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1.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 86-92, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626946

ABSTRACT

This case-control study using baseline data from the population cohort Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® compared lifetime history of concussion between children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a greater lifetime history of concussion than children without ADHD. Children were recruited from schools across the United States, sampled to provide strong generalizability to the US population. The current sample included 10,585 children (age: mean = 9.9; standard deviation = 0.6; range 9-10 years; 48.9% girls; 64.6% White), including 1085 with ADHD and 9500 without ADHD. The prevalence of prior concussion among children with ADHD was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6-7.8%) compared with 3.2% (3.1-3.3%) among children without ADHD, meaning current ADHD status was associated with twice the odds of experiencing a prior concussion [χ2 = 44.54; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.34 (1.81-3.03)]. No significant differences were observed in proportion of boys and girls with ADHD who had a prior concussion history. The number of current ADHD symptoms were not meaningfully associated with prior concussion history. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower rates of reported concussion, but not differentially in association with ADHD. ADHD is associated with twice the lifetime prevalence of prior concussion before age 11 among children from the general U.S. population. Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ in proportions with prior concussion and concussion history was not related to the number of ADHD symptoms reported by parents.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Brain Concussion , Adolescent , Athletes/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Brain Concussion/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(4): 570-583, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999751

ABSTRACT

We estimated the trends and correlates of vaccine hesitancy and its association with subsequent vaccine uptake among 5,458 adults in the United States. Participants belonged to the Communities, Households, and SARS-CoV-2 Epidemiology COVID (CHASING COVID) Cohort, a national longitudinal study. Trends and correlates of vaccine hesitancy were examined longitudinally in 8 interview rounds from October 2020 to July 2021. We also estimated the association between willingness to vaccinate and subsequent vaccine uptake through July 2021. Vaccine delay and refusal decreased from 51% and 8% in October 2020 to 8% and 6% in July 2021, respectively. Compared with non-Hispanic (NH) White participants, NH Black and Hispanic participants had higher adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for both vaccine delay (for NH Black, aOR = 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.7), and for Hispanic, 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.7)) and vaccine refusal (for NH Black, aOR = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.8, 3.6), and for Hispanic, 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.0)) in June 2021. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, compared with vaccine-willingness, was associated with lower odds of subsequent vaccine uptake (for vaccine delayers, aOR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.18; for vaccine refusers, aOR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03 ), adjusted for sociodemographic factors and COVID-19 history. Vaccination awareness and distribution efforts should focus on vaccine delayers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
Ethn Dis ; 32(2): 75-80, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497393

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Generation 1.5, immigrants who moved to a different country before adulthood, are hypothesized to have unique cognitive and behavioral patterns. We examined the possible differences in cigarette smoking between Asian subpopulations who arrived in the United States at different life stages. Methods: Using the Asian subsample of the 2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, we tested this Generation 1.5 hypothesis with their smoking behavior. This dataset was chosen because its large sample size allowed for a national-level analysis of the Asian subsamples by sex, while other national datasets might not have adequate sample sizes for analysis of these subpopulations. The outcome variable was defined as whether the survey respondent had ever smoked 100 cigarettes or more, with the key independent variable operationalized as whether the respondent was: 1) born in the United States; 2) entered the United States before 12; 3) entered between 12 and 19; and 4) entered after 19. Logistic regressions were run to examine the associations with covariates including the respondent's age, educational attainment, and household income. Results: Asian men who entered before 12 were less likely to have ever smoked 100 cigarettes than those who immigrated after 19; for Asian women, three groups (born in the United States, entered before 12, entered between 12 and 19) were more likely to have smoked 100 cigarettes than those who immigrated after 19. Conclusions: While Asian men who came to the United States before 12 were less at risk for cigarette smoking than those who immigrated in adulthood, the pattern was the opposite among Asian women. Those who spent their childhood in the United States were more likely to smoke than those who came to the United States in adulthood. These patterns might result from the cultural differences between US and Asian countries, and bear policy relevance for the tobacco control efforts among Asian Americans.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , Cigarette Smoking , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco Use , United States/epidemiology
4.
Ethn Dis ; 32(2): 151-164, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497401

ABSTRACT

Inadequate attention to racial health equity is a common challenge to effective, reliable monitoring and mitigation of COVID-19 disparities. Efforts to monitor and mitigate COVID-19 disparities continue to be hampered by inadequacies in how surveillance systems collect, tabulate, and report COVID-19-related outcomes. We conducted environmental scans of existing public health surveillance systems and reporting standards, literature reviews, focus groups with surveillance experts, and consultations with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and an expert panel on surveillance to identify and explore strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in how existing systems monitor COVID-19 and their implications for addressing disparities in related outcomes. We present recommendations based on these reviews and propose a core minimum set of health indicators and best-practice standards for reporting these indicators by COVID-19 surveillance systems to monitor racial/ethnic and other disparities in the pandemic. These recommendations are relevant to monitoring disparities in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and may inform monitoring of future epidemics. This discussion is part of an effort by Project REFOCUS to develop syndemic surveillance systems for monitoring the intersecting pandemics of COVID-19 and racism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , Racism , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
5.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(5): 279-284, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502553

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic overloaded health care systems around the globe and brought travel restrictions and other mandates. These effects critically impacted cancer care and conduct of clinical trials, and required medical and research communities to incorporate changes and novel flexible workflows within clinical trials and regulations to improve efficiency. We report the impact of the pandemic on cancer prevention clinical trials managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention within the NCI, focusing on participant-centric, study staff-centric and regulatory elements. Learning lessons from this challenging period, the cancer prevention community has the opportunity to incorporate many of these necessitated novel approaches to future design of clinical trials, to streamline and improve clinical trial efficiency and impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Pandemics , Research Design , United States/epidemiology
6.
BMJ ; 377: e069164, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare treatment and outcomes for patients admitted to hospital with a primary diagnosis of ST elevation or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI or NSTEMI) in six high income countries with very different healthcare delivery systems. DESIGN: Retrospective cross sectional cohort study. SETTING: Patient level administrative data from the United States, Canada (Ontario and Manitoba), England, the Netherlands, Israel, and Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 66 years and older admitted to hospital with STEMI or NSTEMI between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2017. OUTCOMES MEASURES: The three categories of outcomes were coronary revascularisation (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery), mortality, and efficiency (hospital length of stay and 30 day readmission). Rates were standardised to the age and sex distribution of the US acute myocardial infarction population in 2017. Outcomes were assessed separately for STEMI and NSTEMI. Performance was evaluated longitudinally (over time) and cross sectionally (between countries). RESULTS: The total number of hospital admissions ranged from 19 043 in Israel to 1 064 099 in the US. Large differences were found between countries for all outcomes. For example, the proportion of patients admitted to hospital with STEMI who received percutaneous coronary intervention in hospital during 2017 ranged from 36.9% (England) to 78.6% (Canada; 71.8% in the US); use of percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI increased in all countries between 2011 and 2017, with particularly large rises in Israel (48.4-65.9%) and Taiwan (49.4-70.2%). The proportion of patients with NSTEMI who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery within 90 days of admission during 2017 was lowest in the Netherlands (3.5%) and highest in the US (11.7%). Death within one year of admission for STEMI in 2017 ranged from 18.9% (Netherlands) to 27.8% (US) and 32.3% (Taiwan). Mean hospital length of stay in 2017 for STEMI was lowest in the Netherlands and the US (5.0 and 5.1 days) and highest in Taiwan (8.5 days); 30 day readmission for STEMI was lowest in Taiwan (11.7%) and the US (12.2%) and highest in England (23.1%). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of myocardial infarction in six high income countries, all countries had areas of high performance, but no country excelled in all three domains. Our findings suggest that countries could learn from each other by using international comparisons of patient level nationally representative data.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developed Countries , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Ontario , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(18): e149, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comparison of the prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders (CMDs) and comorbidities in Korea and the United States (US) can be an important indicator for forecasting future risk of cardiovascular events in Korea. This study aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korea and the US. METHODS: A total of 15,872 individuals from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2014 and 26,492 from the Korea NHANES (KNHANES) 2007-2014 were included. Additionally, 164,339 (139,345 from the Health Examinees-Gem Study and 24,994 from the Cardiovascular Disease Association Study) participants enrolled in the Korea Genome and Epidemiology Study were included to investigate the differences of CMDs between urban and rural regions. To estimate the age-standardized prevalence of CMDs in individuals aged 40-69 years, direct standardization using the World Health Organization standard population was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of CMDs was lower in Korea than the US (hypertension 49.9% vs. 56.8%; DM 13.4% vs. 14.3%; hypercholesterolemia 16.8% vs. 17.8%; obesity 36.2% vs. 38.6%; and MetS 29.4% vs. 36.5%). According to the median survey years, dyslipidemia has become more prevalent in Korea than in the US since 2010. The prevalence of CMDs was greater in rural than that in urban areas in Korea. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Korea exceeded that of the US after 2010, which was associated with increasing burden of cardiovascular events. The present study suggests that further preventive strategies are needed to mitigate the prevalence of CMDs in Korea.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 590, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: States enacted tort reforms to lower medical malpractice liability, which are associated with higher surgery rates among Medicare patients with shoulder conditions. Surgery in this group often entails tradeoffs between improved health and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We assessed whether differences in surgery rates across states with different liability rules are associated with surgical outcomes among Medicare patients with proximal humeral fracture. METHODS: We obtained data for 67,966 Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of proximal humeral fracture in 2011. Outcome measures included adverse events, mortality, and treatment success rates, defined as surviving the treatment period with < $300 in shoulder-related expenditures. We used existing state-level tort reform rules as instruments for surgical treatment and separately as predictors to answer our research question, both for the full cohort and for stratified subgroups based on age and general health status measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index and Function-Related Indicators. RESULTS: We found a 0.32 percentage-point increase (p < 0.05) in treatment success and a 0.21 percentage-point increase (p < 0.01) in mortality for every 1 percentage-point increase in surgery rates among patients in states with lower liability risk. In subgroup analyses, mortality increased among more vulnerable patients, by 0.29 percentage-point (p < 0.01) for patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index > = 2 and by 0.45 percentage-point (p < 0.01) among those patients with Function-Related Indicator scores > = 2. On the other hand, treatment success increased in patients with lower Function-Related Index scores (< 2) by 0.54 percentage-point (p < 0.001). However, younger Medicare patients (< 80 years) experienced an increase in both mortality (0.28 percentage-point, p < 0.01) and treatment success (0.89 percentage-point, p < 0.01). The reduced-form estimates are consistent with our instrumental variable results. CONCLUSIONS: A tradeoff exists between increased mortality risk and increased treatment success across states with different malpractice risk levels. These results varied across patient subgroups, with more vulnerable patients generally bearing the brunt of the increased mortality and less vulnerable patients enjoying increased success rates. These findings highlight the important risk-reward scenario associated with different liability environments, especially among patients with different health status.


Subject(s)
Malpractice , Shoulder Fractures , Aged , Humans , Humerus , Liability, Legal , Medicare , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Shoulder , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , United States/epidemiology
10.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 25, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is recognized as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Dietary fiber is strongly correlated with CVDs. However, the effect of dietary fiber on AAC in the population is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between dietary fiber intake and AAC in the US adult population. METHODS: A total of 2671 individuals with both dietary fiber intake and AAC score data were enrolled from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional health examination in the US. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). To reveal the relationship between dietary fiber intake and AAC, restricted cubic spline was also applied. RESULTS: Out of the total participants, 241 (9%) had severe AAC and 550 (20%) had mild-moderate AAC. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that higher intake of dietary fiber was associated with lower risk of severe AAC, but not with lower risk of mild-moderate AAC. For every one standard deviation increase (9.4 g/day) in dietary fiber intake, the odds of severe AAC were reduced by 28% [OR 0.72 (95% CI, 0.57-0.90), p = 0.004], after adjusting for confounding factors. Dose-response relationship revealed that dietary fiber intake was negatively correlated with severe AAC (p for linear < 0.001, p for nonlinear = 0.695). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary fiber intake was negatively associated with severe AAC, and showed a dose-response relationship in US adults.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases , Vascular Calcification , Adult , Aorta, Abdominal , Aortic Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Fiber , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
11.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(3): 194-201, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524354

ABSTRACT

Background: Telehealth use increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to provide patient care while deferring to social distancing recommendations. Objective: Health-care provider and patient surveys were conducted to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the use and perception of telehealth visits for atopic and respiratory diseases. Methods: Health-care provider (N = 200) and patient (N = 200) surveys were conducted in the United States between September and October, 2020, and January, 2021. The participants were required to have used telehealth before or after March 1, 2020, the cutoff date selected to represent the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Before the pandemic, 40% of the health-care provider participants were conducting telehealth visits, which increased to 100% after the pandemic started. The average time spent per telehealth visit with patients increased from 13 to 16 minutes. A higher percentage of family medicine physicians/pediatricians had access to most monitoring tools than allergy/dermatology specialists both before the pandemic and after the pandemic started. Practice expenses reportedly increased after the pandemic started for 42% of participants. Before the pandemic, 27% of the patient participants used telehealth, which increased to 94% after the pandemic started. Ratings of "good" or "excellent" for the overall telehealth experience by the health-care provider participants improved from 44% before to 60% after the pandemic started, and by the patient participants improved from 77% to 88%. The willingness by the health-care provider participants to recommend telehealth to colleagues improved from 73% before to 83% after the pandemic started. The willingness by the patient participants to use telehealth again dropped slightly, from 94% to 89%. Conclusion: Telehealth visits for atopic and respiratory diseases increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth experiences were overall positive, particularly for the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration Disorders , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , United States/epidemiology
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 912, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Areca nut (AN) is an addictive substance consumed in the Southeast region and is highly associated with oral premalignant lesions and oral cancer. The impact of AN use in the United States (US) is largely unknown, but the products are readily available and probably used by a significant fraction of Asian immigrants or descendants living in the US. We aimed at assessing AN use prevalence among the Asian community in Houston, Texas. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire was used to interview adult individuals (≥ 18 years of age) who self-identified as Asian immigrants or descendants residing in Houston. Means, frequencies, and proportions were reported. Factors associated with AN use were evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS: We surveyed 275 individuals (58% women, 43% between 35-54 years old, 67% born outside of the US, and 6% concurrent smokers). Among respondents, 91% were familiar with AN products, 17% self-reported ever use of AN products in the US, and 31% had friends/family members who were AN ever users. AN use was significantly associated with being Indian Subcontinent immigrants or descendants (ISID) (OR = 3·9; CI: 1·10,13·81; p = 0·035) and having friends/family members using AN products (OR = 6·2; CI: 1·69, 22·69; p = 0·006). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide quantitative data on the prevalence of AN ever use and context for future AN prevention and cessation interventions specific to the Southeast Asian groups living in the US mainland. This is crucial for the prevention and control of oral cancer and other detrimental conditions related to AN consumption.


Subject(s)
Mouth Neoplasms , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Areca , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Nuts , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(18): 1802-1813, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preventive therapy among patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is generally underused. Whether new guideline recommendations and a focus on implementation have improved the use of high-intensity statins is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the patterns and predictors of statin use among patients with ASCVD. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, pharmacy and medical claims data from a commercial health plan were queried for patients with established ASCVD between January 31, 2018, and January 31, 2019. Statin use on an index date of January 31, 2019, was evaluated, as was 12-month adherence and discontinuation. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine independent associations with statin use of varying intensities. RESULTS: Of the 601,934 patients with established ASCVD, 41.7% were female, and the mean age was 67.5 ± 13.3 years. Overall, 22.5% of the cohort were on a high-intensity statin, 27.6% were on a low- or moderate-intensity statin, and 49.9% were not on any statin. In multivariable analysis, younger patients, female patients, and those with higher Charlson comorbidity score were less likely to be prescribed any statin. Among statin users, female patients, older patients, and those with peripheral artery disease were less likely to be on a high-intensity formulation, whereas a cardiology encounter in the prior year increased the odds. The majority of high-intensity stain users achieved high levels of adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial underuse of statins persists in a large, insured, and contemporary cohort of patients with ASCVD from the United States. In particular, concerning gaps in appropriate statin use remain among younger patients, women, and those with noncoronary ASCVD.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/drug therapy , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
16.
Obstet Gynecol Surv ; 77(5): 293-301, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522431

ABSTRACT

Importance: Suicide is a leading cause of death in the United States, with increasing rates among women. Women are more likely to experience suicidal ideation and engage in suicide behavior than men, and risk is elevated at key points where they may engage in care with a women's health care provider. Objective: This review describes the prevalence of and risk factors for suicide among women and highlights the role of obstetrician-gynecologists in suicide prevention. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO search was completed for English-language publications about suicide among women, including subtopics (eg, perinatal suicide, suicide during perimenopause). Results: There are overlapping risk factors that contribute to suicide among women, including intimate partner violence and substance use. Specific groups of women may present with unique risk factors, such as women veterans, women in rural areas, and women with preexisting mental health diagnoses, particularly serious mental illnesses. Some women at risk for suicide are not seen in clinical settings, and thus community interventions may be beneficial. There are roles for obstetrician-gynecologists within and outside of the clinic to prevent suicide. Conclusions and Relevance: Obstetrician-gynecologists can save lives by being aware of the prevalence of suicide ideation and behavior among women, understanding risk factors for suicide over the lifespan, regularly screening for these factors, asking directly about suicide ideation and intent, and being aware of clinical and community resources. Outside of the clinic, they can advocate for increased health care access and community-based interventions. These efforts can contribute to the reduction of preventable death and maternal mortality.


Subject(s)
Intimate Partner Violence , Suicidal Ideation , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Male , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs ; 49(3): 211-219, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523235

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of pressure injury (PI) prevention strategies in adult acute care settings in the United States using the data from the 2018/2019 International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence (IPUP) Survey. DESIGN: Observational, cohort study with cross-sectional data collection and retrospective data analysis. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The sample comprised 296,014 patients hospitalized in 1801 acute care facilities in the United States that participated in the 2018 and/or 2019 IPUP Survey. Slightly less than half (49.4%, n = 146,231) were male, 50% (n = 148,997) were female, 0.6% (n = 17,760) were unknown. Their mean age was 64.29 (SD 17.2) years. METHODS: Data from the 2018/2019 IPUP database were analyzed to evaluate the implementation of prevention strategies including repositioning, support surface use, head-of-bed (HOB) elevation, heel elevation, moisture management, minimizing linen layers, and nutritional support. Practices were analyzed for differences between patients without pressure injuries, and patients with Stage 1 and 2 hospital-acquired pressure injury (HAPI), and those with severe HAPIs (Stage 3, Stage 4, unstageable, and deep tissue pressure injury). Acute care unit types included critical or intensive care units, medical-surgical inpatient care units, and step-down units. RESULTS: Compliance rates to PI prevention strategies varied among patients at risk for HAPIs (Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk score ≤18). Daily skin assessment was performed for 86% of patients with no HAPIs and 96.8% of patients with severe HAPIs. Pressure redistribution was used in 74.6% of all patients and in over 90% of patients with severe HAPIs; however, compliance to routine repositioning was reported at lower levels between 67% and 84%, respectively. Heel elevation was reported for over 60% of the patients with severe HAPIs while 31.9% did not receive heel elevation, though only 6% were reported as not needing elevation. The majority of patients had HOB greater than the 30° at the time of the data collection; compliance with minimizing linen layers (≤3) was reported in 76% or more. Moisture management strategies were reportedly used in more than 71% of all patients and 89% for patients with severe HAPIs. Nutrition support was used for 55% to 82% of the patients and only documented as contraindicated in fewer than 2% of all groups. CONCLUSION: Study findings revealed substantial compliance rates to PI prevention strategies. Nevertheless, there is potential for improvement in the implementation of some of the most basic prevention strategies including repositioning, heel elevation, nutritional support, and moisture management.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Pressure Ulcer , Adult , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
18.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 33(3): 259-269, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500057

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Women living with HIV have a higher burden of non-AIDS comorbidities and prevalence of chronic conditions. The Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness clarifies living with complex health challenges by delineating the technical work of health care providers as well as the adaptive work and leadership behaviors of patients and their providers. We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study of women residing in the Southern United States who were participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study in North Carolina. Twenty-two participants (mean age = 52.2 years; 90.9% self-identifying as Black or African American) completed semi-structured qualitative interviews. We identified adaptive challenges (e.g., affective and disclosure challenges) and adaptive work and leadership behaviors. Women learned skills to care for their health and support their families and to work with their providers to manage their care. Findings support the importance of identifying leadership behaviors for the purpose of developing person-centered interventions.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Leadership , African Americans/psychology , Chronic Disease , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , North Carolina/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , United States/epidemiology
20.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 104(9): 774-779, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the association between sex hormone deficiency and rotator cuff repair (RCR) with use of data from a large United States insurance database. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of insured subjects from the Truven Health MarketScan database was conducted, collecting data for RCR cases as well as controls matched for age, sex, and years in the database. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for matching variables were utilized to compare RCR status with estrogen deficiency status and testosterone deficiency status. These associations were confirmed with use of data from the Veterans Genealogy Project database, with which the relative risk of RCR was estimated for patients with and without sex hormone deficiency. RESULTS: The odds of RCR for female patients with estrogen deficiency were 48% higher (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 1.51; p < 0.001) than for those without estrogen deficiency. The odds of RCR for males with testosterone deficiency were 89% higher (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.82 to 1.96; p < 0.001) than for those without testosterone deficiency. Within the Veterans Genealogy Project database, the relative risk of estrogen deficiency among RCR patients was 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 2.15 to 3.06; p < 0.001) and the relative risk of testosterone deficiency was 3.05 (95% confidence interval, 2.67 to 3.47; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Sex hormone deficiency was significantly associated with RCR. Future prospective studies will be necessary to understand the pathophysiology of rotator cuff disease as it relates to sex hormones. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Subject(s)
Insurance , Rotator Cuff Injuries , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Estrogens , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Rotator Cuff/surgery , Rotator Cuff Injuries/epidemiology , Rotator Cuff Injuries/etiology , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery , Testosterone , United States/epidemiology
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