counseling (Advise). Providers then referred patients to an e-health evidence-based tobacco control intervention (Connect). Tobacco control outcomes were examined in the clinic population (N = 2219) and in a sample of patients (N = 388, 62% female, 39% non-White, M age = 15) over time, along with intervention engagement. Population use of tobacco products decreased following introduction of AAC (more than 2-fold). At the patient level, most children (80.9%) engaged with the intervention: those who were Black or African American, who never used tobacco products/were not susceptible to use, and who used fewer non-cigarette tobacco products were more likely to engage, but only after multiple prompts versus a single prompt. Engagement was positively associated with lowering children's susceptibility to using tobacco at follow-up. A pediatric AAC model holds promise in deterring youth tobacco use, including among historically marginalized populations who may require additional support.

By implementing a multilevel Ask, Advise, and Connect intervention, pediatric tobacco use declined in a clinical population, with high intervention engagement and improved outcomes.

Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Control , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Counseling , Primary Health Care , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 36(1): 63-68, 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-231971


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el rechazo hacia los fumadores decara al establecimiento de una relación de pareja estable. La muestra constó de 445 participantes que fueron reclutados mediante el método de bola denieve. Se utilizó un cuestionario elaborado ad hoc que fue aplicado en líneade forma individual. Se evaluó la influencia del tabaquismo en la elecciónde pareja estable, estable con convivencia en el mismo hogar y estable conconvivencia en el hogar e hijos en común. Los resultados mostraron unimportante rechazo hacia personas fumadoras para los distintos tipos derelación. Se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en funcióndel nivel de estudios, el tabaquismo de los participantes y el tabaquismo desus parejas. Se encontró mayor nivel de rechazo hacia personas fumadorasen los participantes con estudios universitarios, en los no fumadores y enaquellos con pareja no fumadora. Los principales motivos de rechazohicieron referencia a higiene, salud y gasto económico. En conclusión, eltabaquismo puede obstaculizar el establecimiento de una relación de parejaestable. Este argumento podría ser incorporado al listado de inconvenientesasociados al tabaquismo de cara a la prevención y el tratamiento. (AU)

This study aimed to analyze the rejection towards smokers when considering a stable relationship. The sample included 445 participants who were recruited using the snowball method. A questionnaire created adhoc was answered online by each participant. The effect of tobacco usewas evaluated in choosing a stable partner, a stable partner to live with,and a stable partner to live with and have children. The results showed asignificant rejection towards smokers for the different types of relationships.Statistically significant differences were found depending on the participants’educational background and tobacco use, and their partner’s tobacco use.A higher level of rejection towards smokers was found in participants withuniversity studies, in non-smokers, and those with a non-smoker partner. Themain reasons for rejection were related to hygiene, health, and householdeconomy. In conclusion, tobacco use can interfere with the establishment ofa stable relationship. This argument could be added to the list of drawbacksassociated with tobacco use for prevention and treatment. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Marriage/psychology , Smoking/psychology
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(4)oct.-dic. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-226362


Objective: Reduced inhibitory control is a general characteristic of smokers and becomes increasingly pronounced in smoking-related contexts. However, research has rarely considered differences in the effects of various smoking-related cues. To fill this research gap, this study compared the effects of smoking object-related and smoking social-related cues on inhibitory control in smokers. Methods: We used a visual Go/NoGo paradigm with three types of long-lasting backgrounds (neutral, smoking object, and smoking social background) to record the error rates, reaction times, and amplitudes of the N2 and P3 event-related potentials (ERPs) by 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers. Results: (1) Smokers displayed smaller NoGo-N2 amplitudes than controls under the neutral background; (2) smokers displayed smaller NoGo-N2 amplitudes under the smoking social background and smoking object background than they did under the neutral background; (3) relative to neutral and smoking object backgrounds, smokers displayed higher commission error rates, shorter reaction times, and larger NoGo-P3 amplitudes under smoking social background. Conclusion: Smoking-related stimuli impair inhibitory control in smokers, especially when these stimuli are socially related. (AU)

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Smoking , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Tobacco Use , Cues , Smokers , China , Surveys and Questionnaires
Evid Based Dent ; 24(4): 159-160, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37857806


DESIGN: Narrative review. REVIEW QUESTION: What are the implications of new nicotine and tobacco products on adolescent health? PRODUCTS: E-cigarettes and oral nicotine products such as pouches, lozenges, tablets, gum, and gummies. RESULTS: These products can be addictive and can cause respiratory, cardiovascular and oral potential health problems. They also have effects on brain development. Products are attractive to adolescents, with more than 1:10 American adolescents uses them. CONCLUSIONS: The use of nicotine and tobacco products by adolescents puts their health at risk and may, in some instances, lead to nicotine addiction. Those providing healthcare for adolescents have an opportunity to provide advice and signpost people to resources to help them stop using such products. There is also a need for legislation to restrict the sale of e-cigarettes and tobacco products.

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adolescent , Humans , Nicotine/adverse effects , Tablets , Tobacco Products/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 35(4): 513-521, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37335268


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New nicotine and tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and oral nicotine products have increased in use and threaten to addict a new generation of youth. This review summarizes current literature on nicotine and tobacco products used by youth, epidemiology, health effects, prevention and treatment of nicotine dependence, and current policies and regulations. RECENT FINDINGS: Electronic cigarettes and oral nicotine products are popular among youth, attracting adolescents through exposure to deceptive marketing and fruit, candy and dessert flavors. Electronic cigarettes and oral nicotine product use can lead to nicotine addiction and is associated with respiratory, cardiovascular, and oral health problems, although long-term health effects are not fully known. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authority to regulate nicotine and tobacco products; however, thousands of unregulated and unauthorized products remain on the market. SUMMARY: Millions of adolescents continue to use nicotine and tobacco products, which puts them at risk for health problems, including nicotine addiction. Pediatric providers can provide prevention messages, screen youth for tobacco and nicotine use, and offer appropriate treatment options. Regulation of tobacco and nicotine products by the FDA is critical to reverse this public health epidemic of youth nicotine and tobacco use.

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Nicotine/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Smoking/epidemiology
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(3): 372-378, 2023 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752091


INTRODUCTION: How nicotine dependence will be affected when current smokers initiate electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use to reduce cigarette smoking is unknown. This study evaluated cigarette, e-cigarette, and total nicotine dependence more than 6 months among smokers reducing cigarette consumption by replacing with e-cigarettes. AIMS AND METHODS: Adult cigarette smokers were randomized to one of four conditions (36 mg/ml e-cigarette, 8 mg/ml e-cigarette, 0 mg/ml e-cigarette, or cigarette-substitute [CS] [provided at no cost]) and instructed to reduce their cigarette smoking by 75% at 1 month. Participants completed follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months. The Penn State Nicotine Dependence Index (PSNDI) measured dependence on cigarettes (PSCDI) and e-cigarettes (PSECDI). Urine cotinine measured total nicotine exposure. Linear mixed effects models for each outcome were conducted and included interaction terms between visit and condition. RESULTS: Participants (n = 520) were 58.8% female, 67.3% White, and 48.0 years old. At baseline, the median number of cigarettes smoked per day was 17.3 and the mean PSCDI score was 13.4, with no significant differences between conditions. Participants in the e-cigarette conditions reported significantly lower PSCDI scores, compared with baseline, and with the CS condition at all follow-up visits. Those in the 36 mg/ml e-cigarette condition reported greater PSECDI scores at 6 months, compared with baseline and the 0 mg/ml and 8 mg/ml conditions. At all follow-up visits, there were no differences in total nicotine exposure compared to baseline, nor between any conditions. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette use was associated with reduced cigarette dependence, compared to the CS, without significant increases in total nicotine exposure. IMPLICATIONS: Initiation of electronic cigarette use while continuing to smoke could potentially increase nicotine dependence. In this randomized trial aimed at helping smokers to reduce their cigarette intake, we found that use of an e-cigarette was associated with a reduction in cigarette dependence and an increase in e-cigarette dependence (in the condition with the highest nicotine concentration only), with no long term increase in total nicotine dependence or nicotine exposure.

Cigarette Smoking , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Nicotine , Smokers
J Adolesc Health ; 72(3): 359-364, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476393


PURPOSE: This paper determines the association between youth e-cigarette use "to try to quit using other tobacco products, such as cigarettes" and having stopped smoking cigarettes (defined as an ever cigarette smoker who did not smoke in the past 30 days). METHODS: This study uses data from the NYTS from 2015 through 2021, focusing on youth who started smoking cigarettes before they started using e-cigarettes. Associations between using e-cigarettes to quit and having stopped smoking were computed using logistic regression accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for level of nicotine dependence, year, age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Sensitivity analyses allowed for having started cigarettes and e-cigarettes in the same year and without regard for starting sequence. RESULTS: The primary analytic subsample included 6435 United States middle and high school students (mean age 15.9 years, 55.4% male). Using e-cigarettes to quit was associated with significantly lower odds of having stopped smoking cigarettes (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.85), controlling for nicotine dependence and demographics. Youth with higher levels of nicotine dependence also had lower odds of having stopped smoking. The results were stable over time. Sensitivity analyses produced similar results. DISCUSSION: Ever-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes "to try to quit using other tobacco products, such as cigarettes" had lower odds of having stopped smoking cigarettes than those who did not use e-cigarettes as to try to quit. Physicians, regulators, and educators should discourage youth from attempting to use e-cigarettes as a way to stop smoking cigarettes.

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adolescent , Male , Humans , United States , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Smoking