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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366907

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: estabelecer diagnóstico diferencial das demências em ambulatório de geriatria no Distrito Federal, calculando-se sua prevalência por meio de exame clínico e avaliação multifuncional. Método: estudo longitudinal, retrospectivo, com amostra de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais residentes no Distrito Federal-Brasil, com déficit cognitivo caracterizado por Transtorno Neurocognitivo (TNC) Maior (demência), cadastradas durante os anos de 2010 a 2018. A coleta de dados foi realizada em prontuários para selecionar e avaliar o perfil do idoso com diagnóstico de TNC seguida de avaliação geriátrica ampla e avaliação multifuncional. A análise de dados foi realizada com o cálculo da prevalência, estatística descritiva e índice V de Cramer. Resultados: 158 indivíduos conseguiram concluir todas as avalições. 52,5% possuem de 80 a 89 anos, 62,5% são mulheres e 62,7% caucasianos, 50,6% viúvos e 47,5% analfabetos. A prevalência inicial de Doença de Alzheimer (DA) foi de 45,6%, reduzindo-se para 35,4% após um período de acompanhamento e a demência vascular (DV) foi de 34,2%, inicialmente, e 45,6% ao final. Utilizou-se o Coeficiente V de Cramer, em que se encontrou uma relação fraca de fatores de risco com os diagnósticos das demências apresentados. Conclusão: DV foi a mais prevalente na área estudada. Entende-se ser a maior frequência de DA esteja relacionada à avaliação superficial uma vez que esse tipo de demência é mundialmente mais frequente


Objetivos: estabelecer diagnóstico diferencial das demências em ambulatório de geriatria no Distrito Federal, calculando-se sua prevalência por meio de exame clínico e avaliação multifuncional. Método: estudo longitudinal, retrospectivo, com amostra de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais residentes no Distrito Federal-Brasil, com déficit cognitivo caracterizado por Transtorno Neurocognitivo (TNC) Maior (demência), cadastradas durante os anos de 2010 a 2018. A coleta de dados foi realizada em prontuários para selecionar e avaliar o perfil do idoso com diagnóstico de TNC seguida de avaliação geriátrica ampla e avaliação multifuncional. A análise de dados foi realizada com o cálculo da prevalência, estatística descritiva e índice V de Cramer. Resultados: 158 indivíduos conseguiram concluir todas as avalições. 52,5% possuem de 80 a 89 anos, 62,5% são mulheres e 62,7% caucasianos, 50,6% viúvos e 47,5% analfabetos. A prevalência inicial de Doença de Alzheimer (DA) foi de 45,6%, reduzindo-se para 35,4% após um período de acompanhamento e a demência vascular (DV) foi de 34,2%, inicialmente, e 45,6% ao final. Utilizou-se o Coeficiente V de Cramer, em que se encontrou uma relação fraca de fatores de risco com os diagnósticos das demências apresentados. Conclusão: DV foi a mais prevalente na área estudada. Entende-se ser a maior frequência de DA esteja relacionada à avaliação superficial uma vez que esse tipo de demência é mundialmente mais frequente


Subject(s)
Dementia , Alzheimer Disease , Women , Dementia, Vascular , Geriatric Assessment , Public Health , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Neurocognitive Disorders , Geriatrics , Persons
2.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 20(1): 76-91, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365866

ABSTRACT

Resumen (analítico) Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres se caracterizan por recibir expresiones de rechazo y estigmatización, ante el ideal heteronormativo de los hombres que tienen sexo solo con mujeres, circunstancias que propician la aparición de problemas en el grupo familiar. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo con el objetivo de comparar la funcionalidad familiar desde la perspectiva de los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres frente a los hombres que tienen sexo solo con mujeres, con un muestreo no probabilístico por bola de nieve. Los resultados indican mayores porcentajes de disfuncionalidad familiar entre los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, en contraste a la funcionalidad moderada y normo-funcionalidad de los hombres que tienen sexo solo con mujeres, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p=.001). Se recomienda generar mayores evidencias al fondo común del conocimiento, a fin de derribar prejuicios, visibilizar la demanda de cuidado y promover la formulación de estrategias en atención a las necesidades de este grupo vulnerable.


Abstract (analytical) Men who have sex with men are characterized by receiving rejection and stigmatization based on the heteronormative ideal of men who only have sex with women. These circumstances can lead to problems in family groups. A quantitative study was carried out with the objective of comparing the family functionality based on the perspectives of men who have sex with men with men who only have sex with women and using non-probability snowball sampling. The results indicate higher percentages of family dysfunction among men who have sex with men, in contrast to the moderate functionality and normo-functionality of men who only have sex with women, and with statistically significant differences (p=.001). It is recommended to generate more knowledge in this area to challenge prejudices, highlights the need for assistance and to promote the design of assistance strategies that meet the needs of this vulnerable group.


Resumo (analítico) Homens que fazem sexo com homens se caracterizam por receber expressões de rejeição e estigmatização, dado o ideal heteronormativo de homens que fazem sexo apenas com mulheres, circunstâncias que levam ao surgimento de problemas no grupo familiar. Um estudo quantitativo foi realizado, com o objetivo de comparar a funcionalidade familiar na perspectiva de homens que fazem sexo com homens com homens que fazem sexo apenas com mulheres, amostragem não probabilística por bola de neve. Os resultados indicam percentuais mais elevados de disfunção familiar entre os homens que fazem sexo com homens, em contraste com a funcionalidade moderada e normofuncionalidade dos homens que fazem sexo apenas com mulheres com diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p=.001). Recomendase gerar mais evidências para o fundo comum de conhecimento, a fim de demolir preconceitos, visibilizar a demanda de cuidados e promover a formulação de estratégias para atender às necessidades desse grupo vulnerável.


Subject(s)
Sex , Women , Family , Men
4.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265301, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35353832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postnatal home visits (PNHVs) have been endorsed as strategy for delivery of postnatal care (PNC) to reduce newborn mortality and improve maternal outcomes. Despite the important role of the Health Extension Workers (HEWs) in improving the overall healthcare coverage, PNHV remains as a missed opportunity in rural Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators of scheduled postnatal home visits in Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory qualitative study on a total of 16 in-depth interviews with HEWs and mothers who gave birth one year prior to the study. In addition, focus group discussions were conducted with HEWs and key informant interviews were conducted with women development group leaders, supervisors, and healthcare authorities from April to June 2019 in two rural districts of Northern Ethiopia. Discussions and interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim in the local language (Tigrigna) and translated into English. The translated scripts were thematically coded using Atlas ti scientific software. Field notes were also taken during the discussion and while conducting the interviews. RESULTS: Health system factors, community context, and individual level factors were considered as the barriers and facilitators of scheduled PNHVs. Leadership, governance, management, support and supervision, referral linkages, overwhelming workload, capacity building, logistics and supplies are the major sub-themes identified as health system factors. Physical characteristics like geographical location and topography, distance, and coverage of the catchment; and community support and participation like support from women's development groups (WDGs), awareness of the community on the presence of the service and cultural and traditional beliefs were community contexts that affect PNHVs. Self-motivation to support and intrinsic job satisfaction were individual level factors that were considered as barriers and facilitators. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study suggested that the major barriers of postnatal home visits were poor attention of healthcare authorities of the government bodies, lack of effective supervision, poor functional linkages, inadequate logistics and supplies, unrealistic catchment area coverage, poor community participation and support, and lack of motivation of HEWs. Henceforth, to achieve the scheduled PNHV in rural Ethiopia, there should be strong political commitment and healthcare authorities should provide attention to postnatal care both at facility and home with a strong controlling system.


Subject(s)
Postnatal Care , Women , Ethiopia , Female , House Calls , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research
5.
BMJ ; 376: o634, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273017
6.
Coimbra; s.n; fev. 2022.
Thesis in Portuguese | BDENF - Nursing, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1366933

ABSTRACT

Em um cenário intervencionista de assistência ao parto e nascimento, a mulher não é a protagonista deste evento, e a consequência deste cenário, que se cria constantemente nas instituições, é a prática de abuso e maus-tratos nas mulheres, que chamamos de violência obstétrica (VO). O presente estudo exploratório e descritivo, onde se combinaram métodos qualitativos e quantitativos na recolha de dados, tem como intuito explorar e discutir o tema da violência obstétrica, na perspectiva das mulheres que tiveram uma experiência de parto. De acordo com as questões de investigação, os objetivos do estudo são: Conhecer a percepção das mulheres sobre a ?violência obstétrica?; identificar que significado as mulheres atribuem ao termo ?violência obstétrica?; conhecer que situações, relacionadas com a gravidez/parto, as mulheres consideram ter sido ?violência obstétrica?; e identificar o nível de aceitabilidade das mulheres perante determinadas situações de ?violência obstétrica?. Recorreu-se a uma amostra não probabilística, através do método de amostragem por redes (?bola de neve?), onde foi partilhado um questionário nas redes sociais. As participantes no estudo foram 626 mulheres que viveram a experiência de uma gravidez/parto nos últimos quatro anos em Portugal. Os dados foram analisados e interpretados, a análise dos dados quantitativos passou pela estatística descritiva e os dados qualitativos foram tratados pela análise de conteúdo. Segundo os dados obtidos 94,9% das mulheres já ouviu falar sobre VO e 53,0% já vivenciou VO, os relatos das vivências do que elas consideram ter sido violência obstétrica, vão de encontro aos atos que caracterizam este tipo de violência institucional. O significado, da violência obstétrica, atribuído pelas mulheres, é expressado de múltiplas formas, categorizadas por temas: Direitos, Comunicação/Interação, Intervenções e Autonomia. Percebe-se que há uma naturalização da violência obstétrica, pelas próprias mulheres, pois o nível de aceitabilidade das participantes sob algumas situações estabelecidas como violência obstétrica, mostrou-se algumas vezes como ?aceitável? e ?normal?. Dar a voz a essas mulheres foi essencial para desvendar a sua percepção sobre a violência obstétrica e desocultar as suas vivências menos positivas, desafiando mudanças na assistência ao parto, a qual deverá ser humanizada e respeitadora dos Direitos Humanos.


Subject(s)
Women , Parturition , Obstetric Violence , Human Rights
7.
Cell ; 185(3): 407-410, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120660

ABSTRACT

The lack of racial diversity among the winners of United States biomedical research prizes reflects a chronic problem of the underappreciation of certain groups of biomedical scientists. Asians continue to be severely underrepresented as awardees of United States biomedical research prizes, a trend that shows no obvious recent improvement.


Subject(s)
Awards and Prizes , Biomedical Research , Minority Groups , Cultural Diversity , Humans , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Research Personnel , United States , Women
8.
Soc Work ; 67(2): 155-164, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134244

ABSTRACT

Given the scope of mass incarceration, it is quite appropriate that promote smart decarceration (PSD) has been identified as one of the 13 Grand Challenges for Social Work. The aims of PSD are both ambitious and critical but do not address women explicitly. The authors argue that PSD should incorporate a gendered lens because a gender-responsive framework is critical for these three reasons: (1) women's pathways to incarceration are different than men's and are shaped by their social status and multiple forms of marginalization based on race, socioeconomic status, gender, and other factors; (2) women face gender-specific needs behind bars (especially those related to reproductive health) and have higher rates of behavioral health needs (e.g., mental health disorders, substance use issues) than men; and (3) although men and women face similar reentry challenges (e.g., housing, parenting, economic hardship, behavioral health), women experience many of these risk factors at higher rates, and their social status shapes how these needs impact their reentry. Until social workers and other advocates consider all the various and intersecting identities of all those impacted by the criminal legal system, they will be never be successful in ending mass incarceration.


Subject(s)
Prisoners , Social Work , Women , Female , Humans , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Social Work/organization & administration
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e055756, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This systematic review was undertaken to assist the implementation of the WOmen's action for Mums and Bubs (WOMB) project which explores Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community women's group (WG) action to improve maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes. There is now considerable international evidence that WGs improve MCH outcomes, and we were interested in understanding how and why this occurs. The following questions guided the review: (1) What are the characteristics, contextual influences and group processes associated with the MCH outcomes of WGs? (2) What are the theoretical and conceptual approaches to WGs? (3) What are the implications likely to inform Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander WGs? METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases (MEDLINE (Ovid); CINAHL (Ebsco); Informit health suite, Scopus, Emcare (Ovid) and the Cochrane Library and Informit), online search registers and grey literature using the terms mother, child, group, participatory and community and their variations during all time periods to January 2021. The inclusion criteria were: (1) Population: studies involving community WGs in any country. (2) Intervention: a program/intervention involving any aspect of community WGs planning, acting, learning and reviewing MCH improvements. (3) Outcome: studies with WGs reported a component of: (i) MCH outcomes; or (ii) improvements in the quality of MCH care or (iii) improvements in socioemotional well-being of mothers and/or children. (4) Context: the primary focus of initiatives must be in community-based or primary health care settings. (5) Process: includes some description of the process of WGs or any factors influencing the process. (6) Language: English. (7) Study design: all types of quantitative and qualitative study designs involving primary research and data collection.Data were extracted under 14 headings and a narrative synthesis identified group characteristics and analysed the conceptual approach to community participation, the use of theory and group processes. An Australian typology of community participation, concepts from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander group work and an adapted framework of Cohen and Uphoff were used to synthesise results. Risk of bias was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools. RESULTS: Thirty-five (35) documents were included with studies conducted in 19 countries. Fifteen WGs used participatory learning and action cycles and the remainder used cultural learning, community development or group health education. Group activities, structure and who facilitated groups was usually identified. Intergroup relationships and decision-making were less often described as were important concepts from an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander perspective (the primacy of culture, relationships and respect). All but two documents used an explicit theoretical approach. Using the typology of community participation, WGs were identified as predominantly developmental (22), instrumental (10), empowerment (2) and one was unclear. DISCUSSION: A framework to categorise links between contextual factors operating at micro, meso and macro levels, group processes and MCH improvements is required. Currently, despite a wealth of information about WGs, it was difficult to determine the methods through which they achieved their outcomes. This review adds to existing systematic reviews about the functioning of WGs in MCH improvement in that it covers WGs in both high-income and low-income settings, identifies the theory underpinning the WGs and classifies the conceptual approach to participation. It also introduces an Australian Indigenous perspective into analysis of WGs used to improve MCH. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019126533.


Subject(s)
Health Services, Indigenous , Women , Australia , Child , Child Health , Female , Humans , Indigenous Peoples
11.
San Salvador; MINSAL; feb. 13, 2022. 51 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1361726

ABSTRACT

Esta Política tiene como propósito articular y elevar la coherencia interna del quehacer de las distintas entidades constitutivas del SNIS en la protección efectiva de la tutela, goce y disfrute de los derechos humanos establecidos en la legislación nacional e internacional para las mujeres y los/as niños/as, adolescentes y adultos/as mayores. Por lo tanto, el MINSAL, atendiendo no sólo a las necesidades de impulsar una nueva cultura de igualdad y equidad en el quehacer institucional, sino también a la aplicación de las Leyes que promueven los derechos de las mujeres y la igualdad y otros grupos en condiciones de vulnerabilidad social, presenta la segunda versión de la Política para la Igualdad y Equidad de Género en Salud, en la cual se presenta la actualización del marco legal que le da sustento, así como el fortalecimiento de las líneas de acción que permitirán la operativización de la presente Política


The purpose of this Policy is to articulate and raise the internal coherence of the work of the different constituent entities of the SNIS in the effective protection of the guardianship, enjoyment and enjoyment of the human rights established in national and international legislation for women and children. / as, adolescents and older adults. Therefore, the MINSAL, attending not only to the need to promote a new culture of equality and equity in institutional work, but also to the application of the Laws that promote the rights of women and equality and other groups in conditions of social vulnerability, presents the second version of the Policy for Gender Equality and Equity in Health, in which the updating of the legal framework that supports it is presented, as well as the strengthening of the lines of action that will allow the operationalization of this Policy


Subject(s)
Politics , Health , Gender Identity , Gender Equity , Women , Equity
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e054318, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recently, a novel community health programme-the integrated microfinance and health literacy (IMFHL) programme was implemented through microfinance-based women's only self-help groups (SHGs) in India to promote birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) to improve maternal health. The study evaluated the impact of the IMFHL programme on BPCR practice by women in one of India's poorest states-Uttar Pradesh-adjusting for the community, household and individual variables. The paper also examined for any diffusion of knowledge of BPCR from SHG members receiving the health literacy intervention to non-members in programme villages. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study using cross-sectional survey data. SETTINGS: Secondary survey data from the IMFHL programme were used. PARTICIPANTS: Survey data were collected from 17 244 women in households with SHG member and non-member households in rural India. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate main and adjusted IMFHL programme effects on maternal BPCR practice in their last pregnancy. RESULTS: Membership in SHGs alone is positively associated with BPCR practice, with 17% higher odds (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29, p<0.01) of these women practising BPCR compared with women in villages without the programmes. Furthermore, the odds of practising complete BPCR increase to almost 50% (OR=1.48, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.63, p<0.01) when a maternal health literacy component is added to the SHGs. A diffusion effect was found for BPCR practice from SHG members to non-members when the health literacy component was integrated into the SHG model. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SHG membership exerts a positive impact on planned health behaviour and a diffusion effect of BPCR practice from members to non-members when SHGs are enriched with a health literacy component. The study provides evidence to guide the implementation of community health programmes seeking to promote BPCR practise in low resource settings.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Women , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Promotion , Humans , India , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Rural Population
14.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(3): vo1, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179995

ABSTRACT

Despite substantial investment and effort by federal agencies and institutions to improve the diversity of the professoriate, progress is excruciatingly slow. One program that aims to enhance faculty diversity is the Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (IRACDA) funded by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences. IRACDA supports the training of a diverse cohort of postdoctoral scholars who will seek academic research and teaching careers. The San Diego IRACDA program has trained 109 postdoctoral scholars since its inception in 2003; 59% are women and 63% are underrepresented (UR) Black/African-American, Latinx/Mexican-American, and Indigenous scientists. Sixty-four percent obtained tenure-track faculty positions, including a substantial 32% at research-intensive institutions. However, the COVID-19 pandemic crisis threatens to upend IRACDA efforts to improve faculty diversity, and academia is at risk of losing a generation of diverse, talented scholars. Here, a group of San Diego IRACDA postdoctoral scholars reflects on these issues and discusses recommendations to enhance the retention of UR scientists to avoid a "lost generation" of promising UR faculty scholars.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cultural Diversity , Education, Graduate , Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Fellowships and Scholarships/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities/statistics & numerical data , California , Education, Graduate/economics , Faculty, Medical/economics , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , National Institute of General Medical Sciences (U.S.) , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Research Personnel/economics , Research Personnel/education , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , United States , Universities/economics , Women/education
15.
Fisioter. Bras ; 23(1): 1-17, Fev 11, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358393

ABSTRACT

Estudos têm demonstrado que exercícios realizados em meio aquático produzem benefícios diversos para mulheres. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar a percepção subjetiva de saúde, mobilidade e humor de mulheres quinquagenárias saudáveis e sedentárias em decorrência de participação em programa de caminhada em imersão. Participaram 59 mulheres entre 50 e 59 anos, distribuídas em grupos de 10 a 12 pessoas. A atividade foi desenvolvida em piscina aquecida 2 vezes por semana, por 30 minutos, durante 12 meses. O programa foi dividido em 4 etapas de 3 meses com 5 tempos de avaliação. Para a avaliação subjetiva sobre o estado de saúde, mobilidade e humor, utilizou-se uma escala numérica de 0 a 10. Breve relato sobre os principais efeitos do programa também foi analisado em seu conteúdo. Observou-se melhora na percepção de saúde (p < 0,001), na mobilidade (p < 0,001) e no humor (p = 0,003). Na análise de conteúdo, 49,4% dos relatos relacionaram-se com a melhora da saúde; 22,9% com a autoestima e satisfação e 19,3% com a capacidade física. O estudo reforça a necessidade deste tipo de prática para a saúde integral da mulher de "meia idade" como medida preventiva do processo de envelhecimento saudável. (AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Middle Aged , Personal Satisfaction , Physics , Women , Health , Walking , Healthy Aging , Women's Health
16.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-01-06. (OPS/EGC/COVID-19/21-0006).
Non-conventional in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55557

ABSTRACT

La COVID-19 ha generado efectos catastróficos en los sistemas de salud y en la salud de las personas en la Región de las Américas, en especial en el caso de las mujeres y las niñas, cuyas condiciones han empeorado en todos los ámbitos. Las mayores preocupaciones al respecto se centran en las consecuencias directas (morbilidad y mortalidad) de la acción del virus sobre poblaciones definidas, en los resultados de las medidas orientadas a mitigar la propagación del virus y en el efecto indirecto sobre las condiciones socioeconómicas. En este complejo escenario, el enfoque de género, con sus consecuencias en el contexto actual, no ha recibido la debida atención durante la pandemia. El género es uno de los determinantes estructurales asociados a la salud, pero no aparece en los análisis de los efectos directos e indirectos de la pandemia. Además, es fundamental para reconocer y analizar los efectos diferenciales de la pandemia sobre hombres y mujeres y su interacción con los diferentes determinantes de la salud. El presente informe es una iniciativa de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y apunta a generar un conjunto de conocimientos que permitan, por un lado, reconocer, entender e instalar la temática de género y salud en el contexto de la pandemia, y, por otro, comprender el comportamiento de la enfermedad y sus posibles efectos. El informe se cierra con una serie de conclusiones y recomendaciones sobre datos y evidencia, y sobre respuestas en planes y políticas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gender and Health , Women , Social Determinants of Health , Mortality , Morbidity , Socioeconomic Factors , Pandemics , Health Systems , Health Policy
17.
Stroke ; 53(2): 611-623, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983240

ABSTRACT

The goal of the current review is to examine the hazards and benefits of carotid interventions in women and to provide recommendations for the indications for carotid intervention in female patients. Stroke and cerebrovascular disease are prevalent in women. There are inherent biological and other differences in men and women, which affect the manifestations and outcome of stroke, with women experiencing worse disability and higher mortality following ischemic stroke than men. Due to the underrepresentation of female patients in most clinical trials, the ability to make firm but alternative recommendations for women specifically on the management of carotid stenosis is challenging. Although some data suggest that women might have worse periprocedural outcomes as compared to men following all carotid revascularization procedures, there is also an abundance of data to support a similar risk for carotid procedures in men and women, especially with carotid endarterectomy and transcarotid artery revascularization. Therefore, the indications for carotid revascularization are the same in women as they are in men. The choice of a carotid revascularization procedure in women is based upon the same factors as in men and requires careful evaluation of a particular patient's risk profile, anatomic criteria, plaque morphology, and medical comorbidities that might favor one technique over the other. When performing carotid revascularization procedures in women, tailored techniques and procedures to address the small diameter of the female artery are warranted.


Subject(s)
Carotid Arteries/surgery , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Women , Endovascular Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Characteristics , Stents , Treatment Outcome
18.
Rev. psicol. (Fortaleza, Online) ; 13(1): 169-171, 01/01/2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1358002

ABSTRACT

Há mulheres na perversão? Essa pergunta serve de título para o livro de Lígia Furtado Mendonça (2018), a qual é resultado de seu percurso significativo de pesquisa acadêmica dedicada à temática das perversões. O livro trata das relações possíveis entre a estrutura perversa e o feminino, a partir da Psicanálise. Como afirma a própria autora, o seu objetivo é o de confrontar posições teóricas, não unânimes, que reservam a possibilidade da existência de uma estrutura perversa ao campo do masculino. Encontra-se dividido em sete capítulos que orbitam em torno de três tópicos: o primeiro dedica-se ao modo como a perversão era compreendida antes do surgimento da Psicanálise, e por seu entendimento propriamente freudiano e lacaniano. De forma mais específica, diríamos que o livro retoma a teorização acerca das perversões em Freud a partir de um marco teórico lacaniano, o qual serve à delimitação das concepções diferencias do feminino e do masculino a partir da lógica da sexuação e de sua consequente aplicação ao domínio das perversões.


Subject(s)
Psychoanalytic Interpretation , Women , Morale , Retrospective Moral Judgment
19.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 64-73, ene. 28, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354468

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos hipertensivos asociados al embarazo constituyen uno de los síndromes de mayor interés a escala mundial, cerca de 600 000 mujeres mueren anualmente por causas relacionadas. La Organización Mundial de la Salud considera que la incidencia de preeclampsia es siete veces mayor en los países en vías de desarrollo en comparación a los industrializados (2,8 % y 0,4 %, respectivamente). El estrés oxidativo es una de las principales causas asociadas a la preeclampsia, cuyo diagnóstico y manejo adecuado y oportuno son medidas eficaces para disminuir la tasa de morbimortalidad, por lo que diversos autores se han centrado en la búsqueda de biomarcadores predictores de estrés oxidativo entre los cuales encontramos: especies reactivas del ácido tiobarbitúrico, superóxido, catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa. El presente trabajo describe los principales biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo estudiados mediante la técnica espectrofotométrica debido a que es económica, rápida y precisa


Hypertensive disorders associated with pregnancy are one of the syndromes of greatest interest worldwide, nearly 600,000 women die annually from related causes. The World Health Organization considers that the incidence of preeclampsia is seven times higher in developing countries compared to industrialized ones (2.8% and 0.4%, respectively). Oxidative stress is one of the main causes associated with preeclampsia, whose proper and timely diagnosis and management are effective measures to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate, which is why various authors have focused on the search for predictive biomarkers of oxidative stress among which we find: reactive species of thiobarbituric acid, superoxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The present work describes the main biomarkers of oxidative stress studied by means of the spectrophotometric technique because it is cheap, fast and precise


Subject(s)
Patients , Pre-Eclampsia , Spectrophotometry , Women , Oxidative Stress , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Morbidity , Methods
20.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 81-87, ene. 28, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354473

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de cuello uterino es la cuarta causa de mortalidad por cáncer en mujeres; 88 % de los casos provienen de países en vías de desarrollo debido al escaso acceso al tamizaje y tratamiento. Debido a esto, en los países de bajo desarrollo humano estrategias como la autotoma para la detección del virus del papiloma humano han adquirido gran importancia en la actualidad, aumentando hasta en un 45 % el tamizaje en estos países. La presente revisión bibliográfica tiene como objetivo determinar si existen diferencias entre técnica convencional para detección del virus del papiloma humano y la autotoma en países de mediano y bajo desarrollo humano, así como las ventajas y limitantes que esta presenta. Se realizó la búsqueda de la literatura mediante las bases de datos PubMed, Google Scholar y SciELO, empleando artículos originales, ensayos clínicos, de revisión, entre otros. Se demostró que la autotoma para la detección del virus del papiloma humano tiene una especificidad similar a la toma convencional por parte de personal médico y que incrementa el tamizaje, ya que es más aceptada que la muestra tomada por el clínico debido a que facilita el acceso y aborda las limitantes socioculturales percibidas por las usuarias


Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in women; 88% of cases come from developing countries due to poor access to screening and treatment. Due to this, in countries with low human development, strategies such as self-testing for the detection of human papillomavirus have become very important today, increasing screening in these countries by up to 45%. The objective of this bibliographical review is to determine if there are differences between the conventional technique for detecting the human papillomavirus and self-testing in countries with medium and low human development, as well as the advantages and limitations that it presents. The literature search was carried out using the PubMed, Google Scholar and SciELO databases, using original articles, clinical trials, reviews, among others. It was shown that self-sampling for the detection of human papillomavirus has a similar specificity to conventional sampling by medical personnel and that it increases screening, since it is more accepted than the sample taken by the clinician because it facilitates access. and addresses the sociocultural limitations perceived by users


Subject(s)
Women , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Alphapapillomavirus , Self-Testing , Methods , Neoplasms
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