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1.
Acad Med ; 96(2): 218-225, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590472

ABSTRACT

Learning environments shape the experiences of learners and practitioners, making them an important component of program evaluation. However, educators find it challenging to decide whether to measure clinical learning environments with existing instruments or to design their own new instrument and, if using an existing instrument, which to choose. To assist educators with these decisions, the authors compared clinical learning environment instruments based on their characteristics, underlying constructs, and degree to which items reflect 4 domains (personal, social, organizational, material) from a recently developed model for conceptualizing learning environments in the health professions. Building on 3 prior literature reviews as well as a literature search, the authors identified 6 clinically oriented learning environment instruments designed for medical education. They collected key information about each instrument (e.g., number of items and subscales, conceptual frameworks, operational definitions of the learning environment) and coded items from each instrument according to the 4 domains. The 6 instruments varied in number of items, underlying constructs, subscales, definitions of clinical learning environment, and domain coverage. Most instruments focused heavily on the organizational and social domains and less on the personal and material domains (half omitted the material domain entirely). The variations in these instruments suggest that educators might consider several guiding questions. How will they define the learning environment and which theoretical lens is most applicable (e.g., personal vitality, sociocultural learning theory)? What aspects or domains of the learning environment do they most wish to capture (e.g., personal support, social interactions, organizational culture, access to resources)? How comprehensive do they want the instrument to be (and correspondingly how much time do they expect people to devote to completing the instrument and how frequently)? Whose perspective do they wish to evaluate (e.g., student, resident, fellow, attending, team, patient)? Each of these considerations is addressed.


Subject(s)
Clinical Medicine/instrumentation , Education, Medical/methods , Educational Measurement/methods , Learning/physiology , Concept Formation , Female , Health Occupations/education , Health Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Humans , Male , Program Evaluation/methods , Social Interaction , Social Support , Students/statistics & numerical data , Vitalism/psychology
2.
São Paulo; Propria; 2; 2021. 140 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: biblio-1178043

ABSTRACT

Estando a homeopatia fundamentada no modelo médico vitalista, conceitos como força vital, mente, alma, espírito, etc., referentes à natureza imaterial humana, são frequentemente citados, tornando-se indispensável sua compreensão. Fundamentado nas obras de Samuel Hahnemann, fundador da homeopatia, incluindo seus escritos menores e cartas, essa obra busca esclarecer essas concepções, no intuito de dissolver confusões doutrinárias. No referido estudo, fica claro o conceito de 'força vital instintiva e irracional', análoga à 'vis medicatrix naturae' hipocrática, formando um composto substancial com o corpo físico e de natureza distinta do espírito inteligente. Como outra entidade distinta das anteriores, Hahnemann também cita a mente, sede da alma, como 'órgãos físicos quase não-materiais, de mais alta hierarquia', atribuindo ao psiquismo humano a maior influência no binômio saúde-doença, referindo-se à moral e à ética como fatores preventivos e curativos das enfermidades que afetam a humanidade. Critica a escolástica e o excesso de especulações metafísicas, afastando-se de qualquer corrente filosófica ou religiosa, brindando-nos com conceitos espiritualistas universalistas dentro dos princípios morais e éticos, engrandecendo ainda mais sua obra e demonstrando ser um observador livre de preconceitos. Para Hahnemann, o corpo físico forma uma unidade substancial com o princípio vital, e não com a alma, sendo comandado pelo espírito inteligente que nele habita. A mente, como órgão psíquico, assume importante papel na relação entre essas entidades que compõe o ser humano. (AU)


Since homeopathy is based on the vitalist medical model, concepts such as vital force, mind, soul, spirit, etc., referring to the immaterial human nature, are frequently cited, making their understanding indispensable. Based on the works of Samuel Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy, including his minor writings and letters, this work seeks to clarify these conceptions, in order to dissolve doctrinal confusions. In this study, the concept of 'instinctive and irrational vital force', analogous to the Hippocratic 'vis medicatrix naturae', becomes clear, forming a substantial compound with the physical body and a nature distinct from the intelligent spirit. As another entity distinct from the previous ones, Hahnemann also mentions the mind, seat of the soul, as 'physical organs almost non-material, of higher hierarchy', attributing to the human psyche the greatest influence in the binomial health-disease, referring to the moral and ethics as preventive and curative factors for diseases that affect humanity. He criticizes scholasticism and the excess of metaphysical speculations, moving away from any philosophical or religious current, offering us universalistic spiritualist concepts within moral and ethical principles, further enhancing his work and demonstrating that he is a prejudice-free observer. For Hahnemann, the physical body forms a substantial unity with the vital principle, and not with the soul, being commanded by the intelligent spirit that in him dwells. The mind, as a psychic organ, assumes an important role in the relationship between these entities that make up the human being. (AU)


Subject(s)
Vitalism , Vital Force in Homeopathy , Homeopathic Philosophy , Health-Disease Process , Homeopathy
3.
Psicológica (Valencia. Internet) ; 41(2): 103-126, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-199982

ABSTRACT

Mental fatigue has traditionally been defined as a condition of reduced cognitive efficiency and performance, accompanied by a subjective feeling of fatigue. Even though we could expect to find associations between the three defining characteristic of mental fatigue (performance impairment, physiological deactivation and subjective fatigue), research has shown that the emergence of inconsistencies between measures is more frequent than one might expect: people proved capable of maintaining adequate performance levels even after having declared themselves fatigued. This could be explained under the compensatory control mechanism models, which state that humans are able to provide additional resources under demanding conditions, but only at the expense of psychophysiological cost and subjective fatigue. We tested this explanation by manipulating task complexity and time performing a simulated air-traffic control task. We collected psychophysiological, performance and subjective data. A decrease in pupil size was seen in the low-aircraft-density condition, while pupil size remained constant in the high-aircraft-density condition. Participants' task performance was optimal in both conditions, though they showed an increase in subjective feelings of fatigue, especially in the high-complexity task condition. Thus, complexity seemed to trigger compensatory mechanisms, which reallocated extra resources that physiologically activated participants in order to deal with a higher complexity task, whereas subjective fatigue could be acting as a signal to the organism of impending resource depletion. Our findings support compensatory control theories and offer an explanation of inconsistencies between fatigue measures. Further research on compensatory mechanisms is needed to enable better management of fatigue effects to prevent work-related accidents


Tradicionalmente, la fatiga mental ha sido definida como una condición de reducción en los niveles de eficiencia cognitiva y rendimiento, acompañada de una sensación subjetiva de fatiga mental. A pesar de que podríamos esperar encontrar asociaciones (convergencia) entre las tres características definitorias de la fatiga mental (deterioro en el rendimiento, reducción en los niveles de activación fisiológica y surgimiento de fatiga subjetiva), la literatura ha revelado que la aparición de inconsistencias (divergencia) entre las medidas de fatiga es más frecuente de lo esperado: la gente se muestra capaz de mantener niveles adecuados de rendimiento a pesar de haber declarado encontrarse fatigados. Esto puede explicarse a partir de los modelos del mecanismo de control compensatorio, los cuales afirman que los seres humanos son capaces de proveerse con recursos adicionales bajo condiciones de elevada demanda cognitiva, únicamente a expensas de un coste psicofisiológico y del surgimiento de la sensación subjetiva de fatiga mental. En el presente estudio, ponemos a prueba esta explicación manipulando el tiempo y la complejidad de una tarea de simulación de control de tráfico aéreo. Recabamos datos psicofisiológicos, de rendimiento y subjetivos. Nuestros resultados desvelan una disminución del diámetro pupilar en la condición de baja densidad de tráfico aéreo, en tanto que se mantiene constante en la condición de alta densidad. El nivel de rendimiento de los participantes resultó ser óptimo en ambas condiciones, a pesar de que se aprecia un incremento lineal en los niveles de fatiga subjetiva, especialmente en la condición de alta complejidad. Así, la complejidad parece activar el mecanismo compensatorio, el cual provee al organismo con recursos adicionales que mantienen fisiológicamente activados a los participantes de la condición de alta densidad de tráfico al objeto de hacer frente a una tarea de mayor dificultad, mientras que la fatiga subjetiva podría estar actuando como una señal del organismo para impedir el agotamiento de los recursos cognitivos. Nuestros hallazgos apoyan las teorías del control compensatorio y ofrecen una posible explicación sobre algunas inconsistencias entre las medidas de fatiga mental. La ciencia necesita seguir investigando el fenómeno del mecanismo compensatorio para favorecer la gestión de los efectos de la fatiga mental y prevenir los accidentes laborales


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Mental Fatigue/psychology , Psychometrics/instrumentation , Psychological Theory , Psychometrics/methods , Vitalism/psychology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233989, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516333

ABSTRACT

Moral vitalism refers to a tendency to view good and evil as actual forces that can influence people and events. The Moral Vitalism Scale had been designed to assess moral vitalism in a brief survey form. Previous studies established the reliability and validity of the scale in US-American and Australian samples. In this study, the cross-cultural comparability of the scale was tested across 28 different cultural groups worldwide through measurement invariance tests. A series of exact invariance tests marginally supported partial metric invariance, however, an approximate invariance approach provided evidence of partial scalar invariance for a 5-item measure. The established level of measurement invariance allows for comparisons of latent means across cultures. We conclude that the brief measure of moral vitalism is invariant across 28 cultures and can be used to estimate levels of moral vitalism with the same precision across very different cultural settings.


Subject(s)
Morals , Vitalism/psychology , Adult , Americas , Asia , Australia , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Europe , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico , New Zealand , Psychometrics/methods , United States , Venezuela , Young Adult
5.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 28(1): 35, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chiropractic emerged in 1895 and was promoted as a viable health care substitute in direct competition with the medical profession. This was an era when there was a belief that one cause and one cure for all disease would be discovered. The chiropractic version was a theory that most diseases were caused by subluxated (slightly displaced) vertebrae interfering with "nerve vibrations" (a supernatural, vital force) and could be cured by adjusting (repositioning) vertebrae, thereby removing the interference with the body's inherent capacity to heal. DD Palmer, the originator of chiropractic, established chiropractic based on vitalistic principles. Anecdotally, the authors have observed that many chiropractors who overtly claim to be "vitalists" cannot define the term. Therefore, we sought the origins of vitalism and to examine its effects on chiropractic today. DISCUSSION: Vitalism arose out of human curiosity around the biggest questions: Where do we come from? What is life? For some, life was derived from an unknown and unknowable vital force. For others, a vital force was a placeholder, a piece of knowledge not yet grasped but attainable. Developments in science have demonstrated there is no longer a need to invoke vitalistic entities as either explanations or hypotheses for biological phenomena. Nevertheless, vitalism remains within chiropractic. In this examination of vitalism within chiropractic we explore the history of vitalism, vitalism within chiropractic and whether a vitalistic ideology is compatible with the legal and ethical requirements for registered health care professionals such as chiropractors. CONCLUSION: Vitalism has had many meanings throughout the centuries of recorded history. Though only vaguely defined by chiropractors, vitalism, as a representation of supernatural force and therefore an untestable hypothesis, sits at the heart of the divisions within chiropractic and acts as an impediment to chiropractic legitimacy, cultural authority and integration into mainstream health care.


Subject(s)
Chiropractic/history , Vitalism/history , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Terminology as Topic
6.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101105, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379646

ABSTRACT

Since the inception of the chiropractic profession, debate has continued on differing practice objectives and philosophical approaches to patient care. While the political and academic leaders of the profession continue to dominate the discourse, little is known on the perspectives of the everyday practising chiropractor on their professional identity. In this paper, professional identity within the profession of chiropractic was evaluated using a systematised search strategy of the literature from the year 2000 through to May 2019. Initially 562 articles were sourced, of which 24 met the criteria for review. The review confirmed three previously stated professional identity subgroups; two polarised approaches and a centrist or mixed view. The musculoskeletal biomedical approach is in contrast to the vertebral subluxation vitalistic practice approach. Whilst these three main chiropractic identity subtypes exist, within the literature the terminology used to describe them differs. Research aimed at categorising the chiropractic profession identity into exclusive subtypes found that at least 20% of chiropractors have an exclusive vertebral subluxation focus. However, deeper exploration of the literature shows that vertebral subluxation is an important practice consideration for up to 70% of chiropractors. Patient care with a musculoskeletal spine focus is dominant in clinical practice. This review found that practising chiropractors consider themselves to be primary care or primary contact practitioners with a broad scope of practice across a number of patient groups not limited to musculoskeletal management. Across the research, there is a marked difference in the categories of practice objectives evaluated, and future research could examine the relatedness of these. Additionally, future research could explore the professional identity construct over time and within different practice contexts to help facilitate the progression of the profession.


Subject(s)
Chiropractic , Health Personnel , Primary Health Care , Professional Role , Humans , Manipulation, Chiropractic , Mind-Body Therapies , Vitalism
7.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 28(1): 18, 2020 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chiropractors use words and phrases in unique ways to express traditional, chiropractic-specific theories. This lexicon represents concepts that reinforce the separation of chiropractic from other health care professions. It may impact referrals both to and from chiropractors, lead to public confusion about health care issues, and reduce cross-disciplinary research. Therefore, it is important to understand how prevalent chiropractic-specific terms are in publicly available media. METHODS: Five chiropractic terms were selected: subluxation, adjustment, vital (-ism/-istic), wellness, and Innate (Intelligence). States and territories in Australia were proportionately sampled according to population of chiropractors using a Google search for chiropractors' private practice websites. The top results were recorded. Websites were word-searched on every publicly available page for the five terms. Context was checked to count only terms that were used to support a chiropractic-specific concepts. The number of occurrences of each term was recorded, tallied nationally and by state/territory. Descriptive statistics were applied to determine prevalence. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty-nine websites were sampled, based on an estimate of 5500 chiropractors practising in Australia. Nationally, 85% of chiropractors used one or more terms. The term adjust (-ing/-ment) occurred most frequently, being found on 283 websites (77%) with a total of 2249 occurrences. Wellness was found on 199 websites (54%) with 872 occurrences; subluxation was found on 104 websites (28%), 489 occurrences; vital (-ism/-istic) on 71 websites (19%) with 158 occurrences; and Innate was least used, being found on 39 websites (11%) with 137 occurrences. CONCLUSION: A majority of the Australian chiropractors sampled used one or more chiropractic-specific terms on their websites. Future research should explore the effects of chiropractic language on the public, policy-makers, and other health care professionals.


Subject(s)
Chiropractic/statistics & numerical data , Consumer Health Information/statistics & numerical data , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Terminology as Topic , Australia , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Joint Dislocations , Manipulation, Chiropractic , Vitalism
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 724, 2020 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959877

ABSTRACT

Quality of life (QoL) disturbances are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) both in physical and mental health domains and their causes are not clearly understood. Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) is involved in stress reactivity and development of mental health disturbances after negative life-events. We performed a retrospective cohort study of long-term QoL outcomes among 125 surgically treated aSAH patients (2001-2013). QoL was assessed with Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and compared to an age and gender matched general population. Genotyping of CRHR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed (Rs7209436, Rs110402, Rs242924) and their effect on QoL scores was explored. aSAH patients experienced a reduced quality of life in all domains. CRHR1 minor genotype was associated with higher SF-36 mental health (OR = 1.31-1.6, p < 0.05), role-emotional (OR = 1.57, p = 0.04) and vitality scores (OR = 1.31-1.38, p < 0.05). Association of all studied SNP's with vitality and Rs242924 with mental health scores remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. Mental quality of life scores were associated with physical state of patients, antidepressant history and CRHR1 genotype. Predisposition to mental health disturbances after stressful life-events might be associated with reduced mental QoL after aSAH and selected patients could be provided advanced counselling in the recovery phase.


Subject(s)
Genotype , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/genetics , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/genetics , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Emotions , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Life Change Events , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/genetics , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Retrospective Studies , Vitalism , Young Adult
9.
Homeopathy ; 109(1): 30-36, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In homeopathic philosophy, vital force is a non-material substrate that is responsible for maintaining the body's sensations and functions and where homeopathic medicines act. In genetics, the body's vital functions are controlled by biochemical information, which is contained in the cell genome and consists of a protein encoding portion (exome) and another that regulates this encoding scheme (epigenome). Both the philosophical vital force and the genome present properties of complex and dynamic self-organisation systems. AIMS: This study aimed to explore and develop a philosophical-scientific correlation between vitalism and genetics according to the complexity paradigm. RESULTS: Vital principle and genome present inseparable composition among distinct existing components that influence one another and form a network of connections that create complex and dynamic self-organisation behaviour. Described in both models, 'vortex' indicates the existence of a force coming from within the system that is externalised as an emergent, information-transmitting phenomenon. Supporting this correlation, some experimental studies show that homeopathic medicines act on the genome by modulating gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: In line with the similarity of existing characteristics and properties, the genome may be considered as hypothetical biological substrate of organic vital force.


Subject(s)
Epigenomics , Genome , Homeopathy , Vitalism , Humans
10.
Lit Med ; 37(2): 346-367, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885028

ABSTRACT

This paper considers the relationship between the practice of resuscitation in mid- to late eighteenth-century Britain, and vitalist physiology and medicine. It explores how the mix of mystery and fact presented in the scene of reanimation, and manifested in the resuscitated body as the site of such a compelling conjunction, is negotiated in contemporary vitalist theories of life and theoretical reflections on natural philosophical method. In this, it gives a particular prominence to the Scottish vitalists, especially William Cullen. It considers the attractions of resuscitation for addressing the particular epistemological predicament faced by vitalism: its combination of post-Newtonian empiricism and the inevitable conjecture-or "provisionally inexplicable explicative device"-necessary when faced with the mysteries of life. Finally, the cultural life of vitalism is considered in the work of William Hawes, Humane Society founder, and John Thelwall, radical journalist.


Subject(s)
Medicine in Literature , Narration , Resuscitation , Vitalism , History, 18th Century , Humans
11.
Technol Cult ; 60(4): 979-1003, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761790

ABSTRACT

As drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis spread across India, commentators have warned that we are returning to the sanatorium era. Such concerns might be symptomatically read in terms of loss; however, prophecies of return might also signal that there is something to be regained. Rather than lamenting the end of the antibiotic era, I shift the focus to ask about the sanatorium, not simply as a technology of the past, but as a technology of an imminent future. In examining late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century conversations about treating tuberculosis in India, I demonstrate how the the sanatorium was figured as a therapeutic technology that mediated the relationship between the body and its colonial milieu. In this light, I argue that contemporary prophecies of a future past register not simply the loss of antibiotic efficacy, but also a desire to return to a therapeutics that foregrounds issues of vitality, mediation, and environment.


Subject(s)
Hospitals, Chronic Disease/history , Tuberculosis/history , Vitalism/history , Colonialism/history , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , India , Tuberculosis/therapy
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1914): 20191576, 2019 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662082

ABSTRACT

Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on a sample of 3140 participants from 28 countries in study 3, we found that historical higher levels of pathogens were associated with stronger endorsement of moral vitalistic beliefs. Furthermore, endorsement of moral vitalistic beliefs statistically mediated the previously reported relationship between pathogen prevalence and conservative ideologies, suggesting these beliefs reinforce behavioural strategies which function to prevent infection. We conclude that moral vitalism may be adaptive: by emphasizing concerns over contagion, it provided an explanatory model that enabled human groups to reduce rates of contagious disease.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Morals , Vitalism , Biological Evolution , Humans , Prevalence , Religion
13.
Cuad Bioet ; 30(99): 159-170, 2019.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206296

ABSTRACT

This paper links the Sexual Revolution with queer neovitalism, framing both in the emancipatory impulse that underlies European culture. Impulse does not imply the confrontation between tradition and progress, but the confrontation of tradition with itself. After analyzing its epistemological referents of 68, our research shows that the conceptualization of desire as the genuine ″revolutionary instance″ and the synthesis of the relationships between language, power and politics, forged the myth of the Sexual Revolution. In addition, that this, by dissociating the sexual encounter of procreation, inspired the current gender perspective, the culture of performativity and the critique of heteronormativity. Linking the queer perspective with transhumanism, this work reveals the constroversial nature of its neovitalist current and highlines its eugenics and bio-colonial potential. Eugenic and bio-colonial potential that is evidenced by the use of genetic material and foreign bodies as a ″product″ for the social reassignment, as procreator, of the queer collective. Finally, the work reveals the inherent contradiction of the Sexual Revolution, concluding that it did not bring the emancipation that it promised, but that it implied a relapse in the state of nature, in the instinctive centrality that orders praxis to the submission of the environment, propitiating a new form of social control and a new conformity.


Subject(s)
Sexual Behavior , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Vitalism , Humans , Knowledge , Politics , Sociology
14.
Arts Health ; 11(1): 26-37, 2019 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This paper responds to calls for more lived experience research with a vitalist-materialist style of analysis inspired by Deleuze and Guattari. It challenges traditional understandings of art as a therapy associated with medical and psychological perceptions of schizophrenia, which have been found to be reductive. METHODS: Using Deleuze and Guattari's relational assemblages, the flows of affect are mapped as bodies and things, ideas and sensations connect and disconnect through the community arts sense-event "Schizy Jam". RESULTS: Opening a much broader territory for understanding the many ways that art can express, affirm and communicate difference, enables exploration of new ways in which art-makers are activating changes in feeling and thinking about schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Art-makers can be supported to connect with others with shared experience to find expression for things that have previously been inexpressible and create a world that is more inclusive of them.


Subject(s)
Art , Schizophrenia/therapy , Vitalism/psychology , Awareness , Creativity , Humans
15.
Ann Sci ; 76(2): 184-209, 2019 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879392

ABSTRACT

This article studies the theory of animal seeds as purely material entities in the early seventeenth-century medical writings of Antonio Ponce Santacruz, royal physician to the Spanish king Philipp IV. Santacruz adopts the theory of the eduction of substantial forms from the potentiality of matter, according to which new kinds of causal powers can arise out of material composites of a certain complexity. Santacruz stands out among the late Aristotelian defenders of eduction theory because he applies the concept of an instrument of direction developed by the medieval Avicenna commentator Gentile da Foligno and gives a novel turn to this concept by interpreting animal seeds as separate instruments. The article situates Santacruz's theory in the context of early modern debates about the concept of the eduction of forms, as well as in the context of early modern debates about the concept of separate instruments. Particular attention is paid to Santacruz's responses to the biological views of Julius Caesar Scaliger and Thomas Feyens. Santacruz's response to Scaliger turns out to be central for his explication of the eduction relation, and Santacruz's response to Feyens turns out to be central for his explication of the nature of instrumental causation.


Subject(s)
Life , Spirituality , Vitalism/history , Animals , History, 17th Century , Humans
16.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(1): 7, 2019 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830497

ABSTRACT

The history of helminthology in the Early Modern Period has been characterized as a debate between two camps, the internalists and the externalists. The internalists believed that helminths are spontaneously generated within the body of the host, whereas the externalists claimed that helminths enter the host from the external environment. According to the this account, the debate between these two camps ended in the nineteenth century with the victory of the externalist viewpoint. Here, we redefine these two terms, as well as the beliefs that the two groups upheld. We suggest that internalists were not necessarily committed to the theory of spontaneous generation, nor were externalists committed to its rejection. These terms only refer to the place where helminths supposedly originate, but not to the process by which they are generated. Thus, some internalists rejected the theory of spontaneous generation, while others held externalist viewpoints and at the same time accepted this theory. We claim that the debate did not end with the victory of the externalist camp; rather, a new position which we call "life-cyclism", emerged and incorporated some elements of the two earlier positions.


Subject(s)
Helminths , Life , Vitalism , Zoology/history , Animals , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Philosophy
18.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 29(2): e290209, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040753

ABSTRACT

Resumo O vitalismo canguilhemiano não é evidente, tampouco é uma forma mais conhecida desse tipo de pensamento; não nasce das antigas diatribes que, do século XVIII, invadiram as polêmicas do XIX. Canguilhem reabilita o vitalismo a partir de uma abordagem ontológica única, para a qual ele não hesita em referenciar-se nos antigos e, de modo geral, num Hipócrates que, lido sobretudo por meio da história escrita por Charles Singer, traz à tona outros temas, como a crítica ao conceito de homeostase revivido e nomeado por Walter Cannon. Canguilhem redimensiona a homeostase hipocrática que Cannon cientificizou, dando-lhe uma mobilidade que lhe é conceitualmente essencial, e redesenha o projeto do vitalismo, recusando-lhe a antítese do mecanicismo. Dessa forma, Canguilhem foi buscar ou se respaldar num Hipócrates lido pelos historiadores da medicina (e das ciências biomédicas). Este artigo procurou mapear a contribuição de longa duração de Georges Canguilhem para o discurso médico, bem como seu papel fundador de uma nova concepção de normalidade a partir da sua concepção de vitalismo, que, para ele, é herdeira de um "espírito hipocrático".


Abstract Canguilhem's vitalism is not obvious, neither does is consist of a more known form of this type of thinking; it does not come from the old diatribes that, coming from the 19th century, are still relevant to the 20th century's discussions. Canguilhem reclaims vitalism from a unique ontological approach, and does not hesitate to allude to the classics and, most of all, to a Hippocrates that, read mainly through the perspective of the history written by Charles Singer, brings to light other themes such as the critic to the concept of homeostasis revitalized and named by Walter Cannon. Canguilhem gives another perspective to Hippocrates' homeostasis, that was "scientified" by Cannon, giving it mobility that is considered essential to its concept and redraws the vitalism project, rejecting the place of mechanism antithesis. This paper aimed to map Canguilhem's longue durée contribution to the medical discourse, as well as his funding role of a new conception of normality formulated from his own interpretation of a vitalism that, in his point of view, comes from a "Hippocratic spirit".


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitalism , Health-Disease Process , Medicine/trends , Natural History of Diseases
19.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(4): 68, 2018 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386943

ABSTRACT

Louis Pasteur's defeat of belief in spontaneous generation has been a classical rationalist example of how the experimental approach of modern science can reveal superstition. Farley and Geison (Bull Hist Med 48:161-198, 1974) told a counter-story of how Pasteur's success was due to political and ideological support rather than superior experimental science. They claimed that Pasteur violated proper norms of scientific method, and that the French Academy of Science did not see this, or did not want to. Farley and Geison argued that Pouchet's experiments were as valid as those of Pasteur. In this paper I argue that the core of the scientific debate was not general theories for or against spontaneous generation but the outcome of specific experiments. It was on the conduct of these experiments that the Academy made judgements favorable to Pasteur. Claude Bernard was a colleague of Pasteur, supportive and sometimes critical. I argue that Bernard's fact-oriented methodology of "experimental medicine" is a better guide to explaining the controversy than the hypothetic-deductive view of scientific method typical of logical empiricism.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/history , Empiricism/history , Vitalism/history , France , History, 19th Century , Research Design
20.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(4): 64, 2018 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353475

ABSTRACT

This is an introduction to a collection of articles on the conceptual history of epigenesis, from Aristotle to Harvey, Cavendish, Kant and Erasmus Darwin, moving into nineteenth-century biology with Wolff, Blumenbach and His, and onto the twentieth century and current issues, with Waddington and epigenetics. The purpose of the topical collection is to emphasize how epigenesis marks the point of intersection of a theory of biological development and a (philosophical) theory of active matter. We also wish to show that the concept of epigenesis existed prior to biological theorization and that it continues to permeate thinking about development in recent biological debates.


Subject(s)
Philosophy/history , Vitalism/history , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval
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