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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-06-22. (OPS/FPL/IM/22-0018).
in French | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56117

ABSTRACT

Le virus de la variole du singe est un orthopoxvirus qui provoque une maladie dont les symptômes sont similaires, mais moins graves, à ceux de la variole. Alors que la variole a été éradiquée en 1980, la variole du singe continue d'être présent dans les pays d'Afrique centrale et occidentale. Deux clades distincts sont identifiés : le clade ouest-africain et le clade du bassin du Congo. La variole du singe est une zoonose. Les cas sont souvent observés en proximité des forêts tropicales humides où divers animaux sont porteurs du virus, notamment les écureuils, les rongeurs, les loirs et les singes. La plupart des infections humaines par le virus de la variole du singe dans les pays endémiques résultent d'une transmission primaire de l'animal à l'homme. La transmission interhumaine existe, la plus longue chaîne de transmission documentée étant de six générations. La transmission se fait par contact avec les fluides corporels, les lésions sur la peau ou sur les surfaces muqueuses internes, comme dans la bouche ou la gorge, les gouttelettes respiratoires et les objets contaminés. Il faut éviter tout contact étroit avec des personnes infectées ou des matériaux contaminés. Bien que la transmission d'homme à animal soit rare, elle doit être considérée comme un lien possible dans la chaîne de transmission. La variole du singe est endémique en Afrique centrale et occidentale depuis sa première détection en 1958 en la République Démocratique du Congo. Néanmoins, depuis le 13 mai 2022, cependant, plusieurs pays d'Europe ont signalé l'apparition soudaine et inattendue de la variole du singe. À ce jour, 27 pays non endémiques répartis dans quatre régions de l'OMS ont signalé des cas. Parmi ceux-ci, quatre sont des pays des Amériques. Plusieurs cas suspects dans ces pays et dans d'autres sont en cours d'investigation. Le Groupe consultatif technique (GCT) sur les maladies évitables par la vaccination s'est réuni le 31 mai 2022 afin de discuter des implications de la variole du singe dans la Région des Amériques. Le rapport résume les données épidémiologiques à ce jour, passe en revue les informations disponibles sur les vaccins contre la variole du singe, et fournit des recommandations aux États Membres des Amériques sur les stratégies pour minimiser la transmission virale et aborder les opérations de vaccination.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox virus , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Advisory Committees , Orthopoxvirus , Communicable Diseases
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-06-17. (PAHO/FPL/IM/22-0019).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56102

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus that causes a disease with symptoms similar, but less severe, to smallpox. While smallpox was eradicated in 1980, monkeypox continues to occur in countries of Central and West Africa. Two distinct clades are identified: the West African clade and the Congo Basin clade. Monkeypox is a zoonosis and cases are often found close to tropical rainforests where various animals carry the virus including squirrels, rodents, dormice, and monkeys. Most human monkeypox infections in endemic countries result from a primary animal-to-human transmission. Human-to-human transmission does occur, with the longest documented chain of transmission being six generations. Transmission occurs through contact with bodily fluids, lesions on the skin or on internal mucosal surfaces, such as in the mouth or throat, respiratory droplets, and contaminated objects. Close contact with infected people or contaminated materials should be avoided. While human-to-animal transmission is rare, it should be considered as a possible link in the transmission chain. Monkeypox has been endemic in central and west Africa since its first detection in 1958 in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, since 13 May 2022 multiple countries in Europe have reported the sudden and unexpected appearance of monkeypox. To date, 27 non-endemic countries across four WHO regions have reported cases. Of these, four are countries in the Americas. Multiple suspected cases in these and other countries are currently under investigation. PAHO's Technical Advisory Group (TAG) on Vaccine-Preventable Diseases met for an ad hoc meeting on 31 May 2022 to discuss the implications for monkeypox in the Region of the Americas. This executive summary summarizes the contents of the final report generated from this meeting.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox virus , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Advisory Committees , Orthopoxvirus
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-06-10. (PAHO/FPL/IM/22-0018).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56083

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus that causes a disease with symptoms similar, but less severe, to smallpox. While smallpox was eradicated in 1980, monkeypox continues to occur in countries of Central and West Africa. Two distinct clades are identified: the West African clade and the Congo Basin clade. Monkeypox is a zoonosis. Cases are often found close to tropical rainforests where various animals carry the virus including squirrels, rodents, dormice, and monkeys. Most human monkeypox infections in endemic countries result from a primary animal-to-human transmission. Human-to-human transmission does occur, with the longest documented chain of transmission being six generations. Transmission occurs through contact with bodily fluids, lesions on the skin or on internal mucosal surfaces, such as in the mouth or throat, respiratory droplets, and contaminated objects. Close contact with infected people or contaminated materials should be avoided. While human-to-animal transmission is rare, it should be considered as a possible link in the transmission chain. Monkeypox has been endemic in central and west Africa since its first detection in 1958 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1). However, since 13 May 2022 multiple countries in Europe have reported the sudden and unexpected appearance of monkeypox. To date, 27 non-endemic countries across four WHO regions have reported cases. Of these, four are countries in the Americas. Multiple suspected cases in these and other countries are currently under investigation. PAHO's Technical Advisory Group (TAG) on Vaccine-Preventable Diseases met for an ad hoc meeting on 31 May 2022 to discuss the implications for monkeypox in the Region of the Americas. The following report summarizes the epidemiological data to date, reviews available information on monkeypox vaccines, and provides recommendations to Member States of the Americas on how to minimize viral transmission and approach vaccination operations.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox virus , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Advisory Committees , Orthopoxvirus
4.
Vaccine ; 40(31): 4142-4149, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672179

ABSTRACT

Over the past two decades, vaccination programmes for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) have expanded across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the rise of COVID-19 resulted in global disruption to routine immunisation activities. Such disruptions could have a detrimental effect on public health, leading to more deaths from VPDs, particularly without mitigation efforts. Hence, as routine immunisation activities resume, it is important to estimate the effectiveness of different approaches for recovery. We apply an impact extrapolation method developed by the Vaccine Impact Modelling Consortium to estimate the impact of COVID-19-related disruptions with different recovery scenarios for ten VPDs across 112 LMICs. We focus on deaths averted due to routine immunisations occurring in the years 2020-2030 and investigate two recovery scenarios relative to a no-COVID-19 scenario. In the recovery scenarios, we assume a 10% COVID-19-related drop in routine immunisation coverage in the year 2020. We then linearly interpolate coverage to the year 2030 to investigate two routes to recovery, whereby the immunization agenda (IA2030) targets are reached by 2030 or fall short by 10%. We estimate that falling short of the IA2030 targets by 10% leads to 11.26% fewer fully vaccinated persons (FVPs) and 11.34% more deaths over the years 2020-2030 relative to the no-COVID-19 scenario, whereas, reaching the IA2030 targets reduces these proportions to 5% fewer FVPs and 5.22% more deaths. The impact of the disruption varies across the VPDs with diseases where coverage expands drastically in future years facing a smaller detrimental effect. Overall, our results show that drops in routine immunisation coverage could result in more deaths due to VPDs. As the impact of COVID-19-related disruptions is dependent on the vaccination coverage that is achieved over the coming years, the continued efforts of building up coverage and addressing gaps in immunity are vital in the road to recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Programs , Vaccination/methods , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control
5.
Washington, D.C.; Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé; 2022-05-27. (OPS/FPL/IM/22-0010).
in French | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56057

ABSTRACT

DANS CE NUMÉRO: Le PVS1 au Malawi et le risque pour la Région des Amériques | XXVIIe réunion du Groupe consultatif technique (GCT) de l’OPS sur les maladies évitables par la vaccination | Vaccination anti-COVID-19 dans les communautés autochtones du Paraguay : une stratégie différenciée pour atteindre les groupes vulnérables | Renforcer la chaîne du froid pour rendre les vaccins anti-COVID-19 accessibles aux populations en situation de vulnérabilité dans les Amériques | Le programme STOP des CDC recrute des professionnels de la santé publique mondiale pour appuyer l’éradication de la poliomyélite et d’autres maladies émergentes menaçantes | Prix des seringues et vaccins achetés par l’intermédiaire du Fonds renouvelable de l'OPS, 2022 | Première réunion annuelle de la Commission régionale de surveillance et de revérification de l’élimination de la rougeole et de la rubéole.


Subject(s)
Immunization , Immunization Programs , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Indigenous Peoples , Risk Groups , Refrigeration , Poliomyelitis , Syringes , Measles , Rubella , Americas
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-05-27. (OPAS/FPL/IM/22-0010).
in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56056

ABSTRACT

NESTA EDIÇÃO: PVS1 no Malaui e risco para a Região das Américas | XXVII Reunião do Grupo Técnico Assessor (GTA) da OPAS sobre Doenças Imunopreveníveis | Vacinação contra a COVID-19 nas comunidades indígenas do Paraguai: uma estratégia diferenciada para chegar até os grupos em situação de vulnerabilidade | Fortalecimento da rede de frio para oferecer acesso às vacinas contra a COVID-19 para populações nas Américas em situação de vulnerabilidade | Programa STOP do CDC recruta profissionais de saúde pública do mundo todo para apoiar a erradicação da poliomielite e outras ameaças devido a doenças emergentes | Vacinas e seringas adquiridas através do Fundo Rotativo da OPAS, 2022 | Primeira reunião anual da Comissão Regional de Monitoramento e Reverificação da Eliminação do Sarampo e da Rubéola.


Subject(s)
Immunization , Immunization Programs , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Indigenous Peoples , Risk Groups , Refrigeration , Poliomyelitis , Syringes , Measles , Rubella , Americas
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-05-27. (OPS/FPL/IM/22-0010).
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56054

ABSTRACT

EN ESTA EDICIÓN: WPV1 en Malawi y el riesgo para la Región de las Américas | XXVII Reunión del Grupo Técnico Asesor de la OPS sobre Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación | Vacunación contra la COVID-19 en comunidades indígenas de Paraguay: una estrategia diferenciada para llegar a grupos en situación de vulnerabilidad | Fortalecimiento de la cadena de frío para facilitar el acceso a las vacunas contra la COVID-19 a los grupos de población en situación de vulnerabilidad en la Región de las Américas | El Programa STOP de los CDC recluta profesionales internacionales de salud pública para ayudar a erradicar la poliomielitis y otras amenazas de enfermedades emergentes | Vacunas y jeringas adquiridas a través del Fondo Rotatorio de la OPS, 2022 | Primera reunión anual de la Comisión Regional para Seguimiento y Reverificación de la Eliminación del Sarampión y la Rubéola.


Subject(s)
Immunization , Immunization Programs , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Indigenous Peoples , Risk Groups , Refrigeration , Poliomyelitis , Syringes , Measles , Rubella , Americas
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-27. (PAHO/FPL/IM/22-0010).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56053

ABSTRACT

IN THIS EDITION: WPV in Malawi and Risk to the Region of the Americas | XXVII Meeting of PAHO’s Technical Advisory Group (TAG) on Vaccine-Preventable Diseases | COVID-19 Vaccination in Indigenous Communities in Paraguay: A Differentiated Strategy to Reach Vulnerable Groups | Strengthening the Cold Chain to Provide Access to COVID-19 Vaccines for Populations in Vulnerable Situations in the Americas | CDC's STOP Program Recruits Global Public Health Professionals to Support Polio Eradication and Other Emerging Disease Threats | Vaccines and Syringes Purchased through the PAHO Revolving Fund, 2022 | First Annual Meeting of the Measles and Rubella Elimination Regional Monitoring and Re-Verification Commission.


Subject(s)
Immunization , Immunization Programs , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Indigenous Peoples , Risk Groups , Refrigeration , Poliomyelitis , Syringes , Measles , Rubella , Americas
9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268080, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malaria has been strongly linked to the transmission and pathophysiology of some viral diseases. Malaria and vaccine-preventable diseases often co-exist in endemic countries but the implication of their co-existence on their transmission dynamics and control is poorly understood. The study aims to evaluate the relationships between the incidence of malaria and cases of measles and yellow fever in Africa. METHODS: The malaria incidence, death due to malaria, measles and yellow fever data were sourced from the WHO database. Poisson and zero-inflated time-trend regression were used to model the relationships between malaria and the two vaccine-preventable diseases. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A significant negative relationship existed between malaria incidence and measles cases (P<0.05), however, malaria showed a positive relationship with yellow fever (P<0.05). The relationships between death due to malaria and measles/yellow fever cases followed similar trends but with a higher level of statistical significance (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Malaria varied negatively with measles cases but positively with yellow fever. The relationships observed in this study could be important for the management of malaria and the studied vaccine-preventable diseases. Increase vaccination coverage and/or malaria treatment could modulate the direction of these relationships.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Measles , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Yellow Fever , Africa/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/complications , Malaria/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Yellow Fever/epidemiology
10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591751

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2020, Victoria introduced multiple interventions aimed at containing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examine the effect of these restrictions on other vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Methods: We analysed the mandatory reporting data, notified to the Victorian Department of Health, for VPDs from January 2015 to December 2021. Results: Reductions in notifications were seen for most notifiable VPDs. A precipitous decline in influenza and measles notifications was recorded in April 2020, which was sustained for both diseases throughout 2020-2021. Notifications for chickenpox, invasive meningococcal disease, invasive pneumococcal disease, and pertussis were reduced by greater than 50% from the 2015-2019 average. No notified cases of diphtheria, poliomyelitis, or rubella were reported in 2020-2021. Conclusion: Restrictions placed to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with significant reductions in other VPDs, which were sustained into 2021. Nevertheless, it is important that high levels of population vaccine coverage continue, to prevent a rebound increase in VPDs as restrictions are eased, and to maximise protection against VPDs for all Australians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Victoria/epidemiology
11.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e05922021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613224

ABSTRACT

Over the years, vaccinations have provided significant advances in public health, because they substantially reduce the morbimortality of vaccine-preventable diseases. Nevertheless, many people are still hesitant to be vaccinated. Brazil is a region of many anti-vaccine movements, and several outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as yellow fever and measles, have occurred in the country during the last few years. To avoid new outbreaks, immunization coverage must be high; however, this is a great challenge to achieve due to the countless anti-vaccine movements. The World Health Organization has suggested new actions for the next decade via the Immunization Agenda 2030 to control, reduce, or eradicate vaccine-preventable diseases. Nonetheless, the vaccination coverage has decreased recently. To resolve the anti-vaccine issue, it is necessary to propose a long-term approach that involves innovative education programs on immunization and critical thinking, using different communication channels, including social media. Cooperation among biology and health scientists, ethicists, human scientists, policymakers, journalists, and civil society is essential for an in-depth understanding of the social action of vaccine refusal and planning effective education measures to increase the vaccine coverage.


Subject(s)
Measles , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , Anti-Vaccination Movement , Brazil , Humans , Immunization Programs , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Vaccination
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 268, 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine prevents about 2-3 million deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases each year. However, immunization coverage in Ethiopia is lower than the herd immunity level required to prevent the spread of all vaccine-preventable diseases. Thus, this study aimed to assess the partial immunization and associated factors among 12-23-month-old children in Eastern Ethiopia. METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study design was carried out among 874 randomly selected mothers/caregivers of children aged 12-23 months. A structured questionnaire was adapted and data were collected through face-to-face interviews and review of vaccination cards. Data were coded and analyzed using the Stata version 14 software. A binary logistic regression model was utilized to identify the determinant factors. The predictor of partial immunization was presented by an adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. A p-value of < 0.05 was used to establish statistical significance. RESULT: The prevalence of partial immunization was 31.4% (95% CI: 28-35). The dropout rate between the first and third pentavalent vaccine was 17%. Being female child [AOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.52-0.95], 18-20 month child [AOR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1- 2.4], the child born to mothers who heard about vaccination [AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.92- 8.01], a child born to mother who did not receive immunization counselling [AOR = 1.65, 95%CI: 1.15-2.36], and child whose mother walk 15-30 min, 31-60 min, and > 60 min to reach nearby health facilities [AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.1-3.45], [AOR = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.47-8.15], and [AOR = 3.45, 95% CI: 1.59- 7.48] respectively were factors significantly associated with partial vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of partial immunization is high compared to other studies. As a result, to decrease the proportion of defaulters and to increase immunization coverage, maternal health care utilization like antenatal care follow-up and mother knowledge about the importance of the vaccine need to be sought cautiously.


Subject(s)
Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mothers , Pregnancy , Vaccination
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2054602, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446725

ABSTRACT

Life-course immunization holds significant benefit for population health by reducing the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) through vaccinating individuals at different stages and circumstances in life. The study aimed to determine the epidemiologic, clinical, economic, and societal burden of VPDs among at-risk adult subpopulations in the United States. A systematic literature review was conducted for articles published between January 2010 and June 2020, which identified 72 publications. There was heterogeneity in available epidemiology data, with the prevalence of VPDs ranging from 1.1% to 68.7%. Where the disease burden was described, outcomes were typically worse among high-risk subpopulations than in the general population. Several VPDs, including herpes zoster, meningococcal, and pneumococcal infections were associated with increased costs. This review suggests that subpopulations may not frequently interact with the healthcare system, or their risk factors may not be recognized by healthcare providers, and therefore individuals may not be appropriately targeted for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Herpes Zoster , Pneumococcal Infections , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Adult , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e052937, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Persistent exposure to faecal pathogens due to open defecation may cause environmental enteropathy that, in turn, may lead to undernutrition and vaccine failure in under 5-year-old (u5) children. The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) programme in India, launched in 2014, aimed to construct toilets for every household nationwide and reduce open defecation. This programme, if successful, had the potential to reduce the burden of four vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs): diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles. We examine whether increased household toilet availability in Indian districts following SBM corresponds with a reduction in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles in u5 children. DESIGN: Observational, ecological study. SETTING: 532 districts in 28 Indian states, from 2013 to 2016. PRIMARY OUTCOME AND EXPOSURE: We retrieved data on district-level change in the annual incidence (per 1000 u5 children) of four VPDs, from 2013 (pre-SBM) to 2016 (post-SBM). We obtained data on our exposure, the change in the percentage of households with toilets (per district), from three large national surveys conducted in 2013 and 2016. We used linear regression analysis, which controlled for change over time in socioeconomic factors, health system-related covariates and pre-SBM annual incidence of VPDs. RESULTS: A one percentage point increase in households with toilets corresponds with 0.33 fewer measle cases per 1000 u5 children in a district (coefficient: -0.33, 95% CI -0.0641 to -0.014; p<0.05). About 12% of this association is mediated by a reduction in u5 stunting. We observe no relation of the exposure with diphtheria, pertussis or tetanus. Findings remain robust to sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Rapid improvements in ambient sanitation through increased toilet availability correspond with a reduction in the annual incidence of measles in u5 children. We encourage replication of findings and further research to identify potential pathways by which SBM may reduce measle burden in u5 children.


Subject(s)
Diphtheria , Measles , Tetanus , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Whooping Cough , Child , Child, Preschool , Diphtheria/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Sanitation , Toilet Facilities , Whooping Cough/epidemiology
15.
Vaccine ; 40(23): 3109-3126, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484042

ABSTRACT

People who are homeless experience higher rates of vaccine-preventable disease, including COVID-19, than the general population, and poorer associated health outcomes. However, delivering vaccinations to people who are homeless is complex, and there is a lack of evidence to inform practice in this area. The aim of this systematic review is to: (a) identify, (b) analyse the characteristics of, and (c) evaluate the outcomes of, strategies to improve vaccination rates in people who are homeless. Literature was retrieved from eight electronic databases. Studies undertaken in high-income countries, published in English, in a peer-reviewed journal, and in full-text were considered. No limits were placed on study design or date. A total of 1,508 articles were retrieved and, after the removal of duplicates, 637 were screened. Twenty-three articles, reporting on nineteen separate vaccination strategies for hepatitis A/B, influenza, herpes zoster, invasive pneumococcal disease, and diphtheria in people who are homeless, were selected for inclusion. All the strategies were effective at improving vaccination rates in, people who are homeless. Most strategies involved vaccination clinics and most were delivered, at least in part, by nurses. Other characteristics of successful strategies included: delivering vaccinations at convenient locations; using accelerated vaccination schedules (if available); vaccinating at the first appointment, regardless of whether a person's vaccination history or serological status were known (if clinically safe); operating for a longer duration; offering training to staff about working with people who are homeless; widely promoting clinics; considering education, reminders, incentives, and co-interventions; ensuring no out-of-pocket costs; and working collaboratively with stakeholders, including people who are homeless themselves. These findings will inform evidence-based vaccination strategies, including for COVID-19, in people who are homeless, and improve associated health outcomes in this at-risk, hard-to-reach group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccination
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2052544, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416747

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, chronic diseases (noncommunicable diseases [NCDs]) cause 41 million (71%) deaths annually. They are the leading cause of mortality in India, contributing to 60% of total deaths each year. Individuals with these diseases are more susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and have an increased risk of associated disease severity and complications. This poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and economies, exemplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccines are an effective strategy to combat these challenges; however, utilization rates are inadequate. With India running one of the world's largest COVID-19 vaccination programs, this presents an opportunity to improve vaccination coverage for all VPDs. Here we discuss the burden of VPDs in those with NCDs, the benefit of vaccinations, current challenges and possible strategies that may facilitate implementation and accessibility of vaccination programs. Effective vaccination will have a significant impact on the disease burden of both VPDs and NCDs and beyond.


What is already known on this topic?Annually, chronic or noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) cause >40 million deaths worldwide and 60% of all deaths in IndiaAdults with these diseases are more susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs); however, vaccine utilization is inadequate in this populationWhat is added by this report?We highlight the benefits of vaccination in adults with NCDs that extend beyond disease preventionWe discuss key challenges in implementing adult vaccination programs and provide practical solutionsWhat are the implications for public health practice?Raising awareness about the benefits of vaccinations, particularly for those with NCDs, and providing national guidelines with recommendations from medical societies, will increase vaccine acceptanceAdequate vaccine acceptance will reduce the VPD burden in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , India/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , Vaccination
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 201-209, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to the widespread disruption of immunization services, including the postponement of mass vaccination campaigns. METHODS: In May 2020, the World Health Organization and partners started monitoring COVID-19-related disruptions to mass vaccination campaigns against cholera, measles, meningitis A, polio, tetanus-diphtheria, typhoid, and yellow fever through the Immunization Repository Campaign Delay Tracker. The authors reviewed the number and target population of reported preventive and outbreak response vaccination campaigns scheduled, postponed, canceled, and reinstated at 4 time points: May 2020, December 2020, May 2021, and December 2021. FINDINGS: Mass vaccination campaigns across all vaccines were disrupted heavily by COVID-19. In May 2020, 105 of 183 (57%) campaigns were postponed or canceled in 57 countries because of COVID-19, with an estimated 796 million postponed or missed vaccine doses. Campaign resumption was observed beginning in July 2020. In December 2021, 77 of 472 (16%) campaigns in 54 countries, mainly in the African Region, were still postponed or canceled because of COVID-19, with about 382 million postponed or missed vaccine doses. INTERPRETATION: There is likely a high risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks across all regions because of an increased number of susceptible persons resulting from the large-scale mass vaccination campaign postponement caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control
18.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-03-11. (OPS/FPL/IM/COVID-19/22-0005).
Non-conventional in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55827

ABSTRACT

La Hoja de ruta del Grupo de Expertos en Asesoramiento Estratégico (SAGE) de la OMS para el establecimiento de prioridades en el uso de vacunas contra la COVID-19 fue actualizada el 21 de enero del 2022. Esta versión más reciente se basa en la estrategia de la OMS para lograr la vacunación mundial contra la COVID-19 para mediados del 2022. Desde que comenzó el proceso de introducción de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, los países de la Región de las Américas han seguido muchas de las recomendaciones técnicas del SAGE a la hora de aplicar su estrategia de priorización de la vacunación. Ante la aparición de la variante ómicron y el aumento exponencial del número de casos de COVID-19, además del gran aumento en la disponibilidad de vacunas en todo el mundo, casi todos los países de la Región de las Américas decidieron ampliar los criterios para la vacunación y la administración de dosis de refuerzo de las vacunas contra la COVID-19 para la población infantil y adolescente. El Grupo Técnico Asesor (GTA) sobre Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunas de la OPS se reunió el 27 de enero del 2022 para abordar cómo adaptar la hoja de ruta actualizada del SAGE a las necesidades de la Región de las Américas. Con base en la evidencia disponible, los miembros del GTA respaldaron la hoja de ruta actualizada del SAGE de la OMS y formularon recomendaciones adicionales para guiar el uso de las dosis de refuerzo de las vacunas contra la COVID-19 en la Región, de modo que los grupos prioritarios las reciban primero. Por último, el GTA instó a los Estados Miembros a invertir en la mejora de la infraestructura y la capacidad de los programas nacionales de inmunización, tanto para la vacunación de rutina como para el despliegue de las vacunas contra la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Immunization Programs , Advisory Committees , Americas
19.
Washington, D.C.; Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé; 2022-03-11. (OPS/FPL/IM/COVID-19/22-0005).
Non-conventional in French | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55826

ABSTRACT

La Feuille de route du SAGE de l'OMS pour l'établissement des priorités concernant l'utilisation des vaccins anti-COVID-19 a été mise à jour le 21 janvier 2022. Cette dernière version s'appuie sur la stratégie de l’OMS pour une vaccination mondiale contre la COVID-19 d’ici à la mi-2022. Depuis que le processus d'introduction du vaccin anti-COVID-19 a débuté, les pays de la Région des Amériques ont suivi les recommandations techniques du Groupe stratégique consultatif d’experts (SAGE) pour mettre en œuvre leurs stratégie de priorisation de la vaccination. L’émergence du variant Omicron et l’augmentation explosive correspondante des cas de COVID-19, associées à une expansion massive de la disponibilité des vaccins à travers le monde, ont conduit presque tous les pays de la Région à prendre des décisions individuelles sur l’élargissement de l’admissibilité au vaccin aux enfants et aux adolescents et à introduire des doses de rappel des vaccins anti-COVID-19. Le Groupe consultatif technique (GCT) sur les maladies évitables par la vaccination de l’OPS s’est réuni le 27 janvier 2022 pour discuter de la manière d’adapter la feuille de route du SAGE mise à jour au contexte de la Région des Amériques. Compte tenu des données probantes disponibles, les membres du GCT ont approuvé la feuille de route du SAGE de l’OMS mise à jour et ont fourni des recommandations supplémentaires pour guider l’utilisation ultérieure des doses de rappel contre la COVID-19 dans la Région, afin que les groupes prioritaires les reçoivent en premier. Enfin, le GCT a exhorté les États Membres à investir dans l’amélioration de l’infrastructure et des capacités des programmes nationaux de vaccination, tant pour la vaccination systématique que pour le déploiement de la vaccination contre la COVID-19. 


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Immunization Programs , Advisory Committees , Americas
20.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-03-11. (OPS/FPL/IM/COVID-19/22-0005).
in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55825

ABSTRACT

O roteiro do Grupo Estratégico Assessor de Especialistas sobre Imunização (SAGE, na sigla em inglês) da OMS para priorização do uso de vacinas contra a COVID-19 foi atualizado em 21 de janeiro de 2022. A mais recente versão se baseia na estratégia da OMS para alcançar a vacinação global contra a COVID-19 até meados de 2022. Desde o início do processo de introdução das vacinas contra a COVID-19, os países das Américas têm seguido as recomendações técnicas do SAGE para implementar suas estratégias de priorização de vacinação. O surgimento da variante Ômicron e o aumento explosivo nos casos de COVID-19 que se seguiu, juntamente com uma expansão maciça da disponibilidade de vacinas em todo o mundo, levou quase todos os países das Américas a tomarem decisões individuais sobre a expansão da elegibilidade à vacinação para crianças e adolescentes, bem como à introdução de doses de reforço das vacinas contra a COVID-19. O Grupo Técnico Assessor (GTA) se reuniu em 27 de janeiro de 2022 para discutir como adaptar o roteiro atualizado do SAGE ao contexto das Américas. Considerando as evidências disponíveis, os membros deram seu aval ao roteiro atualizado do SAGE da OMS e forneceram recomendações adicionais para orientar o uso posterior das doses de reforço da COVID-19 nas Américas, de modo que os grupos prioritários as recebam primeiro. Finalmente, o GTA instou os Estados Membros a investir na melhoria da infraestrutura e da capacidade dos programas nacionais de vacinação, tanto para a vacinação de rotina quanto para a implantação da vacinação contra a COVID-19. 


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , Mass Vaccination , Immunization , Immunization Programs , Advisory Committees , Americas
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