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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 384, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic significantly affected emergency department (ED) visits and urgent psychiatric consultation (UPC) seeking behavior in EDs. Our study explored the changes in UPCs during and after the pandemic peak. METHODS: This retrospective observational study evaluated UPCs in the ED of a referral medical center in Taiwan, where treated both physical and psychiatric complaints. We defined the COVID-19 pandemic peak period as calendar week 4-18, 2020. The corresponding baseline as calendar week 4-18, 2019, and the slack period as week 4-18, 2021. The total number of UPCs, patient demographic data such as sex and age of the patients seen, the referral system (whether police or emergency medical service [EMS] or other sources), and the chief complaint (self-harm or violence) were recorded. RESULTS: Compared with the baseline period, a significant decline in UPCs was observed in the pandemic peak period, and a rebound was observed in the slack period, with the median [IQR] Q1, Q3 values of 22 [18, 26], 12 [10, 17]), and 16 [15, 23], respectively. We observed significantly few men (34.9% vs 45.2%) and less violence (10.2% vs 17.6%) in the peak period compared with in the baseline period, but no significant difference was found compared with the slack period. Throughout the pandemic, younger patients (41.8 ± 17.4 in 2019, 39.2 ± 18.5 [p = 0.121] in 2020, and 35.6 ± 17.2 [p < 0.001] in 2021), higher proportions of police/EMS referral (38.7% in 2019, 41.9% [p = 0.473] in 2020, and 51.9% [p = 0.001] in 2021) and self-harm-related complaints (57% in 2019, 62.4% [p = 0.233] in 2020, and 64.9% [p = 0.049] in 2021) was noted among UPC seekers during the pandemic. However, the proportion of violence-related UPCs (17.6% in 2019, 10.2% [p = 0.023] in 2020, and 12.3% [p = 0.072] in 2021) declined. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that UPCs changed throughout the pandemic. This result raises the concern that mental health needs are masked during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Violence
2.
Addict Behav ; 133: 107384, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671554

ABSTRACT

While prior research highlights the overlap of substance use and violent death, few examine this overlap among different racial/ethnic groups or how patterns change over time. This study examines how substance use related deaths differ by racial/ethnic groups in the United States. We use data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), which includes violent deaths from 43 states in the U.S., collected for the decade between 2009 and 2019 (N = 226,459). Fixed-effects multivariate models examined whether race/ethnicity was associated with substance use-related death over time, controlling for additional demographic and clinical factors. Results showed a significantly larger rate of increase over time for African American and Hispanic (any race) persons compared to White non-Hispanic persons for most types of substance use-related deaths. While current rates of substance use may show little variability between African American, Hispanic, and White non-Hispanic individuals, this research suggests that the consequences for substance use, including death, may be disproportional.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Suicide , Cause of Death , Homicide , Humans , Population Surveillance , United States/epidemiology , Violence
3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(5): 961-964, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713065

ABSTRACT

Spousal violence against women is endemic and owes its genesis to deeply entrenched socio-cultural norms. In this study 2015 Demographic and Health Survey data for Afghanistan was used to calculate the provincial prevalence and two correlates of spousal violence, and their bivariate mapping. Large differences were present in the provincial prevalence of spousal violence, having witnessed their father ever beat their mother, and acceptance of spousal violence by the currently or ever married women aged 15-49 years. In general, bivariate maps showed strong associations between spousal violence against women, its acceptance by women, and having witnessed their father beat their mother by ever married women. In an easily comprehensible manner, these maps underscore ensuring better quality of life in marital settings, higher and more equal social stature of women, and protecting their basic human rights would entail legal, social, and cultural paradigm shift.


Subject(s)
Spouse Abuse , Afghanistan , Female , Humans , Marriage , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Violence
4.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e5, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  This study describes the profile, mechanism and pattern of injuries, and highlights important gaps in clinicians' consultations with patients who experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) in the predominantly black South African township of Mdantsane, Eastern Cape. METHODS:  This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Cecilia Makiwane Regional Hospital, Mdantsane. Medical records of patients who received emergency care for trauma between 01 December 2017 and 31 March 2018 were reviewed. The records of patients identified with IPV were selected for further analysis. Data were disaggregated by demographics, mechanism of injuries and circumstances of the incidents using simple descriptive statistics. RESULTS:  A total of 1064 patients reported IPV as the mechanism of injury for emergency department (ED) visits, accounting for 42.4% of all trauma-related injuries. The majority of patients with IPV were men (72.0%), unemployed (78.0%) and single (89.0%). Blunt force injury was the most common pattern of injury (53.3%); about half (50.5%) of the incidents took place in the patients' homes. The majority of the patients (68%) knew their assailants, and a quarter of them were an intimate partner of the assailant (27.6%). The flow of patient with IPV to the ED was skewed towards the weekend (weekend effect). Also, there was an upward trend in the flow of patients with IPV to the ED from 19:00 onwards, reaching a peak at 20:00. CONCLUSION:  Interpersonal violence is the most prevalent mechanism of injury reported in this region. It is crucial to engage stakeholders in the design of interventions in order to reduce IPV-related injuries in the region.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital , Violence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
5.
Violence Vict ; 37(3): 348-366, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654486

ABSTRACT

A growing literature on parental violence toward teachers has examined the prevalence of these incidents, yet there is considerable variation across studies. There is a need for a systematic and comprehensive review to assess the extent of parent-perpetrated violence toward teachers. Using a meta-analytic approach, we examined the prevalence of violence directed against teachers by parents and how these rates vary by reporting timeframe and type of violence. We identified 5,340 articles through our initial screening process, and our final analysis included 8 studies that met criteria for this meta-analysis. Our findings show that teachers are more likely to experience non-physical forms of violence as compared to physical violence and that rates are lower as the severity and intrusiveness of the violent act increases. Implications for research and practice are discussed.


Subject(s)
Parents , Violence , Aggression , Humans , Physical Abuse , Prevalence
6.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e20210768, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703675

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to analyze intellectual productions on self-inflicted violence and suicide in people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: a systematic review, carried out between March and April 2021, in the PubMed®/MEDLINE®, Web of Science and LILACS databases, subsidized in the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. The period outlined was from 2011 to 2020. RESULTS: a total of 199 studies were identified, and 16 composed the final sample, grouped into the categories: Sociodemographic characteristics of victims of self-inflicted violence/suicide and their intervening factors (pointing to young adults, especially homosexuals, with low social support and a history of mental illness or substance abuse as usual victims); Successful measures for suicide prevention/control in people living with HIV/AIDS (suggesting more frequent psychosocial and clinical follow-up of those starting antiretroviral and immunocompromised treatment). CONCLUSIONS: biopsychosocial follow-up, analysis of sociodemographic profile and intervening factors should be frequent in this population for disease prevention/control.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Suicide , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Social Support , Violence , Young Adult
7.
BMJ ; 377: o1416, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680149

Subject(s)
Firearms , Humans , Violence
8.
Lancet ; 399(10342): 2183-2185, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691313
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(12)2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746286

ABSTRACT

Automatic violence detection in video surveillance is essential for social and personal security. Monitoring the large number of surveillance cameras used in public and private areas is challenging for human operators. The manual nature of this task significantly increases the possibility of ignoring important events due to human limitations when paying attention to multiple targets at a time. Researchers have proposed several methods to detect violent events automatically to overcome this problem. So far, most previous studies have focused only on classifying short clips without performing spatial localization. In this work, we tackle this problem by proposing a weakly supervised method to detect spatially and temporarily violent actions in surveillance videos using only video-level labels. The proposed method follows a Fast-RCNN style architecture, that has been temporally extended. First, we generate spatiotemporal proposals (action tubes) leveraging pre-trained person detectors, motion appearance (dynamic images), and tracking algorithms. Then, given an input video and the action proposals, we extract spatiotemporal features using deep neural networks. Finally, a classifier based on multiple-instance learning is trained to label each action tube as violent or non-violent. We obtain similar results to the state of the art in three public databases Hockey Fight, RLVSD, and RWF-2000, achieving an accuracy of 97.3%, 92.88%, 88.7%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Neural Networks, Computer , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Algorithms , Humans , Motion , Pattern Recognition, Automated/methods , Violence
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2218496, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749116

ABSTRACT

Importance: Estimates of the total economic cost of firearm violence are important in drawing attention to this public health issue; however, studies that consider violence more broadly are needed to further the understanding of the extent to which such costs can be avoided. Objectives: To estimate the association of firearm assaults with US hospital costs and deaths compared with other assault types. Design, Setting, and Participants: The 2016-2018 US Nationwide Emergency Department Sample and National Inpatient Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project were used in this cross-sectional study of emergency department (ED) and inpatient admissions for assaults involving a firearm, sharp object, blunt object, or bodily force identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Differences in ED and inpatient costs (2020 US dollars) across mechanisms were estimated using ordinary least-squares regression with and without adjustments for year and hospital, patient, and injury characteristics. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention underlying cause of death data were used to estimate national death rates and hospital case-fatality rates across mechanisms. Cost analysis used a weighted sample. National death rates and hospital case-fatality rates used US resident death certificates, covering 976 million person-years. Hospital case-fatality rates also used nationally weighted ED records covering 2.7 million admissions. Data analysis was conducted from March 1, 2021, to March 31, 2022. Exposure: The primary exposure was the mechanism used in the assault. Main Outcomes and Measures: Emergency department and inpatient costs per record. National death rates and hospital case-fatality rates. Results: Overall, 2.4 million ED visits and 184 040 inpatient admissions for assault were included. Across all mechanisms, the mean age of the population was 32.7 (95% CI, 32.6-32.9) years in the ED and 36.4 (95% CI, 36.2-36.7) years in the inpatient setting; 41.9% (95% CI, 41.2%-42.5%) were female in the ED, and 19.1% (95% CI, 18.6%-19.6%) of inpatients were female. Most assaults recorded in the ED involved publicly insured or uninsured patients and hospitals in the Southern US. Emergency department costs were $678 (95% CI, $657-$699) for bodily force, $861 (95% CI, $813-$910) for blunt object, $996 (95% CI, $925-$1067) for sharp object, and $1388 (95% CI, $1254-$1522) for firearm assaults. Corresponding inpatient costs were $14 702 (95% CI, $14 178-$15 227) for bodily force, $17 906 (95% CI, $16 888-$18 923) for blunt object, $19 265 (95% CI, $18 475-$20 055) for sharp object, and $34 949 (95% CI, $33 654-$36 244) for firearm assaults. National death rates per 100 000 were 0.04 (95% CI, 0.03-0.04) for bodily force, 0.03 (95% CI, 0.03-0.03) for blunt object, 0.54 (95% CI, 0.52-0.55) for sharp object, and 4.40 (95% CI, 4.36-4.44) for firearm assaults. Hospital case fatality rates were 0.01% (95% CI, 0.009%-0.012%) for bodily force, 0.05% (95% CI, 0.04%-0.06%) for blunt object, 1.05% (95% CI, 1.00%-1.09%) for sharp object, and 15.26% (95% CI, 15.04%-15.49%) for firearm assaults. In regression analysis, ED costs for firearm assaults were 59% to 99% higher than costs for nonfirearm assaults, and inpatient costs were 67% to 118% higher. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that it may be useful for policies aimed at reducing the costs of firearm violence to consider violence more broadly to understand the extent to which costs can be avoided.


Subject(s)
Firearms , Hospital Costs , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Violence
12.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 68, 2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women who use heroin and other drugs (WWUD) are a key population with elevated risk of physical and sexual violence perpetrated by intimate partners and non-partners. While housing instability has been shown to be associated with violence in high-income settings, this is an underexplored topic in sub-Saharan Africa. In this research, we aimed to assess the relationship between housing instability and various forms of violence within a sample of WWUD in Dar es Salaam. METHODS: This analysis uses data from a parent study from 2018. A total of 200 WWUD were recruited through respondent-driven sampling methods and administered a survey. Two multivariable logistic regression models were built to assess the relationship between housing instability and physical violence (Model 1) and housing instability and sexual violence (Model 2) while controlling for a number of sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Approximately 35% of participants were classified as housing unstable. More than half of participants (62%) reported experiencing physical violence in the past 12 months, and more than a third (36%) reported sexual violence in the same time period. Housing instability was found to be independently associated with both physical and sexual violence victimization in the past year when adjusting for covariates (Model 1 adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.40, 95% CI 1.22-4.46; Model 2 AOR: 1.93. 95% CI 1.02-3.67). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to document a significant association between housing instability and violence among WWUD communities in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis adds to the growing body of literature on the relationship between stable housing and livelihood and health outcomes across differing populations. The cyclical nature of housing instability and violence may be disrupted through housing programming that provides safety, security, and stability for WWUD.


Subject(s)
59833 , Sex Offenses , Female , Humans , Sexual Partners , Tanzania/epidemiology , Violence
13.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(6): e504-e523, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709808

ABSTRACT

The intensity and frequency of extreme weather and climate events are expected to increase due to anthropogenic climate change. This systematic review explores extreme events and their effect on gender-based violence (GBV) experienced by women, girls, and sexual and gender minorities. We searched ten databases until February, 2022. Grey literature was searched using the websites of key organisations working on GBV and Google. Quantitative studies were described narratively, whereas qualitative studies underwent thematic analysis. We identified 26 381 manuscripts. 41 studies were included exploring several types of extreme events (ie, storms, floods, droughts, heatwaves, and wildfires) and GBV (eg, sexual violence and harassment, physical violence, witch killing, early or forced marriage, and emotional violence). Studies were predominantly cross-sectional. Although most qualitative studies were of reasonable quality, most quantitative studies were of poor quality. Only one study included sexual and gender minorities. Most studies showed an increase in one or several GBV forms during or after extreme events, often related to economic instability, food insecurity, mental stress, disrupted infrastructure, increased exposure to men, tradition, and exacerbated gender inequality. These findings could have important implications for sexual-transformative and gender-transformative interventions, policies, and implementation. High-quality evidence from large, ethnographically diverse cohorts is essential to explore the effects and driving factors of GBV during and after extreme events.


Subject(s)
Gender-Based Violence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gender-Based Violence/psychology , Humans , Male , Violence
14.
Sante Publique ; 33(5): 629-634, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724096

ABSTRACT

The concept of “gynecological and obstetric violence”, which emerged in the early 2000s in Latin America in activist and scientific circles, has been debated since the 2010s in French and European feminist and political circles. We show here how this concept is defined, what realities and practices it covers and by whom and in what context it is used in the public space in France and internationally, and in academic research. This concept allows for a new approach to medical care in gynecology and obstetrics that takes into account the experiences, both objective and subjective, of women and medical practices that are now technical, sometimes impersonal and disrespectful. Although there is a growing body of work in the social sciences that uses this conceptual approach, it focuses more on childbirth and less on strictly gynecological medical care.


Subject(s)
Gynecology , Obstetrics , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Public Health , Violence
15.
Sante Publique ; 33(5): 635-643, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724097

ABSTRACT

Scientific literature has already explored many aspects relating to the concept of violence in terms of genealogy towards feminist movements. Although the formulation of the concept obstetric violence is quite recent, the experience is old. It is this paradox that this article questions. More precisely, since the genealogy of this concept is anchored in hospital reflexivity and feminist movements, this contribution aims to elucidate how feminist movements have been able to play a facilitating role. Through the observation of a feminist association mobilized for alternative childbirth, this study aims to understand how activist dynamics paved the way for this new concept. The field research made it possible to identify two postures based on interviews with users. An analysis of the history of the association shows that an internal compromise in the association between these two postures has favored a space of words for parturients and negotiations with the local hospital for concrete achievements. The discussion analyzes these two postures through the prism of universalist and differentialist feminist points of view as well as of the sociology of the body. The conclusion questions this dynamic of social movements, asking if we can observe a similar process.


Subject(s)
Feminism , Violence , Humans
16.
Sante Publique ; 33(5): 655-662, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724099

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In France and Belgium, since 2013, written and oral testimonies on the Internet, on the radio, in podcasts and in comics have made the notion of obstetrical violence public. Since the summer of 2017, audiovisual representations show the faces of victims and their allies. This media coverage has not yet been studied. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: The aim of the study is to describe the formal characteristics and dissemination strategies of audiovisual representations of obstetric violence in France and Belgium. Their place in the history of the media emergence of the concept is described. RESULTS: The result of the study is to qualify as “facing” (envisagement) the showing of faces in audiovisual representations of obstetrical violence. Seeing the faces of victims underlines their legitimacy, which contributes to the recognition of the concept of obstetric violence. CONCLUSIONS: The face-to-face testimony to denounce obstetric violence is thus part of the feminist tradition of showing the body in the fight against gender violence.


Subject(s)
Communication , Violence , Belgium , Female , France , Humans , Pregnancy
17.
Sante Publique ; 33(5): 663-673, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724100

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In France, “the pill crisis” has brought into question the centrality of oral contraception within the “contraceptive standard”, as well as the drawbacks associated with its use, and is more widely part of a dynamic of raising awareness about medical and gynecological violence, at work since the early 2010s. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: This paper intends to question the medical and gynecological violence faced by women seeking medical attention in order to access what is supposed to be a condition for their emancipation : contraception. METHOD: As part of a sociological research project on the prescriptions and uses of oral contraception, nearly seventy interviews were conducted with seventeen users of oral contraception and thirty-one health professionals authorized to prescribe contraception. Ninety-five medical and gynecological consultations were also observed, in both public and private medical facilities. RESULTS: The use of oral contraception requires regular medical consultation, increasingly exposing users to the risk of medical and gynecological violence, with lack of consent at its core. The case study of a gynecological consultation, as well as the analysis of interviews and observations, reveal various forms of medical violence, with a focus on the patients’ dependence on the medical profession. CONCLUSIONS: The interconnectedness of these different forms of medical and gynecological violence encourages us to consider them as part of a continuum of gender violence. An ethical caring stance makes it possible to guard against these situations.


Subject(s)
Contraception , Gynecology , Contraceptive Agents , Female , Humans , Referral and Consultation , Violence
18.
Sante Publique ; 33(5): 675-683, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724101

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Brazilian legislation restricts the practice of abortion. In Brazil, abortion is a major public health problem due to the morbidity, mortality and hospitalization caused by the practice of unsafe abortions. Complications related to induced abortion and miscarriages are treated in “maternity wards”, where obstetric violence can be perpetrated. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: To analyse, based on ethnographic data, the practices of biomedical technologies and their relation to practices of gynecological and obstetrical violence. RESULTS: Three main practices are systematized for didactic purposes: treatment of complications from abortion in maternity wards; ultrasound; and curettage. Despite the existence of national standards – due to the advances of the brazilian health and feminist movement – and international standards, there is still institutional resistance to the adoption of practices that prioritize women’s well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The way in which the ward is organized and materialized and the adoption of certain practices and technologies (and the omission of others) contribute to reproducing obstetric violence. The daily practices in the hospital do not escape the moralization of abortion, and the strong economic, racial and gender inequalities that go beyond the institutional space of the hospital. The analysis allows us to understand that the practice of biomedical technologies shapes and is shaped in a symbolic and situated way and can serve as an instrument for practices of embodied violence. Finally, it is necessary to review the model of post-abortion care.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Abortion, Spontaneous , Biomedical Technology , Brazil , Female , Hospitals, Maternity , Humans , Pregnancy , Violence
19.
Sante Publique ; 33(5): 685-694, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724102

ABSTRACT

The category of obstetric violence has existed for several years in the legal and public arenas in Mexico. Among the practices in this field, the increase in the use of caesarean section has fueled a reflection on the kind of considerations that push to favor a surgical intervention over a vaginal delivery; this situation increasingly raises discussions in several public arenas. The article analyses several articles written by specialists in two Mexican journals Salud Pública de México and Género y Salud en Cifras. The goal is to observe, after an analysis of some articles, the evolution of conceptions of caesarean sections over the past decades and to understand the questions surrounding the increase of the C-Sections and the reasons (medical and non-medical) which underpin this decision, to identify a potential profile of women and the progressive emergence of the discourse of risk of having a C-Section. We could observe that the research on the increase in the number of caesarean sections has indeed gained in importance, also the research on the non-medical criteria. We also noticed that the two reviews analyzed, rarely link their reflections to the category of obstetric violence. Among other things, we were able to remark the gradual amplification of the discourse of risk, as well as the establishment of an approach consisting in including among the risk factors for the childbirth the fact of being a candidate for a C-Section without specific medical justifications.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Humans , Mexico , Parturition , Pregnancy , Violence
20.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268992, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731719

ABSTRACT

Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy are socially aversive personality traits that are strongly linked to the propensity of violence. A central determinate of aggression and violence is parental rearing. Interestingly, while the origin of the development of Dark Triad is not yet entirely understood, next to genetic and environmental factors, literature points towards an influence of parenting styles to the development of dark traits. Therefore, in a sample of 1366 9th grade students (mean age 14.89,), we assessed the interplay between parental rearing, dark triad traits, observation of violence among peers and their propensity for violence. The sample has a good representativeness on school types. Results reveal a positive association between the experience of parental rejection by both parents and punishment as well as parental control and overprotection and Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy. Parental emotional warmth was associated negatively with Machiavellianism and psychopathy while no significant association with narcissism was seen. In a path model, parental rearing, dark triad traits and observation of violence among peers significantly contributed to the propensity of violence. However, differences between the experienced parenting behaviour of mothers and fathers should be noted. Both rejection and overly harsh punishments by fathers and emotional warmth by mothers have no significant influence on the dark triad. It is interesting that the effects regarding maternal parenting behaviour are stronger overall than the effects regarding paternal parenting behaviour. These results underline the importance of parental rearing on the development of Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy and suggest a significant role of parental rearing and the dark triad traits on propensity for violence in adolescents. Parenting trainings and family interventions may be a promising starting point to prevent antisocial behavior linked to the dark triad and to prevent violent behavior in future generations.


Subject(s)
Machiavellianism , Narcissism , Adolescent , Aggression/psychology , Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology , Humans , Parents , Personality , Violence
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