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1.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(6): 322, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822871

ABSTRACT

There is limited data assessing length of stay, cost of care, and differences in demographic data in hospitalized psoriasis patients with and without cardiovascular disease. Our study compares hospitalized psoriatic patients with and without comorbid cardiovascular disease for differences in length of stay and cost of care, as well as to assess differences in patient demographics. A cross-sectional study of hospital encounters of patients under the age of 60 with psoriasis in the National Inpatient Sample from 2016 to 2020 was performed using univariate analyses and a multivariable logistic regression model. A total of 2,485 psoriasis hospitalizations were included. 2,145 (86.3%) had psoriasis without cardiovascular disease and 340 (13.7%) had psoriasis with cardiovascular disease. Linear regression models identified significantly longer lengths of stay (Beta: 1.6; SE: 0.721; P = 0.030) and higher cost of care (Beta: 4,946; SE: 1,920; P = 0.011) in psoriasis patients with cardiovascular comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Length of Stay , Psoriasis , Humans , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , United States/epidemiology , Adolescent
2.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(6): 324, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822896

ABSTRACT

Alopecia areata (AA), depression, anxiety, and decreased quality of life are highly associated in the literature. It has been noted that there is an increased risk of substance use in those with AA to help cope with the psychological burdens and perceived stigmatization. This study aims to explore the relationship between substance use disorder (SUD) and scarring/non-scarring alopecia using the All of Us database. Of the 9,385 patients with alopecia, 8.4% had SUD of any kind. Multivariable regression revealed that alopecia is a potential protective factor against SUD when controlling for other covariates of significance, with a decreased odds of 0.73. Substance use disorder prevalence was not different between scarring and non-scarring alopecia. This may be the result of patients fearing exacerbation of hair loss, or due to increased mental health and community support in patients with alopecia. Dermatologists and primary care providers should continue to promote psychotherapy and community support to patients whose diagnosis of alopecia has a negative psychosocial impact.


Subject(s)
Alopecia Areata , Alopecia , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Middle Aged , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Alopecia/epidemiology , Alopecia/psychology , Prevalence , Alopecia Areata/epidemiology , Alopecia Areata/psychology , Alopecia Areata/diagnosis , Alopecia Areata/complications , Quality of Life , Young Adult , Aged , Cicatrix/psychology , Cicatrix/epidemiology , Cicatrix/etiology , Cicatrix/diagnosis , Adolescent
3.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 465-480, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828576

ABSTRACT

Homelessness is associated with poor health outcomes and early development of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the correlates of incident stroke and its association with mortality among Veterans experiencing housing instability. Using a national sample of Veterans (n=565,608) with incident housing instability between 2014-2018, we compared characteristics of Veterans who did and did not experience incident stroke and conducted logistic regressions to assess two outcomes: incident stroke and mortality. Almost four percent experienced a first stroke and were more frequently male, older than 55 years, Black, and non-Hispanic. A higher rate of mortality was observed among those with a first stroke compared with those with no stroke (17.6% vs. 10.8%), although the difference was not statistically significant. Incident stroke was associated with triple the odds of death among unstably-housed Veterans compared with those who did not have an incident stroke. Implications include the need to screen and monitor for stroke risk among Veterans with experience of housing instability, particularly for those who are older.


Subject(s)
Ill-Housed Persons , Stroke , Veterans , Humans , Male , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Female , Middle Aged , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Ill-Housed Persons/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Risk Factors
4.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 503-515, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828578

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of adverse social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDH) on health care use in a safety-net community hospital (SNCH) heart failure (HF) population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of HF patients at a single SNCH between 2018-2019 (N= 4594). RESULTS: At least one adverse SBDH was present in 21% of the study population. Patients with at least one adverse SBDH were younger (57 vs. 68 years), more likely to identify as Black (50% vs. 36%), be male (68% vs. 53%), and have Medicaid insurance (48% vs. 22%), p<.001. Presence of at least one adverse SBDH (homelessness, substance use, or incarceration) correlated with increased hospitalizations (2.3 vs 1.4/patient) and ED visits (5.1 vs 2.1/patient), p<.0001. Adverse SBDH were independent predictors of HF readmissions. Prescribing of guideline-directed medical therapy was similar among all patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a SNCH HF cohort, adverse SBDH predominantly afflict younger Black men on Medicaid and are associated with increased utilization.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Safety-net Providers , Social Determinants of Health , Humans , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Female , Aged , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology , Adult , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
5.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 605-618, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828584

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Haitian American population remains an important question. A recent study revealed an alarming prevalence of 39.9%. To corroborate these data, between November 2021 and September 2023 a representative sample was collected among 401 Haitian Americans in Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York. Results revealed a crude prevalence rate of 36.6% (95% CI 31.85, 41.55%). The age-adjusted prevalence was 29.7% (CI 19.71%, 39.63%). This study's prevalence is nearly double the 16.8% (Z=10.48, p<.0001) rate in non-Hispanic African Americans and nearly two and a half times the 12.0% (Z=14.99, p<.0001) rate in all Americans. The crude prevalence for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus was 13.38% (CI 10.19%, 17.14%), with 17.11% age-adjusted prevalence (CI 7.53%, 26.70%). The scope of the diabetes burden, especially the high rate of undiagnosed cases, indicates a need for better strategies for the prevention, screening, treatment, and management of diabetes among Haitian Americans.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Prevalence , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/ethnology , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Haiti/ethnology , Haiti/epidemiology , Aged , Young Adult , Adolescent , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 726-730, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828591

ABSTRACT

The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program is a unique federal program to provide HIV care, treatment, and support services for people living with HIV in the United States. Through the distinctive structure of the program that allows for addressing both medical needs and some of the social determinants of health that can pose barriers to accessing care, the program has been instrumental in improving outcomes for people with HIV with documented improvement in HIV viral suppression and decreased disparities in that outcome over the past decade. To reach the goal of ending the HIV epidemic in the U.S., the program must expand services to people with HIV who are not regularly engaged in medical care.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , United States/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Social Determinants of Health , Government Programs , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , White
7.
Clin Cardiol ; 47(6): e24277, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive hemodynamics are fundamental in assessing patients with advanced heart failure (HF). Several novel hemodynamic parameters have been studied; however, the relative prognostic potential remains ill-defined. HYPOTHESIS: Advanced hemodynamic parameters provide additional prognostication beyond the standard hemodynamic assessment. METHODS: Patients from the PRognostic Evaluation During Invasive CaTheterization for Heart Failure (PREDICT-HF) registry who underwent right heart catheterization (RHC) were included in the analysis. The primary endpoint was survival to orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) or durable left ventricular assist device (LVAD), or death within 6 months of RHC. RESULTS: Of 846 patients included, 176 (21%) met the primary endpoint. In a multivariate model that included traditional hemodynamic variables, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) (OR: 1.10, 1.04-1.15, p < .001), and cardiac index (CI) (OR: 0.86, 0.81-0.92, p < .001) were shown to be predictive of adverse outcomes. In a separate multivariate model that incorporated advanced hemodynamic parameters, cardiac power output (CPO) (OR: 0.76, 0.71-0.83, p < .001), aortic pulsatility index (API) (OR: 0.94, 0.91-0.96, p < .001), and pulmonary artery pulsatility index (OR: 1.02, 1.00-1.03, p .027) were all significantly associated with the primary outcome. Positively concordant API and CPO afforded the best freedom from the endpoint (94.7%), whilst negatively concordant API and CPO had the worst freedom from the endpoint (61.5%, p < .001). Those with discordant API and CPO had similar freedom from the endpoint. CONCLUSION: The advanced hemodynamic parameters API and CPO are independently associated with death or the need for OHT or LVAD within 6 months. Further prospective studies are needed to validate these parameters and elucidate their role in patients with advanced HF.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Catheterization , Heart Failure , Hemodynamics , Registries , Humans , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Failure/mortality , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Hemodynamics/physiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Prognosis , Aged , Risk Factors , Pulmonary Wedge Pressure/physiology , Heart-Assist Devices , Heart Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Time Factors , Predictive Value of Tests , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
9.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(5): e14801, 2024 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 2500 pediatric patients are awaiting kidney transplantation in the United States, with <5% comprising those ≤15 kg. Transplant in this cohort is often delayed by center-based growth parameters, often necessitating transplantation after the initiation of dialysis. Furthermore, prognostication remains somewhat ambiguous. In this report, we scrutinize the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) data from 2001 to 2021 to help better understand specific variables impacting graft and patient outcomes in these children. METHODS: The OPTN kidney transplant dataset from 2001 to 2021 was analyzed. Inclusion criteria included age <18 years, weight ≤15 kg, and recipient of primary living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) or deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT). Patient and graft survival probabilities were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and identify variables significantly associated with patient and graft survival. RESULTS: Two thousand one hundred sixty-eight pediatric transplant recipients met inclusion criteria. Patient survival at 1 and 3 years was 98% and 97%, respectively. Graft survival at 1 and 3 years was 95% and 92%, respectively. Dialysis was the sole significant variable impacting both patient and graft survival. Graft survival was further impacted by transplant era, recipient gender and ethnicity, and donor type. Infants transplanted at Age 1 had better graft survival compared with older children, and nephrotic syndrome was likewise associated with a better prognosis. CONCLUSION: Pediatric kidney transplantation is highly successful. The balance between preemptive transplantation, medical optimization, and satisfactory technical parameters seems to suggest a "Goldilocks zone" for many children, favoring transplantation between 1 and 2 years of age.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Graft Survival , Kidney Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Humans , Child , Female , Male , Tissue and Organ Procurement/methods , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Prognosis , Infant , United States/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Body Weight , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Proportional Hazards Models , Infant, Newborn
10.
MSMR ; 31(5): 2-8, 2024 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847619

ABSTRACT

Mortality surveillance is an important activity for capturing information on a population's health. This retrospective surveillance analysis utilizes administrative data sources to describe active duty U.S. Army soldiers who died from 2014 to 2019, and calculate mortality rates, assess trends by category of death, and identify leading causes of death within subpopulations. During the surveillance period, 2,530 soldier deaths were reported. The highest crude mortality rates observed during the 6-year surveillance period were for deaths by suicide, followed by accidental (i.e., unintentional injury) deaths. The crude mortality rates for natural deaths decreased significantly over the 6-year period, by an average of 6% annually. The leading causes of death were suicide by gunshot wound, motor vehicle accidents, suicide by hanging, neoplasms, and cardiovascular events. Significant differences were observed in the leading causes of death in relation to demographic characteristics, which has important implications for the development of focused educational campaigns to improve health behaviors and safe driving habits. Current public health programs to prevent suicide should be evaluated, with new approaches for firearm safety considered.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Military Personnel , Population Surveillance , Suicide , Humans , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Male , United States/epidemiology , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Retrospective Studies , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Wounds, Gunshot/mortality , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data
11.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 73(4): 1-18, 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833409

ABSTRACT

Problem/Condition: Elimination of tuberculosis (TB) is defined as reducing TB disease incidence in the United States to less than 1 case per million persons per year. In 2022, TB incidence in the United States was 2.5 TB cases per 100,000 persons. CDC's TB program developed a set of national TB indicators to evaluate progress toward TB elimination through monitoring performance of state and city TB program activities. Examining TB indicator data enables state- and city-level TB programs to identify areas for program evaluation and improvement activities. These data also help CDC identify states and cities that might benefit from technical assistance. Period Covered: The 5-year period for which the most recent data were available for each of five indicators: 1) overall TB incidence (2018-2022), 2) TB incidence among non-U.S.-born persons (2018-2022), 3) percentage of persons with drug susceptibility results reported (2018-2022), 4) percentage of contacts to sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive TB patients with newly diagnosed latent TB infection (LTBI) who completed treatment (2017-2021), and 5) percentage of patients with completion of TB therapy within 12 months (2016-2020). Description of System: The National TB Indicators Project (NTIP) is a web-based performance monitoring tool that uses national TB surveillance data reported through the National TB Surveillance System and the Aggregate Reports for TB Program Evaluation. NTIP was developed to facilitate the use of existing data to help TB program staff members prioritize activities, monitor progress, and focus program improvement efforts. The following five indicators were selected for this report because of their importance in Federal TB funding allocation and in accelerating the decline in TB cases: 1) overall TB incidence in the United States, 2) TB incidence among non-U.S.-born persons, 3) percentage of persons with drug susceptibility results reported, 4) percentage of contacts to sputum AFB smear-positive TB cases who completed treatment for LTBI, and 5) percentage of patients with completion of TB therapy within 12 months. For this report, 52 TB programs (50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City) were categorized into terciles based on the 5-year average number of TB cases reported to National TB Surveillance System. This grouping allows comparison of TB programs that have similar numbers of TB cases and allocates a similar number of TB programs to each category. The following formula was used to calculate the relative change by TB program for each indicator: [(% from year 5 - % from year 1 ÷ % from year 1) × 100]. Results: During the 5-year period for which the most recent data were available, most TB programs had improvements in reducing overall TB incidence (71.2%) and increasing the percentage of contacts receiving a diagnosis of LTBI who completed LTBI treatment (55.8%); the majority of programs (51.0%) also had improvements in reducing incidence among non-U.S.-born persons. The average percentage of persons with drug susceptibility results reported in most jurisdictions (28 of 52, [53.9%]) met or exceeded the 5-year national average of 97% (2018-2022). The percentage of contacts to sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive TB patients with newly diagnosed latent TB infection (LTBI) who completed treatment increased in 29 of 52 (55.8%) jurisdictions from 2017 to 2021, signifying that, for most jurisdictions, steps have been taken to enhance performance in this area. The average percentage of patients with completion of TB therapy within 12 months was at or above the national average of 89.7% in approximately two-thirds (32 of 52 [61.5%]) of jurisdictions. Interpretation: This report is the first to describe a 5-year relative change for TB program performance. These results suggest that TB programs are making improvements in activities that help identify persons with TB and LTBI and ensure patients complete treatment in a timely manner. Public Health Action: Use of NTIP data from individual TB programs enables a more detailed examination of trends in program performance and identification of areas for program improvement. Assessing indicator trends by TB program provides an opportunity to gain a better understanding of program performance in comparison to other programs. It can also facilitate communication between programs regarding successes and challenges in program improvement. This information is valuable for TB programs to allocate resources effectively and provide additional context on TB control for public health policymakers.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Program Evaluation , Tuberculosis , Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Incidence , United States/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis
12.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e083275, 2024 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The association between magnesium depletion score (MDS) and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been examined to date. Meanwhile, the potential impact of dietary magnesium intake on this association remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of dietary magnesium intake on the association between MDS and COPD incidence. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database, we analysed the relationship between MDS and COPD, while also exploring the role of dietary magnesium. RESULTS: A total of 39 852 participants, including 1762 patients with COPD and 38 090 patients with non-COPD, were included in the analysis. After adjusting for confounding factors, our results demonstrated a significant association between higher MDS and increased COPD incidence (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.99). Furthermore, it was observed that dietary magnesium intake did not significantly impact this association. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a significant positive correlation between MDS and the incidence of COPD. Nonetheless, no significant alteration in this association was observed with dietary magnesium intake.


Subject(s)
Magnesium Deficiency , Magnesium , Nutrition Surveys , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged , Magnesium/administration & dosage , Magnesium Deficiency/epidemiology , Magnesium Deficiency/complications , Aged , Incidence , Risk Factors , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Diet , Secondary Data Analysis
13.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 30(6): 588-598, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous condition with extensive psychiatric comorbidities. ADHD has been associated with substantial clinical and economic burden; however, little is known about the incremental burden specifically attributable to psychiatric comorbidities of ADHD in adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of psychiatric comorbidities, specifically anxiety and depression, on health care resource utilization (HRU) and costs in treated adults with ADHD in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective case-cohort study was conducted. Adults with ADHD were identified in the IQVIA PharMetrics Plus database (10/01/2015-09/30/2021). The index date was defined as the date of initiation of a randomly selected ADHD treatment. The baseline period was defined as the 6 months prior to the index date, and the study period as the 12 months following the index date. Patients with at least 1 diagnosis for anxiety and/or depression during both the baseline and study periods were classified in the ADHD+anxiety/depression cohort, whereas those without diagnoses for anxiety or depression at any time were classified in the ADHD-only cohort. Entropy balancing was used to create reweighted cohorts with similar baseline characteristics. All-cause HRU and health care costs were assessed during the study period and compared between cohorts using regression analyses. Cost analyses were also conducted in subgroups stratified by comorbid conditions. RESULTS: After reweighting, patients in the ADHD-only cohort (N = 276,906) and ADHD+anxiety/depression cohort (N = 217,944) had similar characteristics (mean age 34.1 years; 54.8% male). All-cause HRU was higher in the ADHD+anxiety/depression cohort than the ADHD-only cohort (incidence rate ratios for inpatient admissions: 4.5, emergency department visits: 1.8, outpatient visits: 2.0, and psychotherapy visits: 6.4; all P < 0.01). All-cause health care costs were more than 2 times higher in the ADHD+anxiety/depression cohort than the ADHD-only cohort (mean per-patient per-year [PPPY] costs in ADHD-only vs ADHD+anxiety/depression cohort: $5,335 vs $11,315; P < 0.01). Among the ADHD+anxiety/depression cohort, average all-cause health care costs were $9,233, $10,651, and $15,610 PPPY among subgroup of patients with ADHD and only anxiety, only depression, and both anxiety and depression, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid anxiety and depression is associated with additional HRU and costs burden in patients with ADHD. Comanagement of these conditions is important and has the potential to alleviate the burden experienced by patients and the health care system.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Comorbidity , Health Care Costs , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Humans , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/economics , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Male , Female , Retrospective Studies , Adult , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/economics , Young Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/economics , Cohort Studies , Adolescent
14.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 23(6): 480-484, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834209

ABSTRACT

Limited studies explore the role social determinants of health have on urban-rural health disparities, particularly for Skin of Color. To further evaluate this relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted on data from five states using the 2018 to 2021 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, a national state-run health survey. Prevalence of skin cancer history and urban/rural status were evaluated across these social determinants of health: sex, age, race, insurance status, number of personal healthcare providers, and household income. Overall, rural counterparts were significantly more likely to have a positive skin cancer history across most social determinants of health. Rural populations had a higher prevalence of skin cancer history across all races (P<.001). Rural non-Hispanic Whites had greater odds than their urban counterparts (OR=1.40; 95% CI 1.34 - 1.46). The odds were approximately twice as high for rural Black (OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.14 - 2.65), Hispanic (OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.56 - 3.41), and Other Race, non-Hispanic (OR=1.99; 95% CI 1.51 - 2.61), and twenty times higher for Asians (OR=20.46; 95% CI 8.63 - 48.54), although no significant difference was seen for American Indian/Alaskan Native (OR=1.5; 95% CI 0.99 - 2.28). However, when household income exceeded $100,000 no significant difference in prevalence or odds was seen between urban and rural settings. Despite increasing awareness of metropolitan-based health inequity, urban-rural disparities in skin cancer prevalence continue to persist and may be magnified by social determinants such as income and race. J Drugs Dermatol. 2024;23(6):480-484.    doi:10.36849/JDD.8094.


Subject(s)
Health Status Disparities , Rural Population , Skin Neoplasms , Skin Pigmentation , Social Determinants of Health , Humans , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/ethnology , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Young Adult , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology
15.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 85(2)2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836865

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Women veterans are more likely than men veterans to receive medications that Department of Veterans Affairs clinical practice guidelines recommend against to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To understand this difference, we examined potential confounders in incident prescribing of guideline discordant medications (GDMs) in veterans with PTSD.Methods: Veterans receiving care for PTSD during 2020 were identified using Veterans Health Administration administrative data. PTSD diagnosis was established by the presence of at least 1 ICD-10 coded outpatient encounter or inpatient hospitalization during the calendar year 2020. Incident GDM prescribing was assessed during 2021, including benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, select anticonvulsants, and select antidepressants. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate the difference in risk for GDM initiation between men and women, adjusted for patient, prescriber, and facility-level covariates, and to identify key confounding variables.Results: Of 704,699 veterans with PTSD, 16.9% of women and 10.1% of men initiated a GDM, an increased risk of 67% for women [relative risk (RR) = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.65-1.70]. After adjustment, the gender difference decreased to 1.22 (95% CI, 1.20-1.24) in a fully specified model. Three key confounding variables were identified: bipolar disorder (RR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.57-1.63), age (<40 years: RR = 1.20 [1.18-1.22]; 40-54 years: RR = 1.13 [1.11-1.16]; ≥65 years: RR = 0.64 [0.62-0.65]), and count of distinct psychiatric medications prescribed in the prior year (RR = 1.14; 1.13-1.14).Conclusions: Women veterans with PTSD were 67% more likely to initiate a GDM, where more than half of this effect was explained by bipolar disorder, age, and prior psychiatric medication. After adjustment, women veterans remained at 22% greater risk for an incident GDM, suggesting that other factors remain unidentified and warrant further investigation.


Subject(s)
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veterans , Humans , Female , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/drug therapy , Male , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Veterans/psychology , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Adult , Sex Factors , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use
16.
J Med Virol ; 96(6): e29722, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837255

ABSTRACT

Debates surrounding the efficacy of influenza vaccination for survival benefits persist, and there is a lack of data regarding its duration of protection. A self-controlled case series (SCCS) and a 1:4 matched case-control study were conducted using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and public-use mortality data from 2005 to 2018 in the United States. The SCCS study identified participants who received influenza vaccination within 12 months before the survey and subsequently died within 1 year of postvaccination. The matched case-control study paired participants who died during the influenza season at the time of survey with four survivors. Among 1167 participants in the SCCS study, there was a 46% reduction in all-cause mortality and a 43% reduction in cardiovascular mortality within 29-196 days of postvaccination. The greatest protection was observed during days 29-56 (all-cause mortality: RI: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.12-0.29; cardiovascular mortality: RI: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.14-0.56). Among 626 cases and 2504 controls included in the matched case-control study, influenza vaccination was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.92) and cardiovascular mortality (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.44-0.93) during the influenza season. This study highlights the importance of influenza vaccination in reducing the risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, with effects lasting for approximately 6 months.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Vaccination , Humans , Case-Control Studies , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Male , Female , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Aged , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult
17.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 35(6): e14169, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants. RSV bronchiolitis is associated with an increased risk of subsequent wheezing. We aimed to document the parents' perception of the link between RSV infection and subsequent wheezing, wheezing-related healthcare and family resources use, and its impact on family daily life. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey enrolled 1200 parents with at least one child ≤6y living in the United States, United Kingdom, Spain, and Italy. Children diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis before age of 2 years were included in the RSV group, and those never diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis in the Reference group. RESULTS: The odds of wheezing were 4.5-fold (95%CI 3.5-5.9) higher in the RSV than in the Reference group. The odds increased to 7.7-fold (95%CI 5.4-11.1) among children who were hospitalized, and 9-fold (95%CI 5.1-16.6) among those admitted to pediatric intensive care with RSV bronchiolitis. Similar trends were observed across all countries. In total, 57% of parents reported their child's wheezing to have moderate to severe impact on their emotional well-being, and 53% on their daily life activities and/or social life. 64% of parents reported moderate-severe impact of wheezing on child's quality of sleep and 49% and 46% reported a moderate-severe impact on their children's emotional well-being and physical activities. CONCLUSIONS: This survey suggests an association between RSV infection and subsequent wheezing in children across different countries. Wheezing, especially in association with RSV infection, was associated with increased healthcare utilization and costs, and significantly impacted parents' and children daily life.


Subject(s)
Parents , Respiratory Sounds , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Parents/psychology , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Italy/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Spain/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Adult , Child , Cost of Illness
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 315, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sleep health and obesity may affect the risk of female infertility. However, few studies focused on the interaction of obesity and sleep health on the female infertility risk. This study aimed to evaluate the combined impact of trouble sleeping / sleep duration and overweight/obesity/ abdominal obesity on the risk of female infertility. METHODS: The data for this cross-sectional study was obtained from National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, which provided information on trouble sleeping, sleep duration, overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, and confounding factors. Adopted weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to explore the relationship between trouble sleeping, sleep duration, overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, and the risk of infertility, respectively, and the combined effect of trouble sleeping and overweight/obesity, trouble sleeping and abdominal obesity, sleep duration and overweight/obesity, sleep duration and abdominal obesity, on the female infertility risk. RESULTS: This study included a total of 1,577 women, and 191 were diagnosed with infertility. Women with infertility had a higher proportion of people with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, sleep duration ≤ 7 h and trouble sleeping than those with non-infertility. The result indicated that trouble sleeping [odds ratio (OR) = 2.25, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.49-3.39], sleep duration ≤ 7 h (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.03-2.48), and the combined impact of abdominal obesity and trouble sleeping (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.28-3.72), abdominal obesity and sleep duration ≤ 7 h (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.17-3.40), overweight/obesity and trouble sleeping (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.24-4.26), and overweight/obesity and sleep duration ≤ 7 h (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.01-3.49) were associated with increased odds of infertility, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was combined effects of trouble sleeping/sleep duration ≤ 7 h and overweight/obesity/ abdominal obesity on increased odds of female infertility.


Subject(s)
Infertility, Female , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity, Abdominal , Obesity , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Female , Adult , Infertility, Female/epidemiology , Infertility, Female/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Obesity, Abdominal/complications , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Sleep/physiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/complications , Risk Factors , Young Adult , United States/epidemiology
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 316, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824532

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Bacterial vaginitis (BV) is a common vaginal disease. Vitamin E has been shown to reduce BV by enhancing immune function, but no studies have analyzed the relationship between vitamin E and BV at different BMIs and ages. METHOD: This study used 2242 participants from four cycles of NHANES 1999-2006 in American. Participants' vitamin E levels were divided into four groups, and analyses such as study population description, stratified analysis, multiple logistic regression analysis, and curve fitting were performed. To perform data processing, the researchers used the statistical package R (The R Foundation; http://www.r-project.org ; version 3.6.3) and Empower Stats software ( www.empowerstats.net , X&Y solutions, Inc. Boston, Massachusetts). RESULT: The concentrations of serum vitamin E were negatively correlated with the risk of BV, especially when vitamin E were at 1198-5459ug/dL with (OR = -0.443, 95%CI = 0.447-0.923, P = 0.032) or without (OR = -0.521, 95%CI = 0.421-0.837, P = 0.006) adjustment for variables. At the same time, at lower levels, there was no significant association. Vitamin E supplementation may significantly reduce the risk of BV (p < 0.001). In addition, the risk of having BV decreased and then increased with increasing vitamin E concentrations at high BMI levels (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Vitamin E at moderate to high concentrations may significantly reduce BV risk, says the study, providing clinical evidence for the prevention and the treatment of BV.


Subject(s)
Vaginosis, Bacterial , Vitamin E , Humans , Female , Vitamin E/blood , Vitamin E/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adult , Vaginosis, Bacterial/blood , Vaginosis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Body Mass Index , Nutrition Surveys , Young Adult , United States/epidemiology , Risk Factors
20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 23(1): 188, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Insulin resistance (IR) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD). However, it remains unclear whether triglyceride-glucose (TyG) related parameters, which serve as useful biomarkers to assess IR, have prognostic effects on mortality outcomes of MASLD. METHODS: Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database from 1999 to 2018 years were included. TyG and its related parameters [TyG-waist circumference (TyG-WC) and TyG-waist to height ratio (TyG-WHtR)] were calculated. Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression analysis, and restricted cubic splines (RCS) were conducted to evaluate the association between TyG-related indices with the all-cause and cardiovascular mortality of adults with MASLD. The concordance index (C-index) was used to evaluate the prediction accuracy of TyG-related indices. RESULTS: A total of 8208 adults (4209 men and 3999 women, median age 49.00 years) with MASLD were included in this study. Multivariate-adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that high quartile levels of TyG-related indices were significantly associated with the all-cause mortality of participants with MASLD [TyGadjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.50, P = 0.014; TyG-WCaHR for all-cause mortality = 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.52, P = 0.006; TyG-WHtRaHR for all-cause mortality = 1.50, 95% CI 1.25-1.80, P < 0.001; TyG-WCaHR for cardiovascular mortality = 1.81, 95% CI 1.28-2.55, P = 0.001; TyG-WHtRaHR for cardiovascular mortality = 2.22, 95% CI 1.55-3.17, P < 0.001]. The C-index of TyG-related indices for predicting all-cause mortality was 0.563 for the TyG index, 0.579 for the TyG-WC index, and 0.585 for the TyG-WHtR index, respectively. Regarding cardiovascular mortality, the C-index was 0.561 for the TyG index, 0.607 for the TyG-WC index, and 0.615 for the TyG-WHtR index, respectively. Nonlinear trends were observed between TyG and TyG-WC indices with all-cause mortality of MASLD (P < 0.001 and = 0.012, respectively). A non-linear relationship was observed between the TyG index and cardiovascular mortality of MASLD (P = 0.025). Subgroup analysis suggested that adults aged < 65 years old and those without comorbidities were more sensitive to the mortality prediction of TyG-related indices. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study highlight the predictive value of TyG-related indices, especially the TyG-WHtR index, in the mortality outcomes of adults with MASLD. TyG-related indices would be surrogate biomarkers for the clinical management of MASLD.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Blood Glucose , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Insulin Resistance , Nutrition Surveys , Triglycerides , Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Triglycerides/blood , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Biomarkers/blood , United States/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Adult , Time Factors , Databases, Factual , Aged , Risk Factors , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/mortality , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies
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