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1.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 78(9)1-15 may 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-CR-366

ABSTRACT

Introducción Presentamos un paciente diagnosticado de narcolepsia de tipo 1 que desarrolló una encefalitis autoinmune posvacunal y/o tras una infección por el SARS-CoV-2. Caso clínico Paciente de 23 años que es remitido a urgencias por trastorno del lenguaje y temblor, acompañados de cefalea, trastorno del comportamiento, disfunción autonómica, crisis focal motora derecha y letargo. El paciente había sido vacunado siete semanas antes con la primera dosis de la vacuna Moderna (ARN mensajero) y, cuatro semanas después de la vacunación, presentó una infección por el SARS-CoV-2 con test de antígenos positivo. Resultados La exploración neurológica mostró un nivel de conciencia normal y una afasia mixta de predominio motor (campimetría, pares craneales, reflejos y sensibilidad normales). El test de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la COVID-19 fue negativo. En el líquido cefalorraquídeo se apreció una linfocitosis y proteínas elevadas. Los cultivos para hongos y bacterias fueron negativos. Los anticuerpos onconeuronales fueron normales. La resonancia magnética cerebral mostró en la secuencia de difusión una restricción con afectación cortical y morfología giral en el hemisferio cerebral izquierdo, y distribución parcheada con afectación de lóbulo frontal y temporal izquierdos. Una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax-abdomen-pelvis fue normal, al igual que las ecografías pélvica y escrotal. Al paciente se le trató con plasmaféresis y corticoides, con buena evolución clínica y resolución casi completa de las anomalías en la neuroimagen. Conclusión Se trata de un paciente con narcolepsia de tipo 1 con criterios de encefalitis autoinmune de comienzo subagudo. La infección por el SARS-CoV-2 o la vacunación, o ambas, constituyen un riesgo para desarrollar una o más enfermedades autoinmunes con la edad –como sucede en este caso–, lo que permite comprender la implicación de procesos inmunomediados en la fisiopatología de estas enfermedades. (AU)


INTRODUCTION We present a narcolepsy type 1 patient that develop an autoimmune encephalitis post vaccine and/or a SARS-CoV-2 infection.CASE REPORTAt 23 years old, the patient was referred to the emergency room with difficult speaking, headache and tremor followed by changes in behavior, autonomic dysfunction, right focal motor seizure and lethargy. He has received seven weeks before mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine followed by a SARS-CoV-2 infection four weeks after vaccination (positive antigen test).RESULTSThe neurological examination was normal (visual fields, cranial nerves, motor, sensory and reflexes). Nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for COVID-19 was negative. Cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) had highly elevated protein and lymphocytic pleocytosis. CSF bacterial and fungal cultures for viral infections were negative. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormality on the non-enhanced sequences but the diffusion weighted imaging showed restricted diffusion with high signal on the left hemisphere mainly in the cerebral cortex with a gyro morphology, patched distribution with involvement of the temporal and frontal lobes. Chest, abdomen and pelvis computed tomography; pelvic and scrotum ultrasound, showed no malignancy. Onconeural antibodies were negative. The patient was treated with plasmapheresis and corticosteroids with a good clinical outcome and near complete resolution of the MRI abnormalities. CONCLUSION. The patient fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for autoimmune encephalitis with subacute onset. COVID-19 infection and vaccination could constitute a risk in a patient with narcolepsy as in this case and, could help to provide better understanding of the implication of immune-mediated processes in the pathophysiology of the diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Comorbidity , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Vaccination/adverse effects , Narcolepsy
2.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(4): e14786, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adult kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) fully vaccinated against COVID-19 have substantial morbidity and mortality related to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with the general population. However, little is known regarding the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccination series in pediatric KTRs. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective observational study was performed across nine pediatric transplantation centers. Eligible KTRs fully vaccinated against COVID-19 were enrolled and data were collected pertaining to SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence and severity, graft outcomes and post-vaccination safety profile, as well as overall patient survival. RESULTS: A total of 247 patients were included in this investigation with a median age at transplantation of 11 years (IQR 5-15). SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed in 30/110 (27.27%) of fully vaccinated patients, tested post-transplant, within the defined follow-up period. Of these patients, 6/30 (18.18%) required hospitalization and 3/30 (12.12%) required reduction in immunosuppression, with no reported deaths. De novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) were found in 8/86 (9.30%) of DSA-tested patients with two experiencing rejection and subsequent graft loss. The overall incidence of rejection and graft loss among the total cohort was 11/247 (4.45%) and 6/247 (3.64%), respectively. A 100% patient survival was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Observationally, infectious outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 in fully vaccinated pediatric KTRs are excellent, with a low incidence of infection requiring hospitalization and no associated deaths. Though de novo DSAs were observed, there was minimal graft rejection and graft loss reported in the total cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Child , Male , Retrospective Studies , Female , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Transplant Recipients , Incidence , Vaccination , Graft Survival
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11467, 2024 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769324

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines have been effective in preventing severe illness, hospitalization and death, however, the effectiveness diminishes with time. Here, we evaluated the longevity of antibodies generated by COIVD-19 vaccines and the risk of (re)infection in Bangladeshi population. Adults receiving two doses of AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Moderna or Sinopharm vaccines were enrolled at 2-4 weeks after second dosing and followed-up at 4-monthly interval for 1 year. Data on COVID-like symptoms, confirmed COVID-19 infection, co-morbidities, and receipt of booster dose were collected; blood was collected for measuring spike (S)- and nucleocapsid (N)-specific antibodies. S-specific antibody titers reduced by ~ 50% at 1st follow-up visit and continued to decline unless re-stimulated by booster vaccine dose or (re)infection. Individuals infected between follow-up visits showed significantly lower S-antibody titers at preceding visits compared to the uninfected individuals. Pre-enrolment infection between primary vaccination dosing exhibited 60% and 50% protection against reinfection at 5 and 9 months, respectively. mRNA vaccines provided highest odds of protection from (re)infection up to 5 months (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.08), however, protection persisted for 9 months in AstraZeneca vaccine recipients (OR = 0.06). In conclusion, vaccine-mediated protection from (re)infection is partially linked to elevated levels of S-specific antibodies. AstraZeneca vaccine provided the longest protection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Male , Female , Adult , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult , Immunization, Secondary
4.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 71, 2024 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although vaccination against coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has several side effects, hypopituitarism due to hypophysitis has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old healthy woman, who had received her fourth COVID-19 vaccine dose 2 days before admission, presented to the emergency department with difficulty moving. On examination, impaired consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale: 14) and fever were observed. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed swelling from the sella turcica to the suprasellar region. Her morning serum cortisol level was low (4.4 µg/dL) and adrenocorticotropic hormone level was normal (21.6 pg/mL). Central hypothyroidism was also suspected (thyroid stimulating hormone, 0.46 µIU/mL; free triiodothyronine, 1.86 pg/mL; free thyroxine, 0.48 ng/dL). Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency, growth hormone deficiency, delayed gonadotropin response, and elevated prolactin levels were also observed. After administration of prednisolone and levothyroxine, her consciousness recovered. On the 7th day of admission, the patient developed polyuria, and arginine vasopressin deficiency was diagnosed using a hypertonic saline test. On the 15th day, the posterior pituitary gland showed a loss of high signal intensity and the polyuria resolved spontaneously. On the 134th day, the corticotropin-releasing hormone loading test showed a normal response; however, the thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test showed a low response. The patient's disease course was stable with continued thyroid and adrenal corticosteroid supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we report a rare case of anterior hypopituitarism and arginine vasopressin deficiency secondary to hypophysitis following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hypopituitarism , Humans , Female , Hypopituitarism/etiology , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Hypophysitis/chemically induced , Hypophysitis/etiology , Arginine Vasopressin/deficiency , Adrenal Insufficiency/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Med Sci ; 21(6): 1072-1078, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774745

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, patient's management approaches, and outcomes of the COVID-19 patients in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam. Methods: A retrospective, multicenter study of 2166 COVID-19 patients in 13 hospitals in Phutho Province, Vietnam. The subjects were divided into 3 groups based on vaccination status: unvaccinated group, 1st dose of vaccine group, 2nd dose of vaccine group. The clinical characteristics, management approaches, and outcomes were collected and compared between the 3 groups. Results: The hospitalization rate of the 3 groups decreased from the unvaccinated group, the 1st dose of vaccinated group, to the 2nd dose of vaccinated group, 42.61%; 30,24% and 27,15% respectively. The 19-40 years old group had the highest hospitalization rate (38,1%) together with the group that had not accepted the full COVID 19 vaccination dose (57,64%). The 2nd dose of vaccinated group had the lowest percentages of high temperature, cough, dyspnea, chest pain and sore throat. The unvaccinated group had the highest heart rate, respiratory rate and SpO2 compared to the two other groups. The percentage needing Immunomodulation and Anticoagulant Therapy was highest (6.8% and 1.4 % respectively) in the unvaccinated group. The percentage receiving Antiviral Therapy was highest (42,5%) in those who had received the 2nd dose of vaccine. Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccination improved the symptoms of the patients and should be accepted in all ages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Vietnam/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Male , Adult , Female , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Aged , Adolescent , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data
6.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1392477, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774878

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Accumulating evidence indicates the importance of T cell immunity in vaccination-induced protection against severe COVID-19 disease, especially against SARS-CoV-2 Variants-of-Concern (VOCs) that more readily escape from recognition by neutralizing antibodies. However, there is limited knowledge on the T cell responses across different age groups and the impact of CMV status after primary and booster vaccination with different vaccine combinations. Moreover, it remains unclear whether age has an effect on the ability of T cells to cross-react against VOCs. Methods: Therefore, we interrogated the Spike-specific T cell responses in healthy adults of the Dutch population across different ages, whom received different vaccine types for the primary series and/or booster vaccination, using IFNÉ£ ELISpot. Cells were stimulated with overlapping peptide pools of the ancestral Spike protein and different VOCs. Results: Robust Spike-specific T cell responses were detected in the vast majority of participants upon the primary vaccination series, regardless of the vaccine type (i.e. BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, or Ad26.COV2.S). Clearly, in the 70+ age group, responses were overall lower and showed more variation compared to younger age groups. Only in CMV-seropositive older adults (>70y) there was a significant inverse relation of age with T cell responses. Although T cell responses increased in all age groups after booster vaccination, Spike-specific T cell frequencies remained lower in the 70+ age group. Regardless of age or CMV status, primary mRNA-1273 vaccination followed by BNT162b2 booster vaccination showed limited booster effect compared to the BNT162b2/BNT162b2 or BNT162b2/mRNA-1273 primary-booster regimen. A modest reduction in cross-reactivity to the Alpha, Delta and Omicron BA.1, but not the Beta or Gamma variant, was observed after primary vaccination. Discussion: Together, this study shows that age, CMV status, but also the primary-booster vaccination regimen influence the height of the vaccination-induced Spike-specific T cell response, but did not impact the VOC cross-reactivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Reactions , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Cross Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Middle Aged , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Aged , Male , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Age Factors , Young Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Vaccination , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Aged, 80 and over
7.
NEJM Evid ; 3(4): EVIDoa2300197, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine uptake is low among underserved populations whose primary health care access occurs in emergency departments. We sought to determine whether implementation of two interventions would increase 30-day influenza vaccine uptake in unvaccinated patients in the emergency department. METHODS: This three-group, prospective, cluster-randomized controlled trial compared two interventions with a control group in noncritically ill, adult patients in the emergency department who were not vaccinated for influenza in the current vaccine season. The unit of randomization was individual calendar days. Participants received either Intervention M (an influenza vaccine messaging platform consisting of a video, one-page flyer, and scripted message, followed by a vaccine acceptance question and provider notification if participants indicated vaccine acceptance), Intervention Q (no messaging but the vaccine acceptance question and provider notification), or control (usual care/no intervention). The primary outcome was receipt of an influenza vaccine at 30 days ascertained by electronic health record review and telephone follow-up, comparing the Intervention M group with the control group. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of 30-day vaccine uptake in Intervention Q versus control and Intervention M versus Intervention Q. RESULTS: Between October 2022 and February 2023, a total of 767 trial participants were enrolled at six emergency departments in five U.S. cities. Median age was 46 years; 353 (46%) participants were female, 274 (36%) were African American, and 158 (21%) were Latinx; 126 (16%) lacked health insurance, and 244 (32%) lacked primary care. The Intervention M, Intervention Q, and control groups had 30-day vaccine uptakes of 41%, 32%, and 15%, respectively (P<0.0001 for Intervention M vs. control). Comparing Intervention M versus Intervention Q, the adjusted difference in 30-day vaccine uptake was 8.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval, -0.1 to 17.6 percentage points). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of influenza vaccine messaging platforms (video clips, printed materials, and verbal scripts) improved 30-day vaccine uptake among unvaccinated patients in the emergency department. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05836818.).


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Male , Female , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Adult , Prospective Studies , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Health Promotion/methods , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10860, 2024 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740790

ABSTRACT

Lack of trust is a primary reason behind the global rise in vaccine hesitancy. Existing research on the trust-vaccine hesitancy nexus has almost exclusively focused on COVID-19 with the vast majority of studies examining industrialized countries. In this study, we investigated the influence of trust in different policy-relevant actors (government, science, media, pharmaceutical companies, society) on vaccine hesitancy for recently available vaccines related to polio and HPV which we benchmark against a COVID-19 vaccine. Leveraging unique primary data on 5203 individuals from six countries (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda), we showed that individuals' trust in the government and society are key predictors of vaccine hesitancy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these relationships are remarkably stable across vaccine, disease, and country contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Trust , Vaccination Hesitancy , Humans , Trust/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy/statistics & numerical data , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Male , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/psychology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10849, 2024 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740940

ABSTRACT

Cardiac discomfort has been reported periodically in COVID-19-vaccinated individuals. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the role of myocardial strains in the early assessment of the clinical presentations after COVID-19 vaccination. Totally, 121 subjects who received at least one dose of vaccine within 6 weeks underwent laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), and echocardiogram. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) was implemented to analyze changes in the left ventricular myocardium. After vaccination, 66 individuals (55.4 ± 17.4 years) developed cardiac discomforts, such as chest tightness, palpitations, dyspnea, and chest pain. The ECG readings exhibited both premature ventricular contractions and premature atrial contractions (n = 24, 36.4%), while none of the individuals in the control group manifested signs of cardiac arrhythmia. All had normal serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, creatine kinase myocardial band, troponin, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide, platelets, and D-dimer. Left ventricular ejection fraction in the symptomatic group (71.41% ± 7.12%) and the control group (72.18% ± 5.11%) (p = 0.492) were normal. Use of 2D-STE presented global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) was reduced in the symptomatic group (17.86% ± 3.22% and 18.37% ± 5.22%) compared to the control group (19.54% ± 2.18% and 20.73% ± 4.09%) (p = 0.001 and p = 0.028). COVID-19 vaccine-related cardiac adverse effects can be assessed early by 2D-STE. The prognostic implications of GLS and GCS enable the evaluation of subtle changes in myocardial function after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Echocardiography , Vaccination , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , Female , Echocardiography/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Aged , Adult , Vaccination/adverse effects , Electrocardiography , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 488, 2024 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prioritizing prevention over treatment has been a longstanding principle in the world health system. This study aims to compare the demographic changes, mortality, clinical, and paraclinical findings of patients hospitalized in the Corona ward before and after the start of general vaccination. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized the simple random sampling method in 2022, analyzing 300 medical records of patients admitted to the Corona ward at 22 Bahman Khaf Hospital. Data were collected using a checklist with the help of the Medical Care Monitoring System and analyzed using SPSS-22 statistical software and Chi-square statistical test at a significance level of p < 0.05. RESULTS: Before the start of general vaccination for COVID-19, the majority of patients were hospitalized in the Corona Intensive Care Unit (59.3%), aged between 51 and 65 years (47.3%), hospitalized for more than 3 days (54%), required intubation (49.3%), had SPO2 < 93% (60.7%), and exhibited common symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, and loss of consciousness. Paraclinical findings included positive CRP, decreased lymphocytes, and ground glass opacity (GGO). After the start of general vaccination for COVID-19, most patients were hospitalized in the general care department of Corona (68%), aged between 36 and 50 years (47.3%), hospitalized for less than three days (66%), required intubation (20%), had SPO2 ≥ 93% (77.3%), and exhibited common symptoms such as weakness, headache, and body pain. Paraclinical findings were within the normal range. CONCLUSIONS: General vaccination for COVID-19 has significantly reduced patient mortality and morbidity. Health policymakers should prioritize general vaccination to achieve herd immunity and improve public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Male , Female , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data
11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 97, 2024 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Italy, since the 2020-2021 flu season, the flu vaccine recommendation was extended to all children aged 6 months to 6 years and quadrivalent Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (qLAIV) was introduced. Since school-aged children are important carriers of annual influenza epidemics, a school-based influenza vaccination program may potentially increase vaccine uptake. Recent studies, conducted in the UK and the US, show that school-based vaccination can reach higher percentage of paediatric vaccination coverage compared to children vaccinated in other settings. METHODS: During 2022-2023 flu season in 9 preschools located in Milan healthcare personnel vaccinated children with qLAIV at the end of a school day. A Google Form questionnaire was administered to preschoolers' parents of all preschools within the Municipality of Milan. RESULTS: In the preschools engaged in the vaccination program, 233 out of 1939 children were vaccinated (12%). Among these, 61 (26.2%) had never been vaccinated for influenza before. Vaccination coverage was 11.5% for Italian children and 14.3% for children coming from an immigrant background. We collected 3659 questionnaire responses, divided according to study participation status (371 from preschools that participated in the vaccination program and 3288 from other preschools in Milan). 57% of the families who answered to the questionnaire vaccinated their children for flu. qLAIV accounted for 85.6% of vaccinations. We observed a statistically significant difference in the percentage of vaccinated children between those attending a school participating in the project (67.9%) and children attending other schools (56%) (p < 0.001). Vaccination was administered by family pediatricians (48.9%), in vaccination centers (34.8%), in vaccine hubs (11.3%), in schools (2.6%), by private pediatricians (1.6%) and in other settings (0.7%). Focusing on the responses from families whose children attend schools participating in the vaccination program, 21.8% stated that the vaccination was provided in school. CONCLUSION: According to our experience, in Italy, at the moment, only the cooperation between health providers and alternative settings, including schools, may expand flu vaccination coverage. In particular, schools are to be considered a place to inform and reach out to families, useful to increase vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Vaccines, Attenuated , Humans , Italy , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child, Preschool , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Female , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Child , School Health Services , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Seasons
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(18): e150, 2024 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were more susceptible to poor outcomes owing to respiratory muscle weakness and immunotherapy. Several studies conducted in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic reported higher mortality in patients with MG compared to the general population. This study aimed to investigate the clinical course and prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with MG and to compare these parameters between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients in South Korea. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective study, which was conducted at 14 tertiary hospitals in South Korea, reviewed the medical records and identified MG patients who contracted COVID-19 between February 2022 and April 2022. The demographic and clinical characteristics associated with MG and vaccination status were collected. The clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection and MG were investigated and compared between the vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients with MG contracted COVID-19 during the study. Nine (9.8%) patients required hospitalization, 4 (4.3%) of whom were admitted to the intensive care unit. Seventy-five of 92 patients were vaccinated before contracting COVID-19 infection, and 17 were not. During the COVID-19 infection, 6 of 17 (35.3%) unvaccinated patients were hospitalized, whereas 3 of 75 (4.0%) vaccinated patients were hospitalized (P < 0.001). The frequencies of ICU admission and mechanical ventilation were significantly lower in the vaccinated patients than in the unvaccinated patients (P = 0.019 and P = 0.032, respectively). The rate of MG deterioration was significantly lower in the vaccinated patients than in the unvaccinated patients (P = 0.041). Logistic regression after weighting revealed that the risk of hospitalization and MG deterioration after COVID-19 infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated patients than in the unvaccinated patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the clinical course and prognosis of patients with MG who contracted COVID-19 during the dominance of the omicron variant of COVID-19 may be milder than those at the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic when vaccination was unavailable. Vaccination may reduce the morbidity of COVID-19 in patients with MG and effectively prevent MG deterioration induced by COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Myasthenia Gravis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Prognosis , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial
13.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 27(5): e15178, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the overall safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccinations, rare cases of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAIDs) have been reported post-vaccination. This study used a global survey to analyze SAIDs in susceptible individuals' post-vaccination. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among participants with self-reported new-onset SAIDs using the COVID-19 Vaccination in Autoimmune Diseases (COVAD) 2 study dataset-a validated, patient-reported e-survey-to analyze the long-term safety of COVID-19 vaccines. Baseline characteristics of patients with new-onset SAIDs and vaccinated healthy controls (HCs) were compared after propensity score matching based on age and sex in a 1:4 ratio. RESULTS: Of 16 750 individuals, 74 (median age 52 years, 79.9% females, and 76.7% Caucasians) had new-onset SAID post-vaccination, mainly idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) (n = 23, 31.51%), arthritis (n = 15; 20.53%), and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) (n = 12, 16.40%). Higher odds of new-onset SAIDs were noted among Caucasians (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 2.9-9.7; p < .001) and Moderna vaccine recipients (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.3-5.3; p = .004). New-onset SAIDs were associated with AID multimorbidity (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.7; p < .001), mental health disorders (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.3-1.9; p < .001), and mixed race (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2-4.2; p = .010), where those aged >60 years (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.8; p = .007) and from high/medium human development index (HDI) countries (compared to very high HDI) reported fewer events than HCs. CONCLUSION: This study reports a low occurrence of new-onset SAIDs following COVID-19 vaccination, primarily IIMs, PMR, and inflammatory arthritis. Identified risk factors included pre-existing AID multimorbidity, mental health diseases, and mixed race. Revaccination was well tolerated by most patients; therefore, we recommend continuing COVID-19 vaccination in the general population. However, long-term studies are needed to understand the autoimmune phenomena arising post-vaccination.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Aged , Adult , Vaccination/adverse effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3732, 2024 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749028

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the emergence of newer SARS-CoV-2 variants and their substantial effects on the levels and duration of protection against infection, an understanding of these characteristics of the protection conferred by humoral and cellular immunity can aid in the proper development and implementation of vaccine and safety guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a rapid literature review and searched five electronic databases weekly from 1 November 2021 to 30 September 2022. Studies that assessed the humoral or cellular immunity conferred by infection, vaccination or a hybrid (combination of both) in adults and risk groups (immunocompromised and older populations) were identified. Studies were eligible when they reported data on immunological assays of COVID-19 (related to vaccination and/or infection) or the effectiveness of protection (related to the effectiveness of vaccination and/or infection). RESULTS: We screened 5103 studies and included 205 studies, of which 70 provided data on the duration of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The duration of protection of adaptive immunity was greatly impacted by Omicron and its subvariants: levels of protection were low by 3-6 months from exposure to infection/vaccination. Although more durable, cellular immunity also showed signs of waning by 6 months. First and second mRNA vaccine booster doses increased the levels of protection against infection and severe disease from Omicron and its subvariants but continued to demonstrate a high degree of waning over time. CONCLUSION: All humoral immunities (infection-acquired, vaccine-acquired and hybrid) waned by 3-6 months. Cellular immunity was more durable but showed signs of waning by 6 months. Hybrid immunity had the highest magnitude of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Boosting may be recommended as early as 3-4 months after the last dose, especially in risk groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Vaccination
15.
Immunity ; 57(5): 927-929, 2024 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749392

ABSTRACT

Humans do not respond equally to vaccination. To investigate why, Mulè et al. developed a multimodal framework and found that high responders after unadjuvanted influenza vaccination exist in a naturally adjuvanted state, mimicking innate immunophenotypes following AS03-adjuvanted vaccination. This highlights biological factors that set apart high-antibody responders and how adjuvants can boost innate immune cues to improve humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Influenza Vaccines , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Immunity, Humoral , Adjuvants, Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Animals
16.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3634, 2024 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749418

ABSTRACT

STUDY AIMS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was increasing pressure to be vaccinated to prevent further spread of the virus and improve outcomes. At the same time, part of the population expressed reluctance to vaccination, for various reasons. Only a few studies have compared the perceptions of vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients being treated in hospitals for COVID-19. Our aim was to investigate the association between vaccination status and perceived healthcare-associated discrimination in patients with COVID-19 receiving hospital treatment. METHODS: Adult patients presenting to the emergency department or hospitalised for inpatient care due to or with COVID-19 from 1 June to 31 December 2021 in two Swiss hospitals were eligible. The primary endpoint was patients' perceived healthcare-associated discrimination, measured with the Discrimination in Medical Settings (DMS) scale. Secondary endpoints included different aspects of perceived quality of care and symptoms of psychological distress measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: Non-vaccinated patients (n = 113) had significantly higher DMS scores compared to vaccinated patients (n = 80) (mean: 9.54 points [SD: 4.84] vs 7.79 points [SD: 1.85]; adjusted difference: 1.18 [95% CI: 0.04-2.33 points]) and 21 of 80 vaccinated patients felt discriminated against vs 54 of 113 non-vaccinated patients (adjusted OR: 2.09 [95% CI: 1.10-3.99 ]). Non-vaccinated patients reported lower scores regarding respectful treatment by the nursing team (mean: 8.39 points [SD: 2.39] vs 9.30 points [SD: 1.09]; adjusted difference: -0.6 [95% CI: -1.18 - -0.02 points]). CONCLUSION: We found an association between vaccination status and perceived healthcare-associated discrimination. Healthcare workers should act in a professional manner regardless of a patient's vaccination status; in doing so, they might prevent the creation of negative perceptions in patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Switzerland , Middle Aged , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Aged , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care
18.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1385135, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756783

ABSTRACT

Background: The assessment of long-term humoral and cellular immunity post-vaccination is crucial for establishing an optimal vaccination strategy. Methods: This prospective cohort study evaluated adults (≥18 years) who received a BA.4/5 bivalent vaccine. We measured the anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobulin G antibody and neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against wild-type and Omicron subvariants (BA.5, BQ.1.1, BN.1, XBB.1 and EG.5) up to 9 months post-vaccination. T-cell immune responses were measured before and 4 weeks after vaccination. Results: A total of 108 (28 SARS-CoV-2-naïve and 80 previously infected) participants were enrolled. Anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobulin G (U/mL) levels were higher at 9 months post-vaccination than baseline in SAR-CoV-2-naïve individuals (8,339 vs. 1,834, p<0.001). NAb titers against BQ.1.1, BN.1, and XBB.1 were significantly higher at 9 months post-vaccination than baseline in both groups, whereas NAb against EG.5 was negligible at all time points. The T-cell immune response (median spot forming unit/106 cells) was highly cross-reactive at both baseline (wild-type/BA.5/XBB.1.5, 38.3/52.5/45.0 in SARS-CoV-2-naïve individuals; 51.6/54.9/54.9 in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals) and 4 weeks post-vaccination, with insignificant boosting post-vaccination. Conclusion: Remarkable cross-reactive neutralization was observed against BQ.1.1, BN.1, and XBB.1 up to 9 months after BA.4/5 bivalent vaccination, but not against EG.5. The T-cell immune response was highly cross-reactive.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Humans , Male , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Female , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Adult , Prospective Studies , Aged , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
19.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1377973, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756873

ABSTRACT

Objective: We examined the effectiveness of three different messages for persuading individuals to get vaccinated against COVID-19, and the role that emotions play in persuasion. Methods: Four hundred-thirty-six participants reported their concern about the COVID-19 pandemic and confidence/hesitancy toward vaccines. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three text conditions: (1) self-interest: a persuasive message that focused on how much of a "serious threat COVID-19 is to you," and to get vaccinated to "protect yourself"; (2) self-interest + altruistic: a persuasive message that focused on the "threat to you and your community" and to get vaccinated to "protect you and your loved ones"; (3) self-interest + altruistic + normal: a persuasive message that included (2) but added "This is the only way we can get back to a normal life."; and, (4) a baseline control: no text. After reading, participants reported their emotions toward COVID-19 vaccines and their willingness to get vaccinated. Results: Individuals in the self-interest + altruistic + normal condition were more willing to get vaccinated compared to the control condition and self-interest + altruistic condition. However, there were no differences in willingness between the self-interest + altruistic + normal condition and the self-interest condition. Moreover, emotions mediated relations between vaccine confidence/hesitancy and willingness. Conclusion: A message that focuses on "getting back to normal" can achieve important public health action by increasing vaccine uptake to protect the population. Future work is needed across multiple countries and contexts (i.e., non-pandemic) to assess message effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Emotions , Persuasive Communication , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Vaccination/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Hesitancy/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , Text Messaging/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology
20.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1330205, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756880

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Measles, though usually self-limiting, can have severe consequences influenced by factors such as vaccination and nutrition, notably vitamin A deficiency and malnutrition. Despite progress, contextual changes and implementation issues have hampered efforts, resulting in increased outbreaks and cases of measles. This study seeks to pinpoint outbreak features, risk factors, and strategies for preventing and controlling measles. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study and a 1:2 unmatched case-control study design were employed. All 101 suspected measles cases listed on the line-list were included in the descriptive research, with 60 measles patients and 120 controls included in the case-control investigation. Line-list data were cleaned and analyzed using a pivot table in Microsoft Excel 2016. Subsequently, the data were cleaned, entered into Epi Info 7.2, and exported to SPSS 26 for analysis. Results: Twenty cases occurred per 10,000 individuals. Men accounted for 67.3% of cases, with ages ranging from 5 months to 45 years and mean and standard deviations of 9.6 and 7.6, respectively. Age group of 5-14 years comprised 57.4% of cases, followed by 1-4 years with 24.8%. Being unvaccinated against measles showed an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 12.06 (95% CI: 3.12-46.52). Travel history to regions with active cases had an AOR of 5.73 (95% CI: 1.78-18.38). Contact with a measles patient showed an AOR of 10.3 (95% CI: 3.48-30.5). Understanding the measles transmission mechanism had an AOR of 0.164 (95% CI: 0.049-0.55), and awareness of the disease's preventability had an AOR of 0.233 (95% CI: 0.67-0.811). All factors were independently associated with the illness. Conclusion: This outbreak affected a broader age range with a high attack rate, mainly in the age group of 5-14-years. Over 35% of cases lacked measles vaccination, indicating low administrative vaccine coverage. Factors contributing to the outbreak include lack of measles vaccination, travel to areas with active disease, contact with cases, and insufficient knowledge of measles transmission and prevention strategies among mothers and caregivers.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Measles , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Case-Control Studies , Infant , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Young Adult , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
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