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1.
J Vis Exp ; (191)2023 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688558

ABSTRACT

Coral reefs thrive and provide maximal ecosystem services when they support a multi-level trophic structure and grow in favorable water quality conditions that include high light levels, rapid water flow, and low nutrient levels. Poor water quality and other anthropogenic stressors have caused coral mortality in recent decades, leading to trophic downgrading and the loss of biological complexity on many reefs. Solutions to reverse the causes of trophic downgrading remain elusive, in part because efforts to restore reefs are often attempted in the same diminished conditions that caused coral mortality in the first place. Coral Arks, positively buoyant, midwater structures, are designed to provide improved water quality conditions and supportive cryptic biodiversity for translocated and naturally recruited corals to assemble healthy reef mesocosms for use as long-term research platforms. Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS), passive settlement devices, are used to translocate the cryptic reef biodiversity to the Coral Arks, thereby providing a "boost" to natural recruitment and contributing ecological support to the coral health. We modeled and experimentally tested two designs of Arks to evaluate the drag characteristics of the structures and assess their long-term stability in the midwater based on their response to hydrodynamic forces. We then installed two designs of Arks structures at two Caribbean reef sites and measured several water quality metrics associated with the Arks environment over time. At deployment and 6 months after, the Coral Arks displayed enhanced metrics of reef function, including higher flow, light, and dissolved oxygen, higher survival of translocated corals, and reduced sedimentation and microbialization relative to nearby seafloor sites at the same depth. This method provides researchers with an adaptable, long-term platform for building reef communities where local water quality conditions can be adjusted by altering deployment parameters such as the depth and site.


Subject(s)
Anthozoa , Coral Reefs , Animals , Ecosystem , Anthozoa/physiology , West Indies , Water Quality
2.
PeerJ ; 10: e14178, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36518271

ABSTRACT

Fish populations that bear considerable pressure levels tend to show a decline in the average size of individuals, with the small and unexploited species replacing the large and exploited ones. It is important to carry on with their characterization in areas where they are becoming an important source of food for local human populations. An example of such species are parrotfishes, whose responses to external factors such as fishing need to be understood and predicted. In this study, we used a diver-operated stereo-video to examine individual body size, sex ratios and proportion of species of the parrotfish assemblage and analyze them on a qualitative fishing pressure gradient at four oceanic islands in the Colombian Caribbean. We reported over 10,000 occurrences of eleven parrotfish species, of which we estimated the total length of over 90%, grouping them into three size categories (large, medium, and small). Our data showed a spatial variation of parrotfishes' abundances, biomass, and individual body size. Observed differences are size-category-dependent throughout the qualitative fishing pressure. In general, the medium-bodied species had smaller sizes, lower abundances, and thus lower contribution to the total parrotfish biomass at the most heavily fished island. Unexpectedly, we found evidence of possible indirect effects over the small-bodied species Scarus iseri and Scarus taeniopterus with significantly greater abundances, and larger sizes of males of S. iseri, at the higher fishing pressure sites. Overall, our data highlights the extent of the spatial variation in the parrotfish communities at relatively short distances, and present new insights into the responses of parrotfish species on a spectrum of body sizes along a gradient of human pressure.


Subject(s)
Hunting , Perciformes , Humans , Animals , Male , Islands , West Indies , Caribbean Region , Seafood
3.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 129, 2022 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detecting genomic variants and their accumulation processes during species diversification and adaptive radiation is important for understanding the molecular and genetic basis of evolution. Anolis lizards in the West Indies are good models for studying evolutionary mechanisms because of the repeated evolution of their morphology and the ecology. We performed de novo genome assembly of six Cuban Anolis lizards with different ecomorphs and thermal habitats (Anolis isolepis, Anolis allisoni, Anolis porcatus, Anolis allogus, Anolis homolechis, and Anolis sagrei). We carried out a comparative analysis of these genome assemblies to investigate the genetic changes that occurred during their diversification. RESULTS: We reconstructed novel draft genomes with relatively long scaffolds and high gene completeness, with the scaffold N50 ranging from 5.56 to 39.79 Mb and vertebrate Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs completeness ranging from 77.5% to 86.9%. Comparing the repeat element compositions and landscapes revealed differences in the accumulation process between Cuban trunk-crown and trunk-ground species and separate expansions of several families of LINE in each Cuban trunk-ground species. Duplicated gene analysis suggested that the proportional differences in duplicated gene numbers among Cuban Anolis lizards may be associated with differences in their habitat ranges. Additionally, Pairwise Sequentially Markovian Coalescent analysis suggested that the effective population sizes of each species may have been affected by Cuba's geohistory. CONCLUSIONS: We provide draft genomes of six Cuban Anolis lizards and detected species and lineage-specific transposon accumulation and gene copy number changes that may be involved in adaptive evolution. The change processes in the past effective population size was also estimated, and the factors involved were inferred. These results provide new insights into the genetic basis of Anolis lizard diversification and are expected to serve as a stepping stone for the further elucidation of their diversification mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Lizards , Animals , Lizards/genetics , Ecosystem , Ecology , Genomics , West Indies
4.
Kingston; PAHO; 2022-11-23. (PAHO/JAM/22-0001).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56352

ABSTRACT

This Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Annual Report outlines contributions and achievements in Jamaica, Bermuda, and the Cayman Islands in the year 2021. The report also reinforces PAHO/WHO's core mission, through focus on the country level, recognizing that progress toward sustainable development hinges on improved health at the local and national levels. In 2021, PAHO/WHO supported Jamaica, Bermuda and the Cayman Islands on their path toward disaster risk reduction as well as the ongoing implementation of Phase II of the Smart Health Care Facilities in the Caribbean Project. This project, which aims to enhance the resilience of health facilities to ensure continuity of service delivery before, during and after hazards, such as hurricanes, has led to the upgrade of nine facilities so far. Working toward the upcoming restructuring of the Jamaican Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW) and Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) and health care reform in Jamaica, the country signed a technical cooperation agreement with PAHO to provide a national voluntary contribution, with projects developed to strengthen public financial management and results-based management, as well as a strategic plan for health information systems and a concept note for policy on health research. PAHO supported Jamaica’s efforts as the pandemic impact underscored the need to include mental health in emergency and disaster management, as well as activities that contributed to achieving milestones in tobacco control and road safety. Furthermore, PAHO assisted with initiatives to tackle the high prevalence of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in the population and promote better nutrition, such as the National Infant and Young Child Feeding Policy and Strategic Plan and front-of-package labelling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies , Health Systems , Health Services , Noncommunicable Diseases , Equity , Gender Equity , Cultural Diversity , Technical Cooperation , Caribbean Region , Jamaica , Bermuda , West Indies
5.
Nassau; PAHO; 2022-11-1. (PAHO/BHS/22-0001).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56348

ABSTRACT

In 2022 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is celebrating its 120th anniversary. Operating as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, PAHO provides technical cooperation to its Member States to address communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, strengthen health systems, and respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Americas. In addition, in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for the Americas, PAHO participates in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other United Nations agencies, funds, and programs to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. At the subregional level, PAHO works with integration mechanisms to position health and its determinants on the political agenda. The 2021 Country Annual Reports reflect PAHO’s technical cooperation in countries and territories in implementing the Country Cooperation Strategies, responding to their needs and priorities, and operating within the framework of PAHO’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Responding to COVID-19 and Preparing for the Future, they highlight PAHO’s actions on the COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing efforts in priority areas such as health emergencies, health systems and services, communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases and mental health, health throughout the life course, and health equity. They also provide a financial summary for the biennium 2020-2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies , Health Systems , Health Services , Noncommunicable Diseases , Equity , Gender Equity , Cultural Diversity , Technical Cooperation , Caribbean Region , Bahamas , West Indies
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010745, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In France, leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean region, in French Guiana and to a lesser extent, in the French West Indies. This study wanted to provide an updated picture of leishmaniasis epidemiology in metropolitan France and in its overseas territories. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leishmaniasis cases were collected by passive notification to the French National Reference Centre for Leishmaniases (NRCL) in Montpellier from 1998 to 2020 and at the associated Centre in Cayenne (French Guiana) from 2003 to 2020. In metropolitan France, 517 autochthonous leishmaniasis cases, mostly visceral forms due to Leishmania infantum (79%), and 1725 imported cases (French Guiana excluded), mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis from Maghreb, were recorded. A slight decrease of autochthonous cases was observed during the survey period, from 0.48 cases/100,000 inhabitants per year in 1999 (highest value) to 0.1 cases/100,000 inhabitants per year in 2017 (lowest value). Conversely, imported cases increased over time (from 59.7 in the 2000s to 94.5 in the 2010s). In French Guiana, 4126 cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis cases were reported from 2003 to 2020. The mean incidence was 103.3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants/year but varied in function of the year (from 198 in 2004 to 54 in 2006). In Guadeloupe and Martinique (French West Indies), only sporadic cases were reported. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of concerns about disease expansion and outbreaks in other Southern Europe countries, and leishmaniasis monitoring by the NRCL should be continued and associated with a more active surveillance.


Subject(s)
Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous , Humans , France/epidemiology , West Indies
7.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(8): 135-155, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239504

ABSTRACT

Frequent hurricanes affect agricultural productivity, food security, economic security, and human wellbeing in the Caribbean islands. We assessed recent hurricane effects on the agricultural sector, and the challenges faced by farmers, foresters, and advisors related to hurricane preparedness and recovery in Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands (USVI). We used qualitative and quantitative survey methods to compile perspectives from agricultural advisors related to hurricane effects on farmlands, preparedness and recovery measures taken by land managers, and the needs regarding preparing for and responding to future hurricanes. Survey responses from over 200 advisors at eight institutions provided insight into the most devastating hurricane effects across farmlands, including issues related to power outages, communication, road access, and fallen trees. Our results highlight strategies considered critical for hurricane preparedness and recovery but not prevalent in application among land managers. Advisors' perceptions suggested that farmers and ranchers apply essential recovery practices, but critical short-term preparedness practices are limited, and long-term preparedness practices are uncommon. Advisors also indicated the need for more training and educational resources to improve hurricane recovery response. We conclude that better planning to minimize the vulnerability to future hurricanes can be achieved through an increased understanding of how preparedness and recovery practices help mitigate hurricane effects, improved interagency coordination for hurricane response and preparedness, and integrated educational campaigns with advisors and land managers.


Subject(s)
Cyclonic Storms , Caribbean Region , Humans , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , West Indies
9.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(11)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251862

ABSTRACT

Despite a century of genetic analysis, the evolutionary processes that have generated the patterns of exceptional genetic and phenotypic variation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster remains poorly understood. In particular, how genetic variation is partitioned within its putative ancestral range in Southern Africa remains unresolved. Here, we study patterns of population genetic structure, admixture, and the spatial structuring of candidate incompatibility alleles across a global sample, including 223 new accessions, predominantly from remote regions in Southern Africa. We identify nine major ancestries, six that primarily occur in Africa and one that has not been previously described. We find evidence for both contemporary and historical admixture between ancestries, with admixture rates varying both within and between continents. For example, while previous work has highlighted an admixture zone between broadly defined African and European ancestries in the Caribbean and southeastern USA, we identify West African ancestry as the most likely African contributor. Moreover, loci showing the strongest signal of introgression between West Africa and the Caribbean/southeastern USA include several genes relating to neurological development and male courtship behavior, in line with previous work showing shared mating behaviors between these regions. Finally, while we hypothesized that potential incompatibility loci may contribute to population genetic structure across the range of D. melanogaster; these loci are, on average, not highly differentiated between ancestries. This work contributes to our understanding of the evolutionary history of a key model system, and provides insight into the partitioning of diversity across its range.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Drosophila melanogaster , Animals , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Alleles , Africa , West Indies , Genetics, Population , Genetic Variation
11.
Ecol Lett ; 25(11): 2384-2396, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192673

ABSTRACT

Ecological community structure ultimately depends on the production of community members by speciation. To understand how macroevolution shapes communities, we surveyed Anolis lizard assemblages across elevations on Jamaica and Hispaniola, neighbouring Caribbean islands similar in environment, but contrasting in the richness of their endemic evolutionary radiations. The impact of diversification on local communities depends on available spatial opportunities for speciation within or between ecologically distinct sub-regions. In the spatially expansive lowlands of both islands, communities converge in species richness and average morphology. But communities diverge in the highlands. On Jamaica, where limited highland area restricted diversification, communities remain depauperate and consist largely of elevational generalists. In contrast, a unique fauna of high-elevation specialists evolved in the vast Hispaniolan highlands, augmenting highland richness and driving islandwide turnover in community composition. Accounting for disparate evolutionary opportunities may illuminate when regional diversity will enhance local diversity and help predict when communities should converge in structure.


Subject(s)
Lizards , Animals , Lizards/genetics , Biological Evolution , Biota , West Indies , Phylogeny
12.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0269873, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129880

ABSTRACT

The Iberian ibex is one of the most singular species of the Iberian Peninsula. Throughout the years, this species suffered several threats which led the population to its decline. Many reintroductions and translocations were made, however, none of those actions took into account the genetic patterns of both reintroduced individuals and the target populations. In this paper, we explored the genetic traits of three populations of Iberian ibex in Catalonia, which experienced blind reintroductions in past years: The populations of Iberian ibex from Els Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (TBNGR), Montserrat Natural Park (Monserrat) and Montgrí, les Illes Medes i el Baix Ter Natural Park (Montgrí) Based on the genetic patterns of the three populations coupled with the absence of genetic introgression with domestic goats-inferred using mitochondrial and nuclear markers-we propose that these should be regarded as two different management units: TBNGR coupled with Montserrat, and Montgrí. Montserrat population should be targeted as a population model for ecology and evolution studies. Although we did not detect evidences of recent bottleneck events, this population seems to be monomorphic for the mtDNA haplotype. Our results suggest that the blind reintroductions from TBNGR to Montserrat failed on maximizing the genetic diversity of the latter. We enhance the importance of genetic monitoring of both the source population and the selected individuals to be re-introduced. We conclude that the three studied population of Iberian ibex must be monitored to explore which strategy would be advantageous for maintaining the genetic diversity. On the other hand, TBNGR should be monitored to assess the existence of its singular genetic variation, where stochastic events could preserve this lost genetic variation.


Subject(s)
DNA, Mitochondrial , Goats , Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Goats/genetics , Spain/epidemiology , West Indies
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 183: 114091, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087485

ABSTRACT

Baseline marine litter abundance and distribution on Saint Martin Island, Bay of Bengal, were assessed. Seventy-two transects (100-150 m) along 12 km of coastline were surveyed for litter items every two weeks for two months. The most abundant items were polythene bags, food wrappers, plastic bottles/caps, straws, styrofoam, plastic cups, plastic fragments, fishing nets, clothes, and rubber buoys. Tourism, local markets, hotels, domestic waste, and fishing activities were primary sources of marine litter. According to the mean clean coast index (CCI), all transects were clean, of which 11.3 % and 14.1 % of sandy beaches and rocky shores with sandy beaches were reported dirty, respectively. Northern Saint Martin Island comprised sandy beaches (2.8 %) and was extremely dirty. In addition, plastic abundance index (PAI) analysis showed that 24 % of sites, out of 72 sites, were under "very high abundance", 33 % were "high abundance", 33 % showed "moderate abundance", and 4 % were classified as "low abundance". Establishing baseline results of marine litter abundance and distribution on Saint Martin Island may help improve island conservation and mitigation strategies (e.g., improved waste management, beach cleaning activities to raise public awareness, local government litter reduction policies, and increase local pro-environmental behavioral change).


Subject(s)
Bathing Beaches , Waste Products , Bangladesh , Bays , Environmental Monitoring , Plastics , Polyethylene , Rubber , Waste Products/analysis , West Indies
14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 140(10): 994-1001, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048466

ABSTRACT

Importance: Most ocular lesions have been described for children with congenital Zika syndrome. The frequency of finding ocular abnormalities is unknown among children exposed to Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. This study was conducted on newborns whose mothers were positive for ZIKV, confirmed with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Objective: To report ocular fundus manifestations in newborns with congenital ZIKV exposure in French Guiana, Martinique, and Guadeloupe, French West Indies, to assess its prevalence. Risk factors, such as the presence of extraocular fetopathies and the gestational term at infection, were sought. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a cross-sectional multicentric study, conducted from August 1, 2016, to April 30, 2019, for which data were collected prospectively. The study inception was at the beginning of 2016 from the onset of the ZIKV epidemic in the French West Indies. Newborns whose mothers tested positive (by RT-PCR) for ZIKV during pregnancy were included. Interventions: Fundus examination was performed using widefield retinal imaging after pupil dilation. Infection date, delivery mode, and newborn measurements were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: Anomalies of the vitreous, choroid, retina, and optic disc. Results: A total of 330 children (mean [SD] age, 68 [IQR, 22-440] days; 170 girls [51.5%]) were included. Eleven children (3.3%) had perivascular retinal hemorrhages, and 3 (0.9%) had lesions compatible with congenital ZIKV infection: 1 child had torpedo maculopathy, 1 child had a chorioretinal scar with iris and lens coloboma, and 1 child had a chorioretinal scar. Retinal hemorrhages were found at childbirth during early screening. Lesions compatible with congenital ZIKV infection were not associated with the presence of extraocular fetopathy. Microcephaly was not associated with lesions compatible with congenital ZIKV infection (odds ratio [OR], 9.1; 95% CI, 0.8-105.3; P = .08), but severe microcephaly was associated with an OR of 81 (95% CI, 5.1-1297.8; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this cross-sectional study suggest that the ocular anomalies found may be associated with ZIKV in 0.9% of the exposed population. Ocular lesions were rare, affected mostly the choroid and retina, and seemed to be associated with choroiditis-related scarring that developed during fetal growth.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Pregnancy , Female , Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Aged , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Guadeloupe/epidemiology , Martinique/epidemiology , Cicatrix , Retinal Hemorrhage/complications , French Guiana/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , West Indies/epidemiology
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006197

ABSTRACT

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is one of the most common causes worldwide of marine poisoning associated with fish consumption from tropical areas. Its incidence is underreported. CP cases seem to increase with grouped cases reported during summer. Exposure to ciguatoxins, toxins responsible for CP with sodium-channel agonistic, voltage-gated potassium channel blocking, cholinergic, and adrenergic activities, may result in a large spectrum of manifestations. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, management, and outcome of CP in Martinique, French West Indies. We conducted an observational retrospective single-center study during six years (October 2012 to September 2018) including all CP patients managed by the prehospital medical services, admitted to the university hospital emergency department, or declared to the regional health agency. A total of 149 CP patients (81 females/63 males; median age, 46 years (interquartile range, 34-61)) were included. Acute features consisted in general (91%; mainly, myalgia pruritus, and asthenia), gastrointestinal (90%; mainly diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea), neurological (72%; mainly, paresthesia, dysgeusia, and impairment of hot/cold feeling), and cardiovascular manifestations (22%; bradycardia, hypotension, and heart conduction disorders). Management was supportive. No patient died but symptoms persisted in 40% of the 77 patients with follow-up at day 15. CP was mainly attributed to the ingestion of trevallies (59%), snappers (13%), and king mackerels (8%) with collective contaminations (71%). Unusual fish (tuna, salmon, and spider conchs) were suspected in rare cases. Ingestion of trevallies was associated with significantly higher persistent symptoms (odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, (1.20-8.00); p = 0.03). CP incidence was 0.67 cases per 10,000 patient-years in Martinique over the study period. To conclude, CP represents an increasing public health issue in Martinique, as is the case in other Caribbean islands. Patients present usual but possibly life-threatening features. Outcome is excellent despite frequently prolonged manifestations.


Subject(s)
Ciguatera Poisoning , Ciguatoxins , Animals , Ciguatera Poisoning/epidemiology , Ciguatoxins/toxicity , Female , Fishes , Humans , Male , Martinique/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , West Indies
16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, ago. 2022. Special Issue Improving Household Nutrition Security and Public Health in the CARICOM
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56282

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To assess the ability of low-income families to obtain a standard basket of healthy foods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. The costs of 191 food items were averaged from supermarkets, municipal markets, wholesalers, and community food outlets in high- and low-income areas in three Caribbean countries. The analysis compared foods not only by selecting high- and low-ranked commodities but by the proportions of those foods, by food group, that will be required to meet a low-cost, nutritionally balanced diet of 2 400 kcal. Results. The main finding was that low-income households will need between 22% and 47% of their earnings to obtain a healthy diet. Despite higher food prices in Saint Kitts and Nevis, low-income households there will need a smaller proportion of their income to obtain a similar basket of foods than in Jamaica or Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Conclusions. While the COVID-19 pandemic has added economic stressors to low-income households the basic vulnerability of the poor to obtain a healthy diet remains. Despite country variations, the findings point to the need for an increase in the minimum wage, particularly in Jamaica. It is essential to embed policies that ensure reduced economic and social vulnerability at the household level.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar la capacidad de las familias de bajos ingresos para obtener una cesta estándar de alimentos saludables antes y durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos. Se promediaron los costos de 191 alimentos en supermercados, mercados municipales, mayoristas y puestos de venta de alimentos en la comunidad en zonas de altos y bajos ingresos de tres países del Caribe. En el análisis se compararon los comestibles por grupo de alimentos mediante una selección de productos de alto y bajo rango, así como por las proporciones necesarias para tener un régimen alimentario nutricionalmente equilibrado de 2 400 kcal y de bajo costo. Resultados. La conclusión principal fue que los hogares de bajos ingresos necesitan entre 22% y 47% de sus ingresos para tener un régimen alimentario saludable. A pesar de los elevados precios de los alimentos en Saint Kitts y Nevis, los hogares de bajos ingresos necesitarán una proporción menor de sus ingresos para obtener una cesta de alimentos similar en Jamaica o San Vicente y las Granadinas. Conclusiones. La vulnerabilidad básica de las personas pobres para tener un régimen alimentario saludable persiste, a lo que se suma que la pandemia de COVID-19 ha agregado factores económicos estresantes a los hogares de bajos ingresos. A pesar de las variaciones entre países, los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de incrementar el salario mínimo, particularmente en Jamaica. Es esencial incorporar políticas que garanticen una reducción de la vulnerabilidad económica y social a nivel de los hogares.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar a capacidade das famílias de baixa renda de adquirir uma cesta básica de alimentos saudáveis antes e durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos. Calculou-se a média do custo de 191 produtos alimentícios em supermercados, mercados municipais, atacadistas e estabelecimentos comunitários em áreas de alta e baixa renda em três países do Caribe. A análise comparou os alimentos não apenas pela escolha de produtos classificados em posição alta e baixa, mas também pelas proporções desses alimentos, por grupo alimentar, necessárias para ter uma alimentação de baixo custo e nutricionalmente equilibrada, com 2 400 kcal. Resultados. A principal constatação foi que as famílias de baixa renda precisarão gastar entre 22% e 47% de sua renda para ter uma alimentação saudável. Apesar do maior preço dos alimentos em Saint Kitts e Nevis, as famílias de baixa renda nesse país precisarão usar uma menor proporção da renda para comprar uma cesta de alimentos semelhante à adquirida na Jamaica ou em São Vicente e Granadinas. Conclusões. Embora a pandemia de COVID-19 tenha agregado fatores de estresse econômico às famílias de baixa renda, persiste a vulnerabilidade subjacente das pessoas pobres em relação à obtenção de uma alimentação saudável. Apesar das variações entre os países, as constatações indicam a necessidade de um aumento do salário mínimo, sobretudo na Jamaica. É essencial a incorporação de políticas que reduzam a vulnerabilidade econômica e social no âmbito familiar.


Subject(s)
Diet , Vulnerability Analysis , Health Promotion , Poverty , West Indies , Diet , Vulnerability Analysis , Health Promotion , Poverty , West Indies , Vulnerability Analysis , Health Promotion , West Indies , COVID-19
17.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 783, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Geographical disparities in cancer incidence are observed at different scales and may highlight areas of high risk that need special attention to improve health policies. In Guadeloupe, a French archipelago in the Caribbean, environmental and socioeconomic factors are potential factors associated with cancer incidence. Our objective was to describe geographical variations of cancer incidence in Guadeloupe at a small-area level, in order to identify potential clusters. METHODS: We conducted spatial analyses for the 18 most frequent cancer sites, using data collected by the population-based cancer registry of Guadeloupe over the period 2008-2017. For each cancer sites, we used the Besag, York and Mollié model to estimate smoothed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) at a sub-municipality level. In addition, we performed ascendant hierarchical clustering of these smoothed SIRs to describe the relationship between the different cancer sites and to identify geographical clusters. RESULTS: We observed geographical disparities with a spatial pattern that varied across cancer sites. Clustering of the smoothed SIRs showed aggregations between breast cancer and multiple myeloma, thyroid and stomach cancer, cervical and head and neck cancers, lung and rectal cancers, ovarian and endometrial cancers. Cluster analysis also identified six geographical clusters. Features of these clusters suggest alcohol consumption, exposure to pesticides, pollution generated by open landfills, and ethnicity as possible explanatory factors. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Our study provided for the first time an extensive description of geographical disparities in cancer incidence in Guadeloupe, in a region where socioeconomic and environmental issues are major concerns. Although the identification of underlying factors was out of the scope of the present study, we highlighted areas of special interest and put forward some hypotheses that warrant to be further investigated in more in-depth analyses.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Female , Guadeloupe/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , West Indies
18.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 94: 103894, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate preeclampsia risk of pregnant women living in coastal areas regularly impacted by massive sargassum strandings. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTINGS AND POPULATION: Pregnant women (n = 3020), seen at the University Hospital of Martinique, were included between 25/01/2016 and 31/07/2020. METHODS: Patient records were retrospectively reviewed. Distance from coastline sargassum stranding sites was characterized as follows: < 500 m, 500 m-2 km, > 2 km. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary endpoint was occurrence of preeclampsia. Secondary endpoint was time to preeclampsia defined as the number of weeks free of preeclampsia between the 20th and 37th week of amenorrhea. RESULTS: Time to preeclampsia onset was significantly shorter in women living in the ≤ 2 km range (mean survival time 32 ± 1 amenorrhea weeks) compared to those beyond 2 km (mean survival time 35 ± 1 amenorrhea weeks, p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Along with traditional risk factors, environmental exposure to sargassum strandings might potentially trigger early onset of preeclampsia.


Subject(s)
Pre-Eclampsia , Sargassum , Amenorrhea , Female , Humans , Martinique/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , West Indies
19.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 174: 107548, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690377

ABSTRACT

The genus Cyclura includes nine extant species and six subspecies of West Indian Rock Iguanas and is one of the most imperiled genera of squamate reptiles globally. An understanding of species diversity, evolutionary relationships, diversification, and historical biogeography in this group is crucial for implementing sound long-term conservation strategies. We collected DNA samples from 1 to 10 individuals per taxon from all Cyclura taxa (n = 70 ingroup individuals), focusing where possible on incorporating individuals from different populations of each species. We also collected 1-2 individuals from each of seven outgroup species of iguanas (Iguana delicatissima; five Ctenosaura species) and Anolis sagrei (n = 12 total outgroup individuals). We used targeted genomic sequence capture to isolate and to sequence 1,872 loci comprising of 687,308 base pairs (bp) from each of the 82 individuals from across the nuclear genome. We extracted mitochondrial reads and assembled and annotated mitogenomes for all Cyclura taxa plus outgroup species. We present well-supported phylogenomic gene tree/species tree analyses for all extant species of Cyclura using ASTRAL-III, SVDQuartets, and StarBEAST2 methods, and discuss the taxonomic, biogeographic, and conservation implications of these data. We find a most recent common ancestor of the genus 9.91 million years ago. The earliest divergence within Cyclura separates C. pinguis from a clade comprising all other Cyclura. Within the latter group, a clade comprising C. carinata from the southern Lucayan Islands and C. ricordii from Hispaniola is the sister taxon to a clade comprising the other Cyclura. Among the other Cyclura, the species C. cornuta and C. stejnegeri (from Hispaniola and Isla Mona) form the sister taxon to a clade of species from Jamaica (C. collei), Cuba and Cayman Islands (C. nubila and C. lewisi), and the eastern (C. rileyi) and western (C. cychlura) Lucayan Islands. Cyclura cychlura and C. rileyi form a clade whose sister taxa are C. nubila and C. lewisi. Cyclura collei is the sister taxon to these four species combined.


Subject(s)
Iguanas , Lizards , Animals , Cuba , Humans , Iguanas/genetics , Lizards/genetics , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , West Indies
20.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 175: 107558, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772621

ABSTRACT

Understanding the evolution of the tribe Gochnatieae (Compositae) has been the subject of considerable effort in the past decade. This is due to the key position of this tribe in the phylogeny of the sunflower family and the corresponding implications for biogeographic and morphological evolution of Compositae. Previous studies have confirmed the monophyly of this tribe as well as most of the genera that belong to it. However, phylogenetic resolution of Gochnatieae at both the genus- and species-level has remained poor. A subset of new phylogenomic loci used in this study has proven effective and has improved phylogenetic resolution in this group. The results of this work demonstrate Gochnatieae is a well-supported clade comprised of nine genera (Anastraphia, Cnicothamnus, Cyclolepis, Gochnatia, Moquiniastrum, Nahuatlea, Pentaphorus, Richterago, Tehuasca). One recently described genus, Vickia, was not included in this study; but its placement in Gochnatieae as a tenth genus in the tribe is well-justified. The monospecific Cyclolepis, which had been circumscribed within the tribe since its inception but was subsequently removed and designated as incertae sedis since 2014, is also shown to belong to Gochnatieae. We confirmed the monophyletic Moquiniastrum with two well-supported subclades. Ancestral area reconstruction analyses show that Gochnatieae originated in Eastern South America about 53 my. Apparently, except for Cyclolepis and Richterago, the ancestors of the other genera of Gochnatieae originated about 44 my from an area that now corresponds to the central Andes. The presence of the genera in the Chaco phytogeographic province, central Chile, and Mexico-United States-Caribbean is a result of dispersal from the central Andes. The ancestral distribution of Moquiniastrum corresponds to a large area comprising Eastern South America and the current central Andes, about 32 my. Ancestral character state reconstruction that included four characters indicates several states associated with complex plant reproductive biology such as gynodioecy, gynomonoecy, and polygamodioecy are derived in Gochnatieae as are heterogamous capitula (in Moquiniastrum and Richterago), dimorphic and subdimorphic corollas (in Cnicothamnus, Moquiniastrum, and Richterago), and the presence of marginal female corollas (in Moquiniastrum and Richterago). Within Moquiniastrum, two subclades (Densicephalum and Polymorphum) exhibit divergent patterns of trait evolution associated with these reproductive characters which suggests this genus can serve as a model to understand the sexual system evolution in plants.


Subject(s)
Asteraceae , Caribbean Region , Chile , Phylogeny , West Indies
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